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BY: VEENU GUPTA
(PGT CHEMISTRY)
APS RAKHMUTHI
6/5/2020BY: VEENU GUPTA(CHEM)
Combination Reaction
Decomposition Reaction
Displacement Reaction
Double Displacement Reaction
Neutralization Reactions
Exothermic – Endothermic Reactions
Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
Redox Reaction
6/5/2020BY: VEENU GUPTA(CHEM)
 A reaction in which two or more reactant combine to
form a single product is called combination and these
reactions are mostly characterised by an increase in
temperature.
Examples: A + B → AB
 The chemical reaction between quick lime & water to
form slaked lime is a combination reaction which is
characterized rise in temperature .
Ca0 + H2O → Ca(OH)2
6/5/2020BY: VEENU GUPTA(CHEM)
 When magnesium is burnt in the air (oxygen),
magnesium oxide is formed. In this reaction,
magnesium is combined with oxygen.
Magnesium + Oxygen → Magnesium Oxide
2 Mg (s) + O2 (g) → 2 MgO
Magnesium oxide (White ash)
(basic) turns Red litmus blue
 When carbon is burnt in oxygen (air), carbon
dioxide is formed. In this reaction, carbon is
combined with oxygen.
C (s) + O2(g) → CO2(g) ;
Carbon + Oxygen → Carbon dioxide
6/5/2020BY: VEENU GUPTA(CHEM)
 A reaction in which a single compound decomposes
or breaks down to give two or more simpler
substances is called decomposition reaction.
 Decomposition reactions require energy in the form
of heat, light or electricity .
 A decomposition reaction is just the opposite of
combination reaction. A general decomposition
reaction can be represented as follows :
AB → A + B
6/5/2020BY: VEENU GUPTA(CHEM)
Examples:
 When calcium carbonate is heated, it
decomposes into calcium oxide and carbon
dioxide.
CaCO3(s) + heat → CaO(s) + CO2(g) ;
 When ferric hydroxide is heated, it
decomposes into ferric oxide and water.
2Fe (OH)3(s) + heat → Fe2O3(s) + 3H2O(l)
6/5/2020BY: VEENU GUPTA(CHEM)
 Thermal Decomposition
 Electrolytic Decomposition
 Photolysis or Photo Decomposition
Reaction
6/5/2020BY: VEENU GUPTA(CHEM)
The decomposition of a substance on
heating is known as Thermal or
thermolytic decomposition.
Example:
i) Thermal Decomposition of Lead Nitrate
2Pb(NO3)2 (s) + Heat → 2PbO(s) + 4NO2(g) + O2(g)
white brown gas
6/5/2020BY: VEENU GUPTA(CHEM)
ii) Thermal Decomposition of Ferrous sulphate
2 FeSO4 (s) + Heat .→ Fe2O3 (s) + SO2 (g) + SO3(g)
Ferrous Sulphate Ferric oxide Sulphur Sulphur
(green) (brown) dioxide trioxide
iii) Thermal Decomposition of calcium carbonate
CaCO3(s) + Heat → CaO (aq) + CO2 (g)
(Calcium Carbonate) ( calcium oxide)

6/5/2020BY: VEENU GUPTA(CHEM)
 Reactions in which compounds decompose
into simpler compounds on passing
electricity, are known as Electrolytic
Decomposition. This is also known as
Electrolysis.
Example: When electricity is passed in water,
it decomposes into hydrogen and oxygen.
2H2O(l) + electricity →2H2(g) + O2(g)
6/5/2020BY: VEENU GUPTA(CHEM)
 NOTE: As pure water is a bad conductor of
electricity so before carrying the electrolysis
of water , few drops of acid, base or salt are
added ,to make water a good conductor of
electricity.
 When electricity is passed in the solution of
sodium chloride, it decomposes into sodium
and chlorine.
2NaCl(aq) + electricity →2Na(s) + Cl2(g)
6/5/2020BY: VEENU GUPTA(CHEM)
 Reactions in which a compound decomposes
because of sunlight are known as Photolysis
or Photo Decomposition Reaction.
Example: When silver chloride salt is put in
sunlight, it decomposes into silver metal and
chlorine gas.
2AgCl(s) (white) + sunlight →2Ag(s) (grey) + Cl2(g)
6/5/2020BY: VEENU GUPTA(CHEM)
 Photographic paper has a coat of silver
chloride, which turns into grey when exposed
to sunlight.
 It happens because silver chloride is
colourless while silver is a grey metal.
 When Silver Bromide salt is put in sunlight, it
decomposes into silver metal and Bromine
gas.
2AgBr(s) + sunlight →2Ag(s) (grey) + Br2(g)
6/5/2020BY: VEENU GUPTA(CHEM)
 A reaction in which a more reactive element [metal] displaces a
less reactive element [metal] from its aqueous salt solution is
called displacement reaction. Displacement reactions are also
known as Substitution Reaction or Single Displacement/
replacement reactions.
 A general displacement reaction can be represented by using a
chemical equation as follows :A + BC → AC + B
 Displacement reaction takes place only when ‘A’ is more reactive
than B. If ‘B’ is more reactive than ‘A’, then ‘A’ will not displace
‘C’ from ‘BC’ and reaction will not be taking place.
 These reactions involves only change in colouration of solution
but there is no formation of precipitates.
 These reactions mostly involves rise in temperature so they are
considered as Exothermic reactions.
6/5/2020BY: VEENU GUPTA(CHEM)
 The chemical reaction between zinc granules and dilute sulphuric acid
is characterised by the displacement of a less reactive element
[hydrogen] from its aqueous salt solution by more reactive zinc and
also by rise in temperature .
Zn(s) + 2H2SO4 (aq) → ZnSO4 + H2(g)
 The chemical reaction between zinc granules and dilute Hydrochloric
acid is also characterised by the displacement of a less reactive
element [hydrogen] from its aqueous salt solution by more reactive
zinc and also by rise in temperature .
Zn(s) + 2HCl(aq) → ZnCl2(aq) + H2(g)
 Reaction of Iron with copper sulphate is also characterised by the
displacement of a less reactive element [copper] from its aqueous salt
solution and also by change in colouration of solution.
 Fe (s) + CuSO4 (aq) → FeSO4 (aq) + Cu (s)
(Blue) (green)
6/5/2020BY: VEENU GUPTA(CHEM)
 A reactions in which ions are exchanged between the aqueous solution of
two metal salts to form a new compound or precipitates is called double
displacement reactions. This reaction is also known as precipitation
reaction.
 A general displacement reaction can be represented by using a chemical
equation as follows : AB + CD → AC + BD
Examples:
When the solution of barium chloride reacts with the solution of sodium
sulphate, white precipitate of barium sulphate is formed along with
sodium chloride.
BaCl2 (aq) + Na2SO4(aq) → BaSO4 (s) + 2 NaCl (aq)
(White ppt)
 The reaction in which precipitates are formed by the mixing of the
aqueous solution of two salts is called Precipitation Reaction.
 Precipitates- The insoluble compounds formed during double
displacement reactions are called precipitate
6/5/2020BY: VEENU GUPTA(CHEM)
EXAMPLES OF DOUBLE
DISPLACEMENT
REACTIONS
OR
PRECIPITATION
REACTION
6/5/2020BY: VEENU GUPTA(CHEM)
 When the solution of barium chloride reacts with the
solution of copper sulphate, white precipitates of
barium sulphate are formed along with cupric
chloride.
BaCl2 (aq) + CuSO4(aq) → BaSO4 (s) + CuCl2 (aq)
(White ppt)
 When the solution of Lead Nitrate reacts with the
solution of Potassium Iodide, Yellow precipitates of
Lead Iodide are formed along with Potassium Nitrate.
Pb(NO3)2 (aq) + 2 KI (aq) → PbI2 ( ↓ ) + 2 KNO3 (aq)
(yellow ppt)
6/5/2020BY: VEENU GUPTA(CHEM)
 When the solution of Silver Nitrate reacts with the
solution of sodium chloride then white ppts of silver
chloride are formed along with sodium Nitrate
 AgNO3 (aq) + NaCl (aq) → AgCl ( ↓ ) + NaNO3 (aq)
(white ppt)
 When the solution of Silver Nitrate reacts with the
solution of sodium bromide then Yellow precipitates
of silver bromides are formed along with sodium
Nitrate
 AgNO3 (aq) + NaBr (aq) → AgBr ( ↓ ) + NaNO3 (aq)
(yellow ppt)
 The chemical reaction between sulphuric acid and
barium chloride solution is characterised by the
formation of a white precipitate of barium sulphate.
BaCl2(aq) + H2SO4(aq) → BaSO4(s) + 2HCl(aq)
(white ppt).
6/5/2020BY: VEENU GUPTA(CHEM)
 The reaction in which an acid reacts with a base to form salt
and water by an exchange of ions is called Neutralization
Reaction.
 ACID + BASE → SALT + WATER
 HCl (aq) + KOH (aq) → H2O (l) + KCl (aq)
(acid) (base) (Water) (Salt)
 HCl (aq) + NaOH (aq) → H2O (l) + NaCl (aq)
(acid) (base) (Water) (Salt)
 H2SO4 (aq) +2KOH (aq) → 2H2O (l) + K2SO4 (aq)
(acid) (base) (Water) (Salt)
 H2SO4 (aq) + 2NaOH (aq) → 2H2O (l) + Na2SO4 (aq)
(acid) (base) (Water) (Salt)
6/5/2020BY: VEENU GUPTA(CHEM)
 The Reactions in which heat or energy is evolved
are called exothermic reaction.
 The chemical reaction between quick lime & water to
form slaked lime is characterized by rise in
temperature .
Ca0 + H2O → Ca(OH)2
 The chemical reaction between zinc granules and
dilute sulphuric acid is also characterised by rise in
temperature.
Zn(s) + 2H2SO4(aq) → ZnSO4 (aq) + H2(g)
6/5/2020BY: VEENU GUPTA(CHEM)
 The chemical reaction between zinc granules and
dilute Hydrochloric acid is also characterised by
a rise in temperature.
Zn + 2HCl → ZnCl2 + H2
 Respiration is also a exothermic reaction in which
heat energy is released and thus results in increase in
temperature .
 Most of the combinations reactions occurs by an
increase in temperature of the solution so they are
also considered as exothermic reactions but all
combination reactions are not exothermic in nature.
6/5/2020BY: VEENU GUPTA(CHEM)
 A chemical reaction in which heat energy is absorbed is called
Endothermic Reaction.
Example: Most of the decomposition reactions occurs by an decrease
in temperature of the solution.
i) Thermal Decomposition of Lead Nitrate
2Pb(NO3)2 (s) + Heat → 2PbO(s) + 4NO2(g) + O2(g)
white brown gas
ii) Thermal Decomposition of Ferrous Sulphate
2 FeSO4 (s) + Heat → Fe2O3 (s) + SO2 (g) + SO3(g)
Ferrous Sulphate Ferric oxide Sulphur Sulphur
(green) (brown) dioxide trioxide
iii) Thermal Decomposition of calcium carbonate
CaCO3(s) + Heat → CaO(aq) + CO2 (g)
(Calcium Carbonate) ( calcium oxide)
iv) Photosynthesis is also a endothermic reaction in which heat energy is
absorbed and results in decrease in temperature of the system.
6/5/2020BY: VEENU GUPTA(CHEM)
 The reaction in which addition of oxygen or removal of hydrogen or loss
of electron takes place is known as oxidation reaction.eg
2 Mg(s) + O2 (g) → 2MgO (s) [turns red litmus blue]
Magnesium oxide
 When a brown shiny metal copper is heated in the presence of air ,it
gets oxidised to form a black coloured substance called cupric oxide
which is found to be basic in nature and turns red litmus to blue.
2 Cu + O2 → 2 CuO (Black)
 In terms of electronic concept, “Oxidation is defined as a loss of
electrons”
 Na → Na+ + e-
 Zn → Zn2+ + 2e-
 Elements or compounds in which oxygen or non-metallic element is
added or hydrogen or metallic element is removed are called to be
Oxidized.
6/5/2020BY: VEENU GUPTA(CHEM)
 The reaction in which addition of hydrogen or
removal of oxygen or gain of electron takes
place is called reduction reaction.
 In terms of electronic concept, “reduction is
defined as a gain of electrons”.
 Cu2+ + 2 e-→Cu
 Zn2+ + 2e-→Zn
6/5/2020BY: VEENU GUPTA(CHEM)
 A chemical reactions where oxidation and reduction
both take place simultaneously are also known as
redox reaction.
 Example: When copper oxide is heated with
hydrogen, then copper metal and water are formed.
CuO (s)+ H2 → Cu(s) + H2O (l).
 In this rxn ,CuO is reduced and H2 is oxidised
simultaneously ,so it is a redox rxn.
6/5/2020BY: VEENU GUPTA(CHEM)
 When zinc oxide is heated with coke, then zinc metal
and carbon monoxide are formed.
ZnO + C (coke) → Zn (s) + CO
 In this rxn ,ZnO is reduced and C is oxidised
simultaneously ,so it is also a redox rxn.
 PbO + CO → Pb + CO2
In this rxn , Carbon monoxide is oxidised as it gains
oxygen & PbO is reduced
 (ii) H2S + Cl2→2HCl + S.
In this rxn , Chlorine is reduced as it gains hydrogen &
H2S is oxidised as it loss Hydrogen
6/5/2020BY: VEENU GUPTA(CHEM)
 Oxidising Agent- A substance that loses oxygen
or gains hydrogen is known as an oxidising
agent.
 An oxidising agent gets reduced during a redox
reaction.
 Reducing Agent- A substance that loses
hydrogen or gains oxygen is known as a
reducing agent.
 A reducing agent gets oxidized during a redox
reaction.
6/5/2020BY: VEENU GUPTA(CHEM)
 When copper oxide is heated with hydrogen, then
copper metal and hydrogen are formed.
CuO (s)+ H2 → Cu(s) + H2 O (l).
 In this reaction, CuO is changing into Cu. Oxygen is
being removed from copper oxide. Removal of
oxygen from a substance is called Reduction, so
copper oxide is being reduced to copper.
 In this reaction, H2 is changing to H2O. Oxygen is
being added to hydrogen. Addition of oxygen to a
substance is called Oxidation, so hydrogen is being
oxidised to water.
 The substance(H2) which gets oxidised is the reducing
agent.
 The substance (CuO)which gets reduced is the
oxidizing agent.
6/5/2020BY: VEENU GUPTA(CHEM)
(i)2PbO (s) + C (s) → 2Pb (s) + CO2 (g)
Solution: In this reaction’Carbon is getting oxidised &Lead oxide
is getting reduced.
(ii) PbO + CO → Pb + CO2
Solution:(ii) In this reaction Carbon monoxide is oxidised as it
gains oxygen & Lead oxide is getting reduced as it loss oxygen.
(iii) H2S + Cl2→2HCl + S.
Solution:(iii) In this reaction H2S is oxidised as it looses
Hydrogen and Chlorine is reduced as it gains hydrogen.
6/5/2020BY: VEENU GUPTA(CHEM)
The reactivity series is a list of
metals arranged in the order of
decreasing reactivity.
The most reactive metal is placed
at the top and the least reactive
metal is placed at the bottom.
6/5/2020BY: VEENU GUPTA(CHEM)
 The metals at the top of the reactivity series are
powerful reducing agents since they are easily oxidized. These
metals tarnish/corrode very easily.
 The reducing ability of the metals grows weaker while
traversing down the series.
 The electro-positivity of the elements also reduces while
moving down the reactivity series of metals.
 All metals that are found above hydrogen in the activity series
liberate H2 gas upon reacting with dilute HCl or dilute H2SO4.
 Metals that are placed higher on the reactivity series have the
ability to displace metals that are placed lower from their salt
solutions.
 Higher ranking metals require greater amounts of energy for
their isolation from ores and other compounds.
6/5/2020BY: VEENU GUPTA(CHEM)
THANKS
6/5/2020BY: VEENU GUPTA(CHEM)

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Types of chemical reactions

  • 1. BY: VEENU GUPTA (PGT CHEMISTRY) APS RAKHMUTHI 6/5/2020BY: VEENU GUPTA(CHEM)
  • 2. Combination Reaction Decomposition Reaction Displacement Reaction Double Displacement Reaction Neutralization Reactions Exothermic – Endothermic Reactions Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Redox Reaction 6/5/2020BY: VEENU GUPTA(CHEM)
  • 3.  A reaction in which two or more reactant combine to form a single product is called combination and these reactions are mostly characterised by an increase in temperature. Examples: A + B → AB  The chemical reaction between quick lime & water to form slaked lime is a combination reaction which is characterized rise in temperature . Ca0 + H2O → Ca(OH)2 6/5/2020BY: VEENU GUPTA(CHEM)
  • 4.  When magnesium is burnt in the air (oxygen), magnesium oxide is formed. In this reaction, magnesium is combined with oxygen. Magnesium + Oxygen → Magnesium Oxide 2 Mg (s) + O2 (g) → 2 MgO Magnesium oxide (White ash) (basic) turns Red litmus blue  When carbon is burnt in oxygen (air), carbon dioxide is formed. In this reaction, carbon is combined with oxygen. C (s) + O2(g) → CO2(g) ; Carbon + Oxygen → Carbon dioxide 6/5/2020BY: VEENU GUPTA(CHEM)
  • 5.  A reaction in which a single compound decomposes or breaks down to give two or more simpler substances is called decomposition reaction.  Decomposition reactions require energy in the form of heat, light or electricity .  A decomposition reaction is just the opposite of combination reaction. A general decomposition reaction can be represented as follows : AB → A + B 6/5/2020BY: VEENU GUPTA(CHEM)
  • 6. Examples:  When calcium carbonate is heated, it decomposes into calcium oxide and carbon dioxide. CaCO3(s) + heat → CaO(s) + CO2(g) ;  When ferric hydroxide is heated, it decomposes into ferric oxide and water. 2Fe (OH)3(s) + heat → Fe2O3(s) + 3H2O(l) 6/5/2020BY: VEENU GUPTA(CHEM)
  • 7.  Thermal Decomposition  Electrolytic Decomposition  Photolysis or Photo Decomposition Reaction 6/5/2020BY: VEENU GUPTA(CHEM)
  • 8. The decomposition of a substance on heating is known as Thermal or thermolytic decomposition. Example: i) Thermal Decomposition of Lead Nitrate 2Pb(NO3)2 (s) + Heat → 2PbO(s) + 4NO2(g) + O2(g) white brown gas 6/5/2020BY: VEENU GUPTA(CHEM)
  • 9. ii) Thermal Decomposition of Ferrous sulphate 2 FeSO4 (s) + Heat .→ Fe2O3 (s) + SO2 (g) + SO3(g) Ferrous Sulphate Ferric oxide Sulphur Sulphur (green) (brown) dioxide trioxide iii) Thermal Decomposition of calcium carbonate CaCO3(s) + Heat → CaO (aq) + CO2 (g) (Calcium Carbonate) ( calcium oxide)  6/5/2020BY: VEENU GUPTA(CHEM)
  • 10.  Reactions in which compounds decompose into simpler compounds on passing electricity, are known as Electrolytic Decomposition. This is also known as Electrolysis. Example: When electricity is passed in water, it decomposes into hydrogen and oxygen. 2H2O(l) + electricity →2H2(g) + O2(g) 6/5/2020BY: VEENU GUPTA(CHEM)
  • 11.  NOTE: As pure water is a bad conductor of electricity so before carrying the electrolysis of water , few drops of acid, base or salt are added ,to make water a good conductor of electricity.  When electricity is passed in the solution of sodium chloride, it decomposes into sodium and chlorine. 2NaCl(aq) + electricity →2Na(s) + Cl2(g) 6/5/2020BY: VEENU GUPTA(CHEM)
  • 12.  Reactions in which a compound decomposes because of sunlight are known as Photolysis or Photo Decomposition Reaction. Example: When silver chloride salt is put in sunlight, it decomposes into silver metal and chlorine gas. 2AgCl(s) (white) + sunlight →2Ag(s) (grey) + Cl2(g) 6/5/2020BY: VEENU GUPTA(CHEM)
  • 13.  Photographic paper has a coat of silver chloride, which turns into grey when exposed to sunlight.  It happens because silver chloride is colourless while silver is a grey metal.  When Silver Bromide salt is put in sunlight, it decomposes into silver metal and Bromine gas. 2AgBr(s) + sunlight →2Ag(s) (grey) + Br2(g) 6/5/2020BY: VEENU GUPTA(CHEM)
  • 14.  A reaction in which a more reactive element [metal] displaces a less reactive element [metal] from its aqueous salt solution is called displacement reaction. Displacement reactions are also known as Substitution Reaction or Single Displacement/ replacement reactions.  A general displacement reaction can be represented by using a chemical equation as follows :A + BC → AC + B  Displacement reaction takes place only when ‘A’ is more reactive than B. If ‘B’ is more reactive than ‘A’, then ‘A’ will not displace ‘C’ from ‘BC’ and reaction will not be taking place.  These reactions involves only change in colouration of solution but there is no formation of precipitates.  These reactions mostly involves rise in temperature so they are considered as Exothermic reactions. 6/5/2020BY: VEENU GUPTA(CHEM)
  • 15.  The chemical reaction between zinc granules and dilute sulphuric acid is characterised by the displacement of a less reactive element [hydrogen] from its aqueous salt solution by more reactive zinc and also by rise in temperature . Zn(s) + 2H2SO4 (aq) → ZnSO4 + H2(g)  The chemical reaction between zinc granules and dilute Hydrochloric acid is also characterised by the displacement of a less reactive element [hydrogen] from its aqueous salt solution by more reactive zinc and also by rise in temperature . Zn(s) + 2HCl(aq) → ZnCl2(aq) + H2(g)  Reaction of Iron with copper sulphate is also characterised by the displacement of a less reactive element [copper] from its aqueous salt solution and also by change in colouration of solution.  Fe (s) + CuSO4 (aq) → FeSO4 (aq) + Cu (s) (Blue) (green) 6/5/2020BY: VEENU GUPTA(CHEM)
  • 16.  A reactions in which ions are exchanged between the aqueous solution of two metal salts to form a new compound or precipitates is called double displacement reactions. This reaction is also known as precipitation reaction.  A general displacement reaction can be represented by using a chemical equation as follows : AB + CD → AC + BD Examples: When the solution of barium chloride reacts with the solution of sodium sulphate, white precipitate of barium sulphate is formed along with sodium chloride. BaCl2 (aq) + Na2SO4(aq) → BaSO4 (s) + 2 NaCl (aq) (White ppt)  The reaction in which precipitates are formed by the mixing of the aqueous solution of two salts is called Precipitation Reaction.  Precipitates- The insoluble compounds formed during double displacement reactions are called precipitate 6/5/2020BY: VEENU GUPTA(CHEM)
  • 18.  When the solution of barium chloride reacts with the solution of copper sulphate, white precipitates of barium sulphate are formed along with cupric chloride. BaCl2 (aq) + CuSO4(aq) → BaSO4 (s) + CuCl2 (aq) (White ppt)  When the solution of Lead Nitrate reacts with the solution of Potassium Iodide, Yellow precipitates of Lead Iodide are formed along with Potassium Nitrate. Pb(NO3)2 (aq) + 2 KI (aq) → PbI2 ( ↓ ) + 2 KNO3 (aq) (yellow ppt) 6/5/2020BY: VEENU GUPTA(CHEM)
  • 19.  When the solution of Silver Nitrate reacts with the solution of sodium chloride then white ppts of silver chloride are formed along with sodium Nitrate  AgNO3 (aq) + NaCl (aq) → AgCl ( ↓ ) + NaNO3 (aq) (white ppt)  When the solution of Silver Nitrate reacts with the solution of sodium bromide then Yellow precipitates of silver bromides are formed along with sodium Nitrate  AgNO3 (aq) + NaBr (aq) → AgBr ( ↓ ) + NaNO3 (aq) (yellow ppt)  The chemical reaction between sulphuric acid and barium chloride solution is characterised by the formation of a white precipitate of barium sulphate. BaCl2(aq) + H2SO4(aq) → BaSO4(s) + 2HCl(aq) (white ppt). 6/5/2020BY: VEENU GUPTA(CHEM)
  • 20.  The reaction in which an acid reacts with a base to form salt and water by an exchange of ions is called Neutralization Reaction.  ACID + BASE → SALT + WATER  HCl (aq) + KOH (aq) → H2O (l) + KCl (aq) (acid) (base) (Water) (Salt)  HCl (aq) + NaOH (aq) → H2O (l) + NaCl (aq) (acid) (base) (Water) (Salt)  H2SO4 (aq) +2KOH (aq) → 2H2O (l) + K2SO4 (aq) (acid) (base) (Water) (Salt)  H2SO4 (aq) + 2NaOH (aq) → 2H2O (l) + Na2SO4 (aq) (acid) (base) (Water) (Salt) 6/5/2020BY: VEENU GUPTA(CHEM)
  • 21.  The Reactions in which heat or energy is evolved are called exothermic reaction.  The chemical reaction between quick lime & water to form slaked lime is characterized by rise in temperature . Ca0 + H2O → Ca(OH)2  The chemical reaction between zinc granules and dilute sulphuric acid is also characterised by rise in temperature. Zn(s) + 2H2SO4(aq) → ZnSO4 (aq) + H2(g) 6/5/2020BY: VEENU GUPTA(CHEM)
  • 22.  The chemical reaction between zinc granules and dilute Hydrochloric acid is also characterised by a rise in temperature. Zn + 2HCl → ZnCl2 + H2  Respiration is also a exothermic reaction in which heat energy is released and thus results in increase in temperature .  Most of the combinations reactions occurs by an increase in temperature of the solution so they are also considered as exothermic reactions but all combination reactions are not exothermic in nature. 6/5/2020BY: VEENU GUPTA(CHEM)
  • 23.  A chemical reaction in which heat energy is absorbed is called Endothermic Reaction. Example: Most of the decomposition reactions occurs by an decrease in temperature of the solution. i) Thermal Decomposition of Lead Nitrate 2Pb(NO3)2 (s) + Heat → 2PbO(s) + 4NO2(g) + O2(g) white brown gas ii) Thermal Decomposition of Ferrous Sulphate 2 FeSO4 (s) + Heat → Fe2O3 (s) + SO2 (g) + SO3(g) Ferrous Sulphate Ferric oxide Sulphur Sulphur (green) (brown) dioxide trioxide iii) Thermal Decomposition of calcium carbonate CaCO3(s) + Heat → CaO(aq) + CO2 (g) (Calcium Carbonate) ( calcium oxide) iv) Photosynthesis is also a endothermic reaction in which heat energy is absorbed and results in decrease in temperature of the system. 6/5/2020BY: VEENU GUPTA(CHEM)
  • 24.  The reaction in which addition of oxygen or removal of hydrogen or loss of electron takes place is known as oxidation reaction.eg 2 Mg(s) + O2 (g) → 2MgO (s) [turns red litmus blue] Magnesium oxide  When a brown shiny metal copper is heated in the presence of air ,it gets oxidised to form a black coloured substance called cupric oxide which is found to be basic in nature and turns red litmus to blue. 2 Cu + O2 → 2 CuO (Black)  In terms of electronic concept, “Oxidation is defined as a loss of electrons”  Na → Na+ + e-  Zn → Zn2+ + 2e-  Elements or compounds in which oxygen or non-metallic element is added or hydrogen or metallic element is removed are called to be Oxidized. 6/5/2020BY: VEENU GUPTA(CHEM)
  • 25.  The reaction in which addition of hydrogen or removal of oxygen or gain of electron takes place is called reduction reaction.  In terms of electronic concept, “reduction is defined as a gain of electrons”.  Cu2+ + 2 e-→Cu  Zn2+ + 2e-→Zn 6/5/2020BY: VEENU GUPTA(CHEM)
  • 26.  A chemical reactions where oxidation and reduction both take place simultaneously are also known as redox reaction.  Example: When copper oxide is heated with hydrogen, then copper metal and water are formed. CuO (s)+ H2 → Cu(s) + H2O (l).  In this rxn ,CuO is reduced and H2 is oxidised simultaneously ,so it is a redox rxn. 6/5/2020BY: VEENU GUPTA(CHEM)
  • 27.  When zinc oxide is heated with coke, then zinc metal and carbon monoxide are formed. ZnO + C (coke) → Zn (s) + CO  In this rxn ,ZnO is reduced and C is oxidised simultaneously ,so it is also a redox rxn.  PbO + CO → Pb + CO2 In this rxn , Carbon monoxide is oxidised as it gains oxygen & PbO is reduced  (ii) H2S + Cl2→2HCl + S. In this rxn , Chlorine is reduced as it gains hydrogen & H2S is oxidised as it loss Hydrogen 6/5/2020BY: VEENU GUPTA(CHEM)
  • 28.  Oxidising Agent- A substance that loses oxygen or gains hydrogen is known as an oxidising agent.  An oxidising agent gets reduced during a redox reaction.  Reducing Agent- A substance that loses hydrogen or gains oxygen is known as a reducing agent.  A reducing agent gets oxidized during a redox reaction. 6/5/2020BY: VEENU GUPTA(CHEM)
  • 29.  When copper oxide is heated with hydrogen, then copper metal and hydrogen are formed. CuO (s)+ H2 → Cu(s) + H2 O (l).  In this reaction, CuO is changing into Cu. Oxygen is being removed from copper oxide. Removal of oxygen from a substance is called Reduction, so copper oxide is being reduced to copper.  In this reaction, H2 is changing to H2O. Oxygen is being added to hydrogen. Addition of oxygen to a substance is called Oxidation, so hydrogen is being oxidised to water.  The substance(H2) which gets oxidised is the reducing agent.  The substance (CuO)which gets reduced is the oxidizing agent. 6/5/2020BY: VEENU GUPTA(CHEM)
  • 30. (i)2PbO (s) + C (s) → 2Pb (s) + CO2 (g) Solution: In this reaction’Carbon is getting oxidised &Lead oxide is getting reduced. (ii) PbO + CO → Pb + CO2 Solution:(ii) In this reaction Carbon monoxide is oxidised as it gains oxygen & Lead oxide is getting reduced as it loss oxygen. (iii) H2S + Cl2→2HCl + S. Solution:(iii) In this reaction H2S is oxidised as it looses Hydrogen and Chlorine is reduced as it gains hydrogen. 6/5/2020BY: VEENU GUPTA(CHEM)
  • 31. The reactivity series is a list of metals arranged in the order of decreasing reactivity. The most reactive metal is placed at the top and the least reactive metal is placed at the bottom. 6/5/2020BY: VEENU GUPTA(CHEM)
  • 32.  The metals at the top of the reactivity series are powerful reducing agents since they are easily oxidized. These metals tarnish/corrode very easily.  The reducing ability of the metals grows weaker while traversing down the series.  The electro-positivity of the elements also reduces while moving down the reactivity series of metals.  All metals that are found above hydrogen in the activity series liberate H2 gas upon reacting with dilute HCl or dilute H2SO4.  Metals that are placed higher on the reactivity series have the ability to displace metals that are placed lower from their salt solutions.  Higher ranking metals require greater amounts of energy for their isolation from ores and other compounds. 6/5/2020BY: VEENU GUPTA(CHEM)