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University Of Burao
Dental Surgery
Course: Research methodology
Lecturer: Dr, Bashir S. Adam
(BSc, PG.MRes)
INTRODUCTION TO
RESEARCH
At the end of the lecture,
you should able to Explain:
➢ Define the word of “research”
meaning
➢ Define medical research as
knowledge
➢ Classification of medical research
➢ Explain the Element of Research
➢ Know the objectives of the research
➢ Describe the motivates or research
➢ Other the types of research
The meaning Research
 Once can also define research as a scientific and
systematic search for pertinent( relevant) information
on a specific topic.
 In fact, research is an art of scientific investigation.
 The Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English
lays down the meaning of research as “a careful
investigation or inquiry specially through search for
new facts in any branch of knowledge.”
 Redman and Mory define research as a
“systematized effort to gain new knowledge.”
Cont..
 Some people consider research as a
movement
 a movement from the known to the unknown.
 It is actually a voyage(passage) of discovery.
 This curiosity is the mother of all knowledge and
the method, which man employs for obtaining
the knowledge of whatever the unknown, can
be termed as research.
Cont..
 Research is an academic activity and as such
the term should be used in a technical sense.
 According to Clifford Woody research
comprises defining and redefining problems,
formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions;
collecting, organizing and evaluating data;
making deductions and reaching conclusions.
Cont..
 and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether
they fit the formulating hypothesis. D. Slesinger and M.
Stephenson in the Encyclopaedia of Social Sciences define
research as “the manipulation of things, concepts or symbols for
the purpose of generalizing to extend, correct or verify
knowledge, whether that knowledge aids in construction of
theory or in the practice of an art.”
 Research is, thus, an original contribution to the ethe xisting stock
of knowledge making for its advancement
Cont..
 It is the pursuit of truth with the help of study, observation,
comparison and experiment.
 In short, the search for knowledge through objective and
systematic method of finding solution to a problem is research.
 The systematic approach concerning generalization and the
formulation of a theory is also research.
 As such the term ‘research’ refers to the systematic method
consisting of enunciating the problem, formulating a hypothesis,
collecting the facts or data, analyzing the facts and reaching
certain conclusions either in the form of solutions(s) towards the
concerned problem or in certain generalizations for some
theoretical formulation.
Difinition of research
 Research is a Systematic and an Organized method to Find
Answers for Questions (Finding answers to a hypothesis or to
the question of the research is the end of all research)
 Research is a systematic investigation into a subject in order
to discover new information or new fact or reach a new
understanding or to collect information on a subject.
 Question is central to research , because research with-out a
question, has no aims
Cont...
 Research consist of the previx Re which means ( again,
or a new ) And Search (verb) means to (examine, or to
try).
 The word "research" is derived from the Middle French
"recherche," which means "to go about seeking," and
the term itself is derived from the Old French term
"recerchier," meaning 'search.' The earliest recorded
use of the term was in 1577.
Scientific research ?
 A scientific study to seek hidden knowledge
 A scientific study to answer a question
 A scientific study of causes and effect
 A scientific attempt towards new discoveries
 A systematic approach to a (medical/vet) problem
 A scientific attempt to discover the truth
 A scientific attempt towards new discoveries
 A systematic method of inquiry
 Health research is an investigation of human health
issues to learn more about them
Classification of scientific
(medical) research
Types of Medical/Health
Research?
1. Primary Research: Primary research is any type of research
that you collect yourself, such as surveys, interviews, observations
2. Secondary Research: Secondary research is a research
method that involves using existing data collected by someone
else, rather than gathering the data yourself. It includes compiling
and analyzing data from a variety of sources such as published
research reports, documents, textbooks, encyclopedias, news
articles, and review articles.
Primary Research
 1. Experimental Study:
Experimental study is a research method in which a treatment,
procedure, or program is intentionally introduced, and a result or
outcome is observed. It is a study that involves manipulating and
controlling variables to determine the cause-and-effect relationship
between them.
2. Observational Studies: Observational study is a research
method in which researchers observe and analyze the behaviour of
subjects without manipulating any variables. It involves collecting
data by observing and recording the behaviour of subjects in their
natural environment. There are two types of observational studies:
cross-sectional and longitudinal.
Systematic reviews
 A systematic review is a scholarly synthesis of the
evidence on a clearly presented topic using critical
methods to identify, define, and assess research on
the topic.
 It involves extracting and interpreting data from
published studies, analyzing, describing, critically
appraising, and summarizing interpretations into a
refined evidence-based conclusion.
 Meta-analysis is a research method that involves
systematically combining the results of multiple studies
addressing a similar research question. It is a
quantitative, formal.
 A meta-analysis is a statistical analysis that
combines the results of multiple scientific studies.
Element of Research:
 Investigatory, desirable mind
 Specific field
 Availability of information
 Descriptive presumption
 Scientific theory Explanation
 Fruitful logical theory
Nature of Research?
 Nature of Research: Objectively a new
knowledge or ideas adds/enriches
current idea(s) with disciplined desire.
 It works with investigating mind and highly
enthusiasm to find some new reliable way
which is easier than previous one.
The objectives of research:
 The purpose of research is to discover answers to
questions through the application of scientific
procedures.
 The main aim of research is to find out the truth
which is hidden and which has not been
discovered as yet. Though each research study
has its own specific purpose, we may think of
research objectives as falling into a number of
following broad groupings:
Cont..
 To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve
new insights into it
 To portray accurately the characteristics of a
particular individual, situation or a group (Studies with
this object in view are known as descriptive research
studies);
 To determine the frequency with which something
occurs or with which it is associated with something
else (studies with this object in view are known as
diagnostic research studies);
 To test a hypothesis of a causal relationship between
variables (such studies are known as hypothesis-
testing research studies).
Motivations of research
 What makes people to undertake research? This is
a question of fundamental importance. The
possible motives for doing research may be either
one or more of the following:
 1. Desire to get a research degree along with its
consequential benefits;
 2. Desire to face the challenge in solving the
unsolved problems, i.e., concern over practical
Problems initiates’ research;
Cont..
3. Desire to get intellectual joy of doing some creative
work
4. Desire to be of service to society;
5. Desire to get respectability.
❑ However, this is not an exhaustive list of factors
motivating people to undertake research studies.
Many more factors such as directives of government,
employment conditions, curiosity about new things,
desire to understand causal relationships, social
thinking and awakening, and the like may as well
motivate (or at times compel) people to perform
research operations.
Types of research
 the basic types of research according to the purpose
are as follows:
 Descriptive research: defining (what) and describing
social phenomena of interest. Individuals, groups, and
institutions compare and contrast, classify and analyse.
 Descriptive research includes (define and
describe)surveys and fact-finding enquiries of different
kinds. The major purpose of descriptive research is the
description of the state of affairs as it exists at present.
Descriptive research
 In social science and business research we quite often
use the main characteristic of this method is that the
researcher has no control over the variables; he can
only report what has happened or what is happening.
 Most research projects are used for descriptive studies
in which the researcher seeks to measure such items
as, for example, frequency of shopping, preferences of
people, or similar data.
Descriptive research
 Descriptive research also attempts by researchers
to discover causes even when they cannot
control the variables.
 The methods of research utilized in descriptive
research are survey methods of All kinds, including
comparative and correlational methods.
 Example: what is level of Social ties in Somaliland?
Exploratory research
 Exploratory research :is defined as a research used to
investigate a problem which is not clearly defined.
▪ It is conducted to have a better understanding of the
existing problem, but will not provide conclusive results. For
such a research, a researcher starts with a general idea and
uses this research as a medium to identify issues that can be
the focus for future research.
▪ An important aspect here is that the researcher should be
willing to change his/her direction subject to the revelation
of new data or insight.
Exploratory research
 Such a research is usually carried out when the
problem is at a preliminary stage.
 It is often referred to as grounded theory
approach or interpretive research as it used to
answer questions like what, why and how.
 Ex: what the impacts of Covid19 Vaccines on On fertility of
Man?
Explanatory research
 Explanatory research: cause and effect relationship .it uses
available information to analysis Seeks to identify causes and
effects of social phenomena and to predict how one
phenomenon will change or vary in response to variation in some
other phenomenon.
 Ex: Can Internet Resources Help elderly Persons Manage Heart
Conditions?
 Ex: Do elderly individuals with dentures who perform daily denture
cleaning have a lower risk of oral infections compared to those
who clean their dentures less frequently?
 What Effect Does Internet Use Have on Social Relation?
Evaluation research
 Evaluation research seeks to determine the effects of programs,
policies, or other efforts to affect social patterns, whether by
government agencies, private nonprofits, or for-profit businesses.
This is a type of explanatory research, because it deals with cause
and effect, but it differs from other forms of explanatory research
because evaluation research focuses on one type of cause:
programs, policies, and other conscious efforts to create change.
 Ex: Does high Speed Internet access Change in Community Life ?
Ex: In children aged 6-12, does supervised tooth brushing twice daily
with a fluoridated toothpaste compared to unsupervised brushing
once daily lead to a slower rate of enamel wear as measured by
surface roughness analysis?
Other division
 Research can be classified based on practical
solution:
 Applied research:
 Basic research :
Applied research
 Applied research aims at finding a solution for an
immediate problem facing a society or an
industrial/business organization.
 facing a concrete social or business problem is an
example of applied research.
 Research to identify social, economic or political
trends that may affect a particular institution or the
copy research (research to find out whether certain
communications will be read and understood) or
the marketing research or evaluation research are
examples of applied research.
 Thus, the central aim of applied research is to
discover a solution for some pressing practical
problem,
Basic research
 whereas fundamental research is mainly
concerned with generalizations and with the
formulation of a theory.
 “Gathering knowledge for knowledge’s sake is
termed ‘pure’ or ‘basic’ research.”
 Research concerning some natural phenomenon
or relating to pure mathematics are examples of
fundamental research.
 Similarly, research studies, concerning human
behavior carried on with a view to make
generalizations about human behavior
Differences ?
 Purpose: Basic research
 expand knowledge of processes of business and management
 results in universal principles relating to the
process and its relationship to outcomes
 findings of significance and value to society in general.
 Basic Research refers to the study that is aimed at expanding
the existing base of scientific knowledge.
 Nature: theatrical
 Utility: Universal
 Concerned with: Developing scientific knowledge and
predictions
Basic research
 Context:
• undertaken by people based in universities
• choice of topic and objectives determined
by the researcher
• flexible timescales
Goal: To add some knowledge to the existing one
Applied research
Purpose:
 improve understanding of particular business
or management problem
• results in solution to problem
• new knowledge limited to problem
• findings of practical relevance and value to
manager(s) in organisation(s)
 Applied Research is the research that is designed to solve specific
practical problems or answer certain questions
 Nature: Practical
 Concerned with: Development of technology and technique
Cont..
 Context:
• undertaken by people based in a variety
of settings, including organizations and
universities
• objectives negotiated with
originator(initiator)
• tight timescales
 Utility: Limited
 Goal: To find out solution for the problem
at hand.
Definitions?
 Basic Research or otherwise called as pure or
fundamental research, is one that focuses on
advancing scientific knowledge for the complete
understanding of a topic or certain natural
phenomenon, primarily in natural sciences.
 when knowledge is acquired for the sake of
knowledge it is called basic research.
 Basic Research is completely theoretical, that
focuses on basic principles and testing theories.
 It tends to understand the basic law.
Definition of Applied
Research
 Applied Research can be defined as research
that encompasses real life application of the
natural science.
 It is directed towards providing a solution to the
specific practical problems and develop
innovative technology.
 In better terms, it is the research that can be
applied to real-life situations.
 It studies a particular set of circumstances, so as
to relate the results to its corresponding
circumstances.
Types of Data
Naturally occurring data:
 These are data that exist without interaction from the
researcher.
 Traditionally, this means: documents, archives, maybe
transcripts of speeches.
 It may also include images that were not generated as part of a
research project
 for instance, political cartoons or photographs.
Types of Data
 Researcher-generated data:
 This is data generated through researcher interaction with the
environment and/or participants.
1. Observation
2. Interviews
3. focus group discussions
Criteria for good research:
 Good research is systematic:
 Good research is empirical:
 Good research is replicable:
 Good research is logical:
Health VS Social Research
 The main difference between social research and health
research lies in their focus and objectives. Here are the key
differences between the two:
1. Focus: Social research focuses on understanding human
behavior, preferences, and motivations, while health
research focuses on understanding and improving health
outcomes
1. Objectives: Social research aims to provide a real-world
context for medical research, ensuring that products of
medical research benefit patients efficiently and effectively
Health research, on the other hand, aims to prevent, diagnose,
and treat diseases and improve health outcomes
Cont..
3. Methods: Social research often uses qualitative methods,
such as interviews, focus groups, and observations, to
understand human behavior and preferences Health research,
on the other hand, often uses quantitative methods, such as
surveys, experiments, and statistical analysis, to understand
health outcomes and develop interventions.
4. Integration: Social research is often integrated with health
research to improve health outcomes. For example, social and
behavioral research can provide insights into the real-world
context needed to ensure the products of medical research
benefit patients efficiently and effectively
Reference
 C.R. KOTHARI (1990). Research methodology,
method and Techniques.
 Saunders, M., Lewis, P., & Thornhill, A. (2007).
Research methods for Business students .

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chapter one research methodology dentistry

  • 1. University Of Burao Dental Surgery Course: Research methodology Lecturer: Dr, Bashir S. Adam (BSc, PG.MRes) INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH
  • 2. At the end of the lecture, you should able to Explain: ➢ Define the word of “research” meaning ➢ Define medical research as knowledge ➢ Classification of medical research ➢ Explain the Element of Research ➢ Know the objectives of the research ➢ Describe the motivates or research ➢ Other the types of research
  • 3. The meaning Research  Once can also define research as a scientific and systematic search for pertinent( relevant) information on a specific topic.  In fact, research is an art of scientific investigation.  The Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English lays down the meaning of research as “a careful investigation or inquiry specially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge.”  Redman and Mory define research as a “systematized effort to gain new knowledge.”
  • 4. Cont..  Some people consider research as a movement  a movement from the known to the unknown.  It is actually a voyage(passage) of discovery.  This curiosity is the mother of all knowledge and the method, which man employs for obtaining the knowledge of whatever the unknown, can be termed as research.
  • 5. Cont..  Research is an academic activity and as such the term should be used in a technical sense.  According to Clifford Woody research comprises defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions; collecting, organizing and evaluating data; making deductions and reaching conclusions.
  • 6. Cont..  and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis. D. Slesinger and M. Stephenson in the Encyclopaedia of Social Sciences define research as “the manipulation of things, concepts or symbols for the purpose of generalizing to extend, correct or verify knowledge, whether that knowledge aids in construction of theory or in the practice of an art.”  Research is, thus, an original contribution to the ethe xisting stock of knowledge making for its advancement
  • 7. Cont..  It is the pursuit of truth with the help of study, observation, comparison and experiment.  In short, the search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding solution to a problem is research.  The systematic approach concerning generalization and the formulation of a theory is also research.  As such the term ‘research’ refers to the systematic method consisting of enunciating the problem, formulating a hypothesis, collecting the facts or data, analyzing the facts and reaching certain conclusions either in the form of solutions(s) towards the concerned problem or in certain generalizations for some theoretical formulation.
  • 8. Difinition of research  Research is a Systematic and an Organized method to Find Answers for Questions (Finding answers to a hypothesis or to the question of the research is the end of all research)  Research is a systematic investigation into a subject in order to discover new information or new fact or reach a new understanding or to collect information on a subject.  Question is central to research , because research with-out a question, has no aims
  • 9. Cont...  Research consist of the previx Re which means ( again, or a new ) And Search (verb) means to (examine, or to try).  The word "research" is derived from the Middle French "recherche," which means "to go about seeking," and the term itself is derived from the Old French term "recerchier," meaning 'search.' The earliest recorded use of the term was in 1577.
  • 10. Scientific research ?  A scientific study to seek hidden knowledge  A scientific study to answer a question  A scientific study of causes and effect  A scientific attempt towards new discoveries  A systematic approach to a (medical/vet) problem  A scientific attempt to discover the truth  A scientific attempt towards new discoveries  A systematic method of inquiry  Health research is an investigation of human health issues to learn more about them
  • 12. Types of Medical/Health Research? 1. Primary Research: Primary research is any type of research that you collect yourself, such as surveys, interviews, observations 2. Secondary Research: Secondary research is a research method that involves using existing data collected by someone else, rather than gathering the data yourself. It includes compiling and analyzing data from a variety of sources such as published research reports, documents, textbooks, encyclopedias, news articles, and review articles.
  • 13. Primary Research  1. Experimental Study: Experimental study is a research method in which a treatment, procedure, or program is intentionally introduced, and a result or outcome is observed. It is a study that involves manipulating and controlling variables to determine the cause-and-effect relationship between them. 2. Observational Studies: Observational study is a research method in which researchers observe and analyze the behaviour of subjects without manipulating any variables. It involves collecting data by observing and recording the behaviour of subjects in their natural environment. There are two types of observational studies: cross-sectional and longitudinal.
  • 14. Systematic reviews  A systematic review is a scholarly synthesis of the evidence on a clearly presented topic using critical methods to identify, define, and assess research on the topic.  It involves extracting and interpreting data from published studies, analyzing, describing, critically appraising, and summarizing interpretations into a refined evidence-based conclusion.  Meta-analysis is a research method that involves systematically combining the results of multiple studies addressing a similar research question. It is a quantitative, formal.  A meta-analysis is a statistical analysis that combines the results of multiple scientific studies.
  • 15. Element of Research:  Investigatory, desirable mind  Specific field  Availability of information  Descriptive presumption  Scientific theory Explanation  Fruitful logical theory
  • 16. Nature of Research?  Nature of Research: Objectively a new knowledge or ideas adds/enriches current idea(s) with disciplined desire.  It works with investigating mind and highly enthusiasm to find some new reliable way which is easier than previous one.
  • 17. The objectives of research:  The purpose of research is to discover answers to questions through the application of scientific procedures.  The main aim of research is to find out the truth which is hidden and which has not been discovered as yet. Though each research study has its own specific purpose, we may think of research objectives as falling into a number of following broad groupings:
  • 18. Cont..  To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it  To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual, situation or a group (Studies with this object in view are known as descriptive research studies);  To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is associated with something else (studies with this object in view are known as diagnostic research studies);  To test a hypothesis of a causal relationship between variables (such studies are known as hypothesis- testing research studies).
  • 19. Motivations of research  What makes people to undertake research? This is a question of fundamental importance. The possible motives for doing research may be either one or more of the following:  1. Desire to get a research degree along with its consequential benefits;  2. Desire to face the challenge in solving the unsolved problems, i.e., concern over practical Problems initiates’ research;
  • 20. Cont.. 3. Desire to get intellectual joy of doing some creative work 4. Desire to be of service to society; 5. Desire to get respectability. ❑ However, this is not an exhaustive list of factors motivating people to undertake research studies. Many more factors such as directives of government, employment conditions, curiosity about new things, desire to understand causal relationships, social thinking and awakening, and the like may as well motivate (or at times compel) people to perform research operations.
  • 21. Types of research  the basic types of research according to the purpose are as follows:  Descriptive research: defining (what) and describing social phenomena of interest. Individuals, groups, and institutions compare and contrast, classify and analyse.  Descriptive research includes (define and describe)surveys and fact-finding enquiries of different kinds. The major purpose of descriptive research is the description of the state of affairs as it exists at present.
  • 22. Descriptive research  In social science and business research we quite often use the main characteristic of this method is that the researcher has no control over the variables; he can only report what has happened or what is happening.  Most research projects are used for descriptive studies in which the researcher seeks to measure such items as, for example, frequency of shopping, preferences of people, or similar data.
  • 23. Descriptive research  Descriptive research also attempts by researchers to discover causes even when they cannot control the variables.  The methods of research utilized in descriptive research are survey methods of All kinds, including comparative and correlational methods.  Example: what is level of Social ties in Somaliland?
  • 24. Exploratory research  Exploratory research :is defined as a research used to investigate a problem which is not clearly defined. ▪ It is conducted to have a better understanding of the existing problem, but will not provide conclusive results. For such a research, a researcher starts with a general idea and uses this research as a medium to identify issues that can be the focus for future research. ▪ An important aspect here is that the researcher should be willing to change his/her direction subject to the revelation of new data or insight.
  • 25. Exploratory research  Such a research is usually carried out when the problem is at a preliminary stage.  It is often referred to as grounded theory approach or interpretive research as it used to answer questions like what, why and how.  Ex: what the impacts of Covid19 Vaccines on On fertility of Man?
  • 26. Explanatory research  Explanatory research: cause and effect relationship .it uses available information to analysis Seeks to identify causes and effects of social phenomena and to predict how one phenomenon will change or vary in response to variation in some other phenomenon.  Ex: Can Internet Resources Help elderly Persons Manage Heart Conditions?  Ex: Do elderly individuals with dentures who perform daily denture cleaning have a lower risk of oral infections compared to those who clean their dentures less frequently?  What Effect Does Internet Use Have on Social Relation?
  • 27. Evaluation research  Evaluation research seeks to determine the effects of programs, policies, or other efforts to affect social patterns, whether by government agencies, private nonprofits, or for-profit businesses. This is a type of explanatory research, because it deals with cause and effect, but it differs from other forms of explanatory research because evaluation research focuses on one type of cause: programs, policies, and other conscious efforts to create change.  Ex: Does high Speed Internet access Change in Community Life ? Ex: In children aged 6-12, does supervised tooth brushing twice daily with a fluoridated toothpaste compared to unsupervised brushing once daily lead to a slower rate of enamel wear as measured by surface roughness analysis?
  • 28. Other division  Research can be classified based on practical solution:  Applied research:  Basic research :
  • 29. Applied research  Applied research aims at finding a solution for an immediate problem facing a society or an industrial/business organization.  facing a concrete social or business problem is an example of applied research.  Research to identify social, economic or political trends that may affect a particular institution or the copy research (research to find out whether certain communications will be read and understood) or the marketing research or evaluation research are examples of applied research.  Thus, the central aim of applied research is to discover a solution for some pressing practical problem,
  • 30. Basic research  whereas fundamental research is mainly concerned with generalizations and with the formulation of a theory.  “Gathering knowledge for knowledge’s sake is termed ‘pure’ or ‘basic’ research.”  Research concerning some natural phenomenon or relating to pure mathematics are examples of fundamental research.  Similarly, research studies, concerning human behavior carried on with a view to make generalizations about human behavior
  • 31. Differences ?  Purpose: Basic research  expand knowledge of processes of business and management  results in universal principles relating to the process and its relationship to outcomes  findings of significance and value to society in general.  Basic Research refers to the study that is aimed at expanding the existing base of scientific knowledge.  Nature: theatrical  Utility: Universal  Concerned with: Developing scientific knowledge and predictions
  • 32. Basic research  Context: • undertaken by people based in universities • choice of topic and objectives determined by the researcher • flexible timescales Goal: To add some knowledge to the existing one
  • 33. Applied research Purpose:  improve understanding of particular business or management problem • results in solution to problem • new knowledge limited to problem • findings of practical relevance and value to manager(s) in organisation(s)  Applied Research is the research that is designed to solve specific practical problems or answer certain questions  Nature: Practical  Concerned with: Development of technology and technique
  • 34. Cont..  Context: • undertaken by people based in a variety of settings, including organizations and universities • objectives negotiated with originator(initiator) • tight timescales  Utility: Limited  Goal: To find out solution for the problem at hand.
  • 35. Definitions?  Basic Research or otherwise called as pure or fundamental research, is one that focuses on advancing scientific knowledge for the complete understanding of a topic or certain natural phenomenon, primarily in natural sciences.  when knowledge is acquired for the sake of knowledge it is called basic research.  Basic Research is completely theoretical, that focuses on basic principles and testing theories.  It tends to understand the basic law.
  • 36. Definition of Applied Research  Applied Research can be defined as research that encompasses real life application of the natural science.  It is directed towards providing a solution to the specific practical problems and develop innovative technology.  In better terms, it is the research that can be applied to real-life situations.  It studies a particular set of circumstances, so as to relate the results to its corresponding circumstances.
  • 37. Types of Data Naturally occurring data:  These are data that exist without interaction from the researcher.  Traditionally, this means: documents, archives, maybe transcripts of speeches.  It may also include images that were not generated as part of a research project  for instance, political cartoons or photographs.
  • 38. Types of Data  Researcher-generated data:  This is data generated through researcher interaction with the environment and/or participants. 1. Observation 2. Interviews 3. focus group discussions
  • 39. Criteria for good research:  Good research is systematic:  Good research is empirical:  Good research is replicable:  Good research is logical:
  • 40. Health VS Social Research  The main difference between social research and health research lies in their focus and objectives. Here are the key differences between the two: 1. Focus: Social research focuses on understanding human behavior, preferences, and motivations, while health research focuses on understanding and improving health outcomes 1. Objectives: Social research aims to provide a real-world context for medical research, ensuring that products of medical research benefit patients efficiently and effectively Health research, on the other hand, aims to prevent, diagnose, and treat diseases and improve health outcomes
  • 41. Cont.. 3. Methods: Social research often uses qualitative methods, such as interviews, focus groups, and observations, to understand human behavior and preferences Health research, on the other hand, often uses quantitative methods, such as surveys, experiments, and statistical analysis, to understand health outcomes and develop interventions. 4. Integration: Social research is often integrated with health research to improve health outcomes. For example, social and behavioral research can provide insights into the real-world context needed to ensure the products of medical research benefit patients efficiently and effectively
  • 42. Reference  C.R. KOTHARI (1990). Research methodology, method and Techniques.  Saunders, M., Lewis, P., & Thornhill, A. (2007). Research methods for Business students .