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BY: MS VEENU GUPTA
(PGT CHEMISTRY)
APS RAKHMUTHI
Some
Important
Chemical
Compounds
COMMON SALT (NaCl)
 Sodium chloride is known as common salt. Its main
source is sea water. It also exists in the form of
rocks and is also called rock salt as its large crystals
are often brown due to impurities.
 Common salt is an important component of our
food. It is also used for preparing sodium hydroxide,
baking soda, washing soda etc.
ELECTROLYSIS OF NaCl
What is meant by Chlor Alkali process?
 The chloralkali process (also chlor-alkali and chlor
alkali) is an industrial process for the electrolysis of
sodium chloride solutions.
 It is the technology used to produce chlorine and
sodium hydroxide (lye/caustic soda), which are
commodity chemicals required by industry.
BRINE
 Brine is a high-concentration solution of salt in
water.
 Brine is used for food processing and cooking
(pickling and brining), for de-icing of roads and
other structures, and in a number of technological
processes.
SODIUM HYDROXIDE
 Common name: Caustic Soda
 Chemical name: Sodium Hydroxide
 Chemical formula: NaOH
 Nature: Basic
 Colour: white
 State: solid pellets
Preparation of Sodium
hydroxide (NaOH)
 Sodium Hydroxide is Prepared by Chlor Alkali process.
 When electricity is passed through an aqueous solution of
sodium chloride (brine), it decomposes to form sodium
hydroxide. This process is called chlor-alkali process.
 Chlorine gas is formed at the anode, and hydrogen
gas at the cathode. The solution in the cathodic
compartment contain Sodium hydroxide . This
solution is taken out and is concentrated to get solid
solution.
 2NaCl(aq) + 2 H2O (l) → 2NaOH(aq) + Cl2(g) + H2(g)
 Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide Chlorine gas
Properties Of Sodium Hydroxides
- Produce hydroxide ions [OH –] in H2O so it is basic in nature.
– It is a water soluble bases so it is called as alkalies.
– It has bitter taste
– It turn red litmus blue.
- It reacts with metals to form oxysalts and release hydrogen
gas
– It act as electrolyte as it produces ions in solution
– it reacts with acids to form salt and water and neutralize
solutions containing H+ ions.
– It has a slippery, ‘soapy’ feel.
– Dissolve fatty material
- It reacts with ammonium salts to release ammonia gas
Uses of NaOH
 It is used for de-greasing metals
 It is used to make soaps and detergents.
 It is used for making paper and artificial fibres.
 It is used as a base in laboratory.
USES OF HYDROGEN GAS
 It is used as a rocket fuel
 It is used in welding and in fusion reactions of
sun.
 It is used in reduction reactions of metallic ores
 It is used in hydrogenation of vegetables oil and fats
to convert it into vanaspati ghee.
 It is used as a clean fuel as it is highly inflammable
.It liberate high amount of energy and is non
polluting.
 It is used in commercial fixation of nitrogen from the
air in the Haber ammonia process
 It is used in methanol production, in
hydrodealkylation, hydrocracking, and
hydrodesulphurization
 It is used in production of hydrochloric acid
 It is used for filling balloons (hydrogen gas
much lighter than air; however it ignites
easily)
 liquid H2 is important in cryogenics and in the
study of superconductivity since its melting
point is only just above absolute zero
USES OF CHLORINE GAS
 It is used as a disinfectant in drinking water as Chlorine kills
bacteria
 It is used to treat drinking water and swimming pool water.
 It is used to make -PVC ( poly vinyl chloride).
- bleaching powder.
- pesticides
- detergents for washing clothes
-chlorofluorocarbons
 It is also used to make hundreds of consumer products from
paper to paints, and from textiles to insecticides.
 Swimming pools need chlorine to keep the water clean and
safe to swim in.
 Chlorine helps keep water clean by preventing the
growth of algae. It keeps your pool water safe by attacking
and neutralizing harmful bacteria and microorganisms
 Chlorine gas is itself very poisonous, and was used as a
chemical weapon during the First World War.
 Chlorine gas will react with the water in the mucous/linings
of your lungs and form hydrochloric acid. This will destroy
your lung's ability to take in oxygen and will be very painful.
 Drugs produced with chlorine chemistry are used to treat
many medical conditions and diseases, including high
cholesterol, diabetes, cancer, stomach ulcers,
anemia, depression, asthma, high blood pressure,
inflammation and epilepsy.
What are side effects of chlorine?
 Following chlorine exposure, the most common
symptoms are:
 Airway irritation.
 Wheezing.
 Difficulty breathing.
 Sore throat.
 Cough.
 Chest tightness.
 Eye irritation.
 Skin irritation.
CHLORINE GAS ATTACK IN SYRIA
BLEACHING POWDER
 Common name: Bleaching powder
 Chemical name: Calcium oxychloride
 Chemical formula: CaOCl2
 Nature: Oxidising nature
 Appearance: Yellowish white powder having a smell of chlorine
 Bleaching powder is represented as CaOCl2, though the
actual composition is quite complex.
 Preparation: Bleaching powder is produced by the action of
chlorine on dry slaked lime at a temperature of 40-50 degree
celcius.
 Ca(OH)2 + Cl2 → CaOCl2 + H2O
Slaked lime Bleaching powder
PROPERTIES OF BLEACHING POWDER
 When bleaching powder comes in contact with water, it
releases Chlorine gas.
 CaOCl2 +CO2 → CaCO3 + Cl2(g)
 It also reacts with hydrochloric acid and sulphuric acid to
release Chlorine gas.
 CaOCl2 +HCl → CaCl2+ H2O+ Cl2(g)
 CaOCl2 +H2SO4 → CaSO4 + H2O+Cl2(g)
USES OF BLEACHING POWDER
 Bleaching powder is used for disinfecting drinking water.
 Bleaching powder, CaOCl2 or calcium oxychloride is used to
kill germs and bacteria of water because it
contains chlorine element, which is good disinfecting agent.
 It is used for bleaching dirty clothes in the laundry, as a
bleaching agent for cotton and linen in the textile industry.
 It is a strong oxidizing agent hence used as an oxidizer in
many industries.
 It is used as a disinfectant which is used for
Disinfecting water to make potable water.
 For bleaching wood , cotton , pulp, hair etc
USES OF BLEACHING POWDER
Baking Soda
 Common name: Baking soda
 Chemical name:Sodium hydrogen carbonate or Sodium
bicarbonate
 Chemical formula:(NaHCO3)
 Nature: Basic
 Appearance: white crystalline solid
 Solubility: soluble in water
 Preparation:
 Baking soda is prepared by passing CO2 through ammoniated
brine solution.
 NaCl + H2O + CO2+ NH3 → NH4Cl + NaHCO3
USES OF BAKING SODA
 It is used as a base in laboratory.
 It is used to make washing soda.
 It is used as an ingredient in antacids.
 It is also used in soda acid fire extinguisher
 It is used for making baking powder, which is a mixture of
baking soda and mild edible acid such as tartaric acid.
 When baking powder is heated or mixed with water, the
following reaction take place
 NaHCO3 + H+ → CO2 + H2O + Sodium salt of acid
 CO2 produced during this reaction makes bread or cake or dhokla or idli
soft and spongy
 On heating , baking soda produces sodium carbonate along with
water and carbondioxide.
NaHCO3 + Heat → CO2 + H2O + Na2CO3
BEST USES FOR BAKING SODA
 FOR HEALTH
 Add baking soda to your bath water to relieve sunburned or
itchy skin.
 Make a paste of baking soda and water, and apply to a burn
or an insect bite for relief.
 If you crave sweets, rinse your mouth with one-teaspoon
baking soda dissolved in a glass of warm water. Don’t
swallow the mixture; spit it out. Your craving should
disappear instantly.
 To remove pesticides, dirt, and wax from fresh fruits and
vegetables, wash them in a large bowl of cool water to which
you’ve added two to three tablespoons of baking soda.
 IN THE KITCHEN
 Clean your refrigerator with a solution of one-teaspoon
baking soda to one quart of warm water.
 Pour a cup of baking soda into the opening of your clogged
drain and then add a cup of hot vinegar. After a few minutes,
flush the drain with a quart of boiling water.
 To remove stains from your coffee and tea cups, wipe them
with a damp sponge dipped in baking soda paste.
 Boil two inches of water in a pan with a burned bottom, turn
off the heat, then add half a cup of baking soda. Let it sit
overnight. In the morning it will be easy to clean.
 Sprinkle a teaspoon of baking soda on the bottom of your
toaster oven to eliminate the burned smell from drippings
and crumbs.
 IN THE BATHROOM
 Soak toothbrushes in baking soda and warm water
overnight to clean bristles.
 Keep your rubber gloves dry and smelling good by
sprinkling baking soda inside them. They’ll slip on more
easily too!
 ON CLOTHING
 To remove perspiration stains, make a thick paste of
baking soda and water. Rub paste into the stain, let it sit
for an hour, and then launder as usual.
 Gasoline and oil odors can be removed by putting
clothes in a trash bag with baking soda for a few days
before washing them.
MISCELLANEOUS USES OF BAKING SODA
 Add a pinch of baking soda to boiled syrup to prevent it
from crystallizing.
 Lay down a barrier of baking soda under sink-pipe openings and
along basement windows to keep carpenter ants, silverfish, and
roaches from invading. Roaches eat the baking soda, dehydrate,
and die.
 A light baking soda paste on a damp cloth will remove bugs and
tar from cars without damaging the paint. Let paste sit for a few
minutes before wiping and rinsing clean.
 Sprinkling baking soda on your front steps will provide traction
and melt the ice. Unlike rock salt, kitty litter, or sand, it won’t
damage outdoor or indoor surfaces or shoes.
 A paste of baking soda removes red sauce stains from plastic.
WASHING SODA
 Common name: Washing soda
 Chemical name: sodium carbonate decahydrate
 Chemical formula: Na2CO3 . 10H2O
 Nature: Basic
 Appearance: white crystalline solid
 Preparation of washing soda by Solvay Ammonia Process:
 When CO2 is passed through ammoniated brine solution, insoluble
sodium bicarbonate is produced.
 NaCl + H2O + CO2+ NH3 → NH4Cl + NaHCO3
 sodium carbonate is obtained by heating baking soda.
 2 NaHCO3 + heat →Na2CO3 + H2O + CO2
 Then washing soda is produced by recrystallisation of sodium carbonate
 Na2CO3 + 10H2O → Na2CO3 .10H2O
USES OF WASING SODA
 It is used in glass, soap and paper industry.
 It is used for removing permanent hardness of water
 It is used as a laboratory reagent
 It is used as a cleansing agent for domestic purpose
 In laundries and in softening of water as washing
soda.
 In the manufacture of glass, sodium silicate, paper,
borax, soap powder, caustic soda etc.
 In textile and petroleum refining.
 For the preparation of various carbonates of metals.
How do you make washing soda with baking
soda?
 Washing Soda Instructions
 Turn oven on 400 degrees F.
 Pour a thick (1/2 inch or so) layer of baking soda on the
bottom of the baking dish.
 Bake for 1 hour, stirring 1-2 times in the middle, or until it has
changed in look and feel. ...
 Let cool and store in air-tight jar.
What is the role of tartaric acid in
baking soda?
 Tartaric acid is a weak and mild acid. It is
mixed with baking soda to prepare baking
powder. When baking powder is used in
batters, the tartaric acid reacts with baking
soda and neutralizes the bitter taste without
affecting its ability to produce CO2 and H2O.
 If tartaric acid is not added in baking powder,
the cake will taste bitter due to the presence of
sodium carbonate.
USES OF BAKING SODA VS BAKING POWDER
COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING REACTIONS
GIVE REASONS :
PLASTER OF PARIS
 Common Name:plaster Of Paris
 Chemical Name:calcium Sulphate Hemihydrate
 Chemical Formula: CaSO4. ½ H2O
 Appearance: white powder
 Preparation:
 It is prepared By Heating Gypsum At 373k.
 CaSO4. 2H2O(heat At 373k) → CaSO4. ½ H2O + 1½ H2O
USES OF PLASTER OF PARIS
 .It is called plaster of Paris because it is obtained from gypsum
and is found in Paris
 It is used for plastering of fractured bones.
 CaSO4. ½ H2O + 1½ H2O → CaSO4. 2H2O(heat At 373k)
POP Gypsum
 Making toys, statues, models , decorative items etc.
 Smoothening of walls of the room, Ceiling purposes.
 As a fire proofing material.
 for making blackboard chalks.
 It is used in dentistry and laboratories
USES OF PLASTER OF PARIS
HYDRATED SALTS
 Salts having water molecules ie water of
crystallisation in their formula unit is called
Hydrated salts.
 The water molecules which form part of the
structure of a crystal are called water of
crystallisation.
 The water of crystallisation gives the crystals
of the salts their shape and colour.
How are hydrated salts formed?
 When salts crystallize from an aqueous
solution, the ions may retain some of
the hydrating water molecules and form solid
hydrates such as Na2CO3·10H2O and
CuSO4·5H2O.
 Both the size of the ion and its charge control
the extent of hydration. ...
 As a result, small cations are more
extensively hydrated than large cations.
What are hydrates used for in real life?
 Gypsum is commonly used in the manufacturing of
wallboard, cement and plaster of Paris
 Borax is used in many cosmetic, cleaning and
laundry products
 Epsom salt is used as a natural remedy and
exfoliant.
 Hydrates are often used in skin care products to
infuse moisture into the body
WATER OF CRYSTALLISATION
 It is defined as the fixed number of water molecule present in
one formula unit of the salts.
SALT Chemical
Formula
Water of
Crystallisation
Washing soda Na2CO3 .
10H2O
10
Baking soda Na2CO3 Zero(0)
Gypsum CaSO4. 2H2O 2
Plaster of paris CaSO4. ½ H2O 1/2
Hydrated Copper sulphate (Blue Vitrol) CuSO4.5H2O 5
Ferrous sulphate (Green Vitrol) FeSO4. 7H2O 7
Epsom salt MgSO4∙7H2O 7
Zinc Sulphate(White Vitrol) ZnSO4 .2 H2O 2
Glauber's salt (sodium sulfate decahydrate) Na2SO4∙10H2O 10
Borax (sodium tetraborate decahydrate) Na2B4O7∙10H2O 10
Action Of Heat On Hydrated Salts
EFFECT OF WATER OF CRYSTALLISATION ON
THE COLOUR OF SALT
THANKS

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Acids , Bases & Salts (Some Important chemical compounds)

  • 1. BY: MS VEENU GUPTA (PGT CHEMISTRY) APS RAKHMUTHI
  • 3. COMMON SALT (NaCl)  Sodium chloride is known as common salt. Its main source is sea water. It also exists in the form of rocks and is also called rock salt as its large crystals are often brown due to impurities.  Common salt is an important component of our food. It is also used for preparing sodium hydroxide, baking soda, washing soda etc.
  • 5. What is meant by Chlor Alkali process?  The chloralkali process (also chlor-alkali and chlor alkali) is an industrial process for the electrolysis of sodium chloride solutions.  It is the technology used to produce chlorine and sodium hydroxide (lye/caustic soda), which are commodity chemicals required by industry.
  • 6. BRINE  Brine is a high-concentration solution of salt in water.  Brine is used for food processing and cooking (pickling and brining), for de-icing of roads and other structures, and in a number of technological processes.
  • 7. SODIUM HYDROXIDE  Common name: Caustic Soda  Chemical name: Sodium Hydroxide  Chemical formula: NaOH  Nature: Basic  Colour: white  State: solid pellets
  • 8. Preparation of Sodium hydroxide (NaOH)  Sodium Hydroxide is Prepared by Chlor Alkali process.  When electricity is passed through an aqueous solution of sodium chloride (brine), it decomposes to form sodium hydroxide. This process is called chlor-alkali process.  Chlorine gas is formed at the anode, and hydrogen gas at the cathode. The solution in the cathodic compartment contain Sodium hydroxide . This solution is taken out and is concentrated to get solid solution.  2NaCl(aq) + 2 H2O (l) → 2NaOH(aq) + Cl2(g) + H2(g)  Sodium chloride Sodium hydroxide Chlorine gas
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  • 11. Properties Of Sodium Hydroxides - Produce hydroxide ions [OH –] in H2O so it is basic in nature. – It is a water soluble bases so it is called as alkalies. – It has bitter taste – It turn red litmus blue. - It reacts with metals to form oxysalts and release hydrogen gas – It act as electrolyte as it produces ions in solution – it reacts with acids to form salt and water and neutralize solutions containing H+ ions. – It has a slippery, ‘soapy’ feel. – Dissolve fatty material - It reacts with ammonium salts to release ammonia gas
  • 12. Uses of NaOH  It is used for de-greasing metals  It is used to make soaps and detergents.  It is used for making paper and artificial fibres.  It is used as a base in laboratory.
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  • 14. USES OF HYDROGEN GAS  It is used as a rocket fuel  It is used in welding and in fusion reactions of sun.  It is used in reduction reactions of metallic ores  It is used in hydrogenation of vegetables oil and fats to convert it into vanaspati ghee.  It is used as a clean fuel as it is highly inflammable .It liberate high amount of energy and is non polluting.  It is used in commercial fixation of nitrogen from the air in the Haber ammonia process
  • 15.  It is used in methanol production, in hydrodealkylation, hydrocracking, and hydrodesulphurization  It is used in production of hydrochloric acid  It is used for filling balloons (hydrogen gas much lighter than air; however it ignites easily)  liquid H2 is important in cryogenics and in the study of superconductivity since its melting point is only just above absolute zero
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  • 19. USES OF CHLORINE GAS  It is used as a disinfectant in drinking water as Chlorine kills bacteria  It is used to treat drinking water and swimming pool water.  It is used to make -PVC ( poly vinyl chloride). - bleaching powder. - pesticides - detergents for washing clothes -chlorofluorocarbons  It is also used to make hundreds of consumer products from paper to paints, and from textiles to insecticides.  Swimming pools need chlorine to keep the water clean and safe to swim in.
  • 20.  Chlorine helps keep water clean by preventing the growth of algae. It keeps your pool water safe by attacking and neutralizing harmful bacteria and microorganisms  Chlorine gas is itself very poisonous, and was used as a chemical weapon during the First World War.  Chlorine gas will react with the water in the mucous/linings of your lungs and form hydrochloric acid. This will destroy your lung's ability to take in oxygen and will be very painful.  Drugs produced with chlorine chemistry are used to treat many medical conditions and diseases, including high cholesterol, diabetes, cancer, stomach ulcers, anemia, depression, asthma, high blood pressure, inflammation and epilepsy.
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  • 23. What are side effects of chlorine?  Following chlorine exposure, the most common symptoms are:  Airway irritation.  Wheezing.  Difficulty breathing.  Sore throat.  Cough.  Chest tightness.  Eye irritation.  Skin irritation.
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  • 26. BLEACHING POWDER  Common name: Bleaching powder  Chemical name: Calcium oxychloride  Chemical formula: CaOCl2  Nature: Oxidising nature  Appearance: Yellowish white powder having a smell of chlorine  Bleaching powder is represented as CaOCl2, though the actual composition is quite complex.  Preparation: Bleaching powder is produced by the action of chlorine on dry slaked lime at a temperature of 40-50 degree celcius.  Ca(OH)2 + Cl2 → CaOCl2 + H2O Slaked lime Bleaching powder
  • 27. PROPERTIES OF BLEACHING POWDER  When bleaching powder comes in contact with water, it releases Chlorine gas.  CaOCl2 +CO2 → CaCO3 + Cl2(g)  It also reacts with hydrochloric acid and sulphuric acid to release Chlorine gas.  CaOCl2 +HCl → CaCl2+ H2O+ Cl2(g)  CaOCl2 +H2SO4 → CaSO4 + H2O+Cl2(g)
  • 28. USES OF BLEACHING POWDER  Bleaching powder is used for disinfecting drinking water.  Bleaching powder, CaOCl2 or calcium oxychloride is used to kill germs and bacteria of water because it contains chlorine element, which is good disinfecting agent.  It is used for bleaching dirty clothes in the laundry, as a bleaching agent for cotton and linen in the textile industry.  It is a strong oxidizing agent hence used as an oxidizer in many industries.  It is used as a disinfectant which is used for Disinfecting water to make potable water.  For bleaching wood , cotton , pulp, hair etc
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  • 31. Baking Soda  Common name: Baking soda  Chemical name:Sodium hydrogen carbonate or Sodium bicarbonate  Chemical formula:(NaHCO3)  Nature: Basic  Appearance: white crystalline solid  Solubility: soluble in water  Preparation:  Baking soda is prepared by passing CO2 through ammoniated brine solution.  NaCl + H2O + CO2+ NH3 → NH4Cl + NaHCO3
  • 32. USES OF BAKING SODA  It is used as a base in laboratory.  It is used to make washing soda.  It is used as an ingredient in antacids.  It is also used in soda acid fire extinguisher  It is used for making baking powder, which is a mixture of baking soda and mild edible acid such as tartaric acid.  When baking powder is heated or mixed with water, the following reaction take place  NaHCO3 + H+ → CO2 + H2O + Sodium salt of acid  CO2 produced during this reaction makes bread or cake or dhokla or idli soft and spongy  On heating , baking soda produces sodium carbonate along with water and carbondioxide. NaHCO3 + Heat → CO2 + H2O + Na2CO3
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  • 35. BEST USES FOR BAKING SODA  FOR HEALTH  Add baking soda to your bath water to relieve sunburned or itchy skin.  Make a paste of baking soda and water, and apply to a burn or an insect bite for relief.  If you crave sweets, rinse your mouth with one-teaspoon baking soda dissolved in a glass of warm water. Don’t swallow the mixture; spit it out. Your craving should disappear instantly.  To remove pesticides, dirt, and wax from fresh fruits and vegetables, wash them in a large bowl of cool water to which you’ve added two to three tablespoons of baking soda.
  • 36.  IN THE KITCHEN  Clean your refrigerator with a solution of one-teaspoon baking soda to one quart of warm water.  Pour a cup of baking soda into the opening of your clogged drain and then add a cup of hot vinegar. After a few minutes, flush the drain with a quart of boiling water.  To remove stains from your coffee and tea cups, wipe them with a damp sponge dipped in baking soda paste.  Boil two inches of water in a pan with a burned bottom, turn off the heat, then add half a cup of baking soda. Let it sit overnight. In the morning it will be easy to clean.  Sprinkle a teaspoon of baking soda on the bottom of your toaster oven to eliminate the burned smell from drippings and crumbs.
  • 37.  IN THE BATHROOM  Soak toothbrushes in baking soda and warm water overnight to clean bristles.  Keep your rubber gloves dry and smelling good by sprinkling baking soda inside them. They’ll slip on more easily too!  ON CLOTHING  To remove perspiration stains, make a thick paste of baking soda and water. Rub paste into the stain, let it sit for an hour, and then launder as usual.  Gasoline and oil odors can be removed by putting clothes in a trash bag with baking soda for a few days before washing them.
  • 38. MISCELLANEOUS USES OF BAKING SODA  Add a pinch of baking soda to boiled syrup to prevent it from crystallizing.  Lay down a barrier of baking soda under sink-pipe openings and along basement windows to keep carpenter ants, silverfish, and roaches from invading. Roaches eat the baking soda, dehydrate, and die.  A light baking soda paste on a damp cloth will remove bugs and tar from cars without damaging the paint. Let paste sit for a few minutes before wiping and rinsing clean.  Sprinkling baking soda on your front steps will provide traction and melt the ice. Unlike rock salt, kitty litter, or sand, it won’t damage outdoor or indoor surfaces or shoes.  A paste of baking soda removes red sauce stains from plastic.
  • 39. WASHING SODA  Common name: Washing soda  Chemical name: sodium carbonate decahydrate  Chemical formula: Na2CO3 . 10H2O  Nature: Basic  Appearance: white crystalline solid  Preparation of washing soda by Solvay Ammonia Process:  When CO2 is passed through ammoniated brine solution, insoluble sodium bicarbonate is produced.  NaCl + H2O + CO2+ NH3 → NH4Cl + NaHCO3  sodium carbonate is obtained by heating baking soda.  2 NaHCO3 + heat →Na2CO3 + H2O + CO2  Then washing soda is produced by recrystallisation of sodium carbonate  Na2CO3 + 10H2O → Na2CO3 .10H2O
  • 40. USES OF WASING SODA  It is used in glass, soap and paper industry.  It is used for removing permanent hardness of water  It is used as a laboratory reagent  It is used as a cleansing agent for domestic purpose  In laundries and in softening of water as washing soda.  In the manufacture of glass, sodium silicate, paper, borax, soap powder, caustic soda etc.  In textile and petroleum refining.  For the preparation of various carbonates of metals.
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  • 43. How do you make washing soda with baking soda?  Washing Soda Instructions  Turn oven on 400 degrees F.  Pour a thick (1/2 inch or so) layer of baking soda on the bottom of the baking dish.  Bake for 1 hour, stirring 1-2 times in the middle, or until it has changed in look and feel. ...  Let cool and store in air-tight jar.
  • 44. What is the role of tartaric acid in baking soda?  Tartaric acid is a weak and mild acid. It is mixed with baking soda to prepare baking powder. When baking powder is used in batters, the tartaric acid reacts with baking soda and neutralizes the bitter taste without affecting its ability to produce CO2 and H2O.  If tartaric acid is not added in baking powder, the cake will taste bitter due to the presence of sodium carbonate.
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  • 49. USES OF BAKING SODA VS BAKING POWDER
  • 52. PLASTER OF PARIS  Common Name:plaster Of Paris  Chemical Name:calcium Sulphate Hemihydrate  Chemical Formula: CaSO4. ½ H2O  Appearance: white powder  Preparation:  It is prepared By Heating Gypsum At 373k.  CaSO4. 2H2O(heat At 373k) → CaSO4. ½ H2O + 1½ H2O
  • 53. USES OF PLASTER OF PARIS  .It is called plaster of Paris because it is obtained from gypsum and is found in Paris  It is used for plastering of fractured bones.  CaSO4. ½ H2O + 1½ H2O → CaSO4. 2H2O(heat At 373k) POP Gypsum  Making toys, statues, models , decorative items etc.  Smoothening of walls of the room, Ceiling purposes.  As a fire proofing material.  for making blackboard chalks.  It is used in dentistry and laboratories
  • 54. USES OF PLASTER OF PARIS
  • 55. HYDRATED SALTS  Salts having water molecules ie water of crystallisation in their formula unit is called Hydrated salts.  The water molecules which form part of the structure of a crystal are called water of crystallisation.  The water of crystallisation gives the crystals of the salts their shape and colour.
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  • 57. How are hydrated salts formed?  When salts crystallize from an aqueous solution, the ions may retain some of the hydrating water molecules and form solid hydrates such as Na2CO3·10H2O and CuSO4·5H2O.  Both the size of the ion and its charge control the extent of hydration. ...  As a result, small cations are more extensively hydrated than large cations.
  • 58. What are hydrates used for in real life?  Gypsum is commonly used in the manufacturing of wallboard, cement and plaster of Paris  Borax is used in many cosmetic, cleaning and laundry products  Epsom salt is used as a natural remedy and exfoliant.  Hydrates are often used in skin care products to infuse moisture into the body
  • 59. WATER OF CRYSTALLISATION  It is defined as the fixed number of water molecule present in one formula unit of the salts. SALT Chemical Formula Water of Crystallisation Washing soda Na2CO3 . 10H2O 10 Baking soda Na2CO3 Zero(0) Gypsum CaSO4. 2H2O 2 Plaster of paris CaSO4. ½ H2O 1/2 Hydrated Copper sulphate (Blue Vitrol) CuSO4.5H2O 5 Ferrous sulphate (Green Vitrol) FeSO4. 7H2O 7 Epsom salt MgSO4∙7H2O 7 Zinc Sulphate(White Vitrol) ZnSO4 .2 H2O 2 Glauber's salt (sodium sulfate decahydrate) Na2SO4∙10H2O 10 Borax (sodium tetraborate decahydrate) Na2B4O7∙10H2O 10
  • 60. Action Of Heat On Hydrated Salts
  • 61. EFFECT OF WATER OF CRYSTALLISATION ON THE COLOUR OF SALT