RIP Routing Information Protocol Extreme Networks

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RIP Routing Information Protocol Extreme Networks

  1. 1. © 2008 Extreme Networks, Inc. All rights reserved. ExtremeXOS Operation and Configuration, Version 12.1. Part number DOC-00919. Configuring RIP ExtremeXOS™ Operation and Configuration, Version 12.1
  2. 2. Slide 2 Student Objectives Upon completion of this module, you will be able to: Describe the RIP routing protocol. Identify the limitations of RIP version 1. List the benefits of RIP version 2. Interpret RIP routing table entries. Describe the Split Horizon and Poison Reverse loop resolution protocols. Describe the operation of triggered updates. Configure the RIP routing protocol. Verify the RIP configuration. Test RIP operation. Note: Depending on the needs of the students, the instructor may choose to reduce or eliminate the protocol overview portion of this module.
  3. 3. Slide 3 Limitations of Manual Configuration What if you have 50 switches, 10 subnetworks, a meshed topology, and 500 devices, what now?
  4. 4. Slide 4 Routing Information Protocol A distance-vector protocol used as an Interior Gateway Protocol. First used in the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPAnet) as early as 1969. It is primarily intended for use in homogeneous networks of moderate size (20-30 switches or less). Relatively simple to understand and implement. Each router creates its routing table based on route information exchanged between neighbors. Supported by all Extreme Networks switches. Distance-Vector Distance - Hop Count Vector - Next Hop Router RIP Network ?
  5. 5. Slide 5 Routing Information Protocol (Continued…) The router exchanges update messages with each neighbor every 30 seconds. Stale routes are removed from the routing table. There are two versions of RIP. In RIP V1, 25 routes can be advertised in a single packet. This limits the maximum packet size to 512 octets. Supports 2 types of loop resolution protocols. • Split Horizon, Poison Reverse Supports triggered updates. RIP Network Updates Every 30 Seconds ?
  6. 6. Slide 6 Limitations of RIP Version 1 Only understands class A, B, and C IP addresses. Does not propagate subnetwork mask information in its updates. Cannot support variable length subnetwork masks. Uses broadcasts for update delivery. It is an insecure routing protocol. Updates: • Sent as broadcast • Networks only (no subnetwork masks) RIP Network ?
  7. 7. Slide 7 RIP Version 2 Fixes many of the limitations of RIP-1. Is a classless routing protocol. Supports variable length subnetwork masking. Supports Classless Internet Domain Routing (CIDR). Has features to make it backward compatible with RIP Version 1. Supports authentication (not supported on Extreme Switches). • Clear text password • MD5 – checksum (RFC 2082) Uses multicast for update delivery. RIPv2 network Network 129.128.128.0 Subnet 255.255.192.0 Network 129.128.128.0 Subnet 255.255.192.0 Network 129.128.0.0 RIPv1 network RIPv2 network
  8. 8. Slide 8 Routing Table and Route Advertisement Contains an entry for every known destination network. Contains the following information: • Origin of the route. • IP Address of destination network. • IP address of the next router (gateway). • Metric (hop count) to the destination network. • Duration of time since the last entry update. Route Advertisement of VLANs • Only those VLANs configured with an IP address, configured to forward IP, and running RIP have their subnetworks advertised. Ori Destination Gateway Mtr Flags VLAN Duration *r 10.10.11.0/24 10.10.99.121 2 UG-----um-- bbone 0d:0h:18m:36s *r 10.10.20.0/24 10.10.99.122 3 UG-----um-- bbone 0d:0h:09m:06s *r 10.10.33.0/24 10.10.99.124 2 UG-----um-- bbone 0d:0h:18m:53s *d 10.10.55.0/24 10.10.55.126 1 U------u--- white 0d:3h:21m:52s d 10.10.60.0/24 10.10.60.126 1 -------u--- brown 0d:3h:21m:00s *d 10.10.99.0/24 10.10.99.126 1 U------u--- bbone 0d:3h:21m:35s *d 127.0.0.1/8 127.0.0.1 0 U-H----um-- white 0d:3h:34m:16s Route Table
  9. 9. Slide 9 Routing Loops Router A advertises the route to the target network to Router B. Router B advertises the route to the target network learned from A to C. Router C advertises the route back to router B over the port that supplied the route. Router B believes it has two routes to the target network when actually only one exists. When the valid route becomes unavailable the router tries to use the alternate route. Traffic is sent over the original route and looped back again. Target Network A C B Problem!! Target Network Using A M=1 Target Network Using B M= 2 Target Network Using C M=3 B Routing Table Target network using A M=1 Target network using C M=3 C Routing Table Target network using B M=2
  10. 10. Slide 10 Counting to Infinity Problem Complex networks can contain multiple routing loops. Routers re-advertise routes out interfaces from which they were learned. When the valid route becomes unavailable routers advertise routes with ever increasing hop count metrics. Old route entries will be replaced by new route entries. Behavior repeats until the max hop count reaches infinity (16 - unreachable). Causes slow convergence. Target Network C B C Routing Table Target network using B M=16 B Routing Table Target network using A M=1 Target Network using C M=16 A
  11. 11. Slide 11 Split Horizon Used to prevent routing loop. Enabled by default on the switch. Router does not advertise a route back out the port that the route was originally learned on. The possibility of a loop has been eliminated using split horizon. Split Horizon prevents route from being sent!! Target Network Target Network Using C M=3 A C B Target Network Using A M=0 Target Network Using B M= 1 C Routing Table Target network using B M=2 B Routing Table Target network using A M=1
  12. 12. Slide 12 Poison Reverse Routers advertise routes with hop count of 16 (unreachable). Faster convergence. Poison Reverse takes precedence over split horizon when both are enabled to prevent loops. Enabled by default. Possible increased size of routing messages. Target Network Target Network Using C M=16 A C B Target Network using C M=16 Target Network using A M=1 B Routing Table Target Network using B M=2 C Routing Table Target Network Using A M=0 Target Network Using B M= 1 Poison Reverse causes Router C to advertises route as unreachable.
  13. 13. Slide 13 Triggered Updates Sent out whenever the metric for a route changes and the router is required to send an update immediately. • Even if it is not yet time for a regular update message to be sent. Generally result in faster convergence. Results in more RIP-related traffic. Target Network BA Target = 0 Target = 1 Target = 2 Target = 4Target = 4 Target = 6 Target = 3 Target = 5 Target = 2 Target = 6 Target = 3 Target = 1 Target = 7 Target = 2 Target = 8 failed route
  14. 14. Slide 14 RIP Limitations Limit of 15 hops between the source and the destination networks. Bandwidth taken up by periodic broadcasts of entire routing table. Slow convergence. Routing decisions based on hop count. Flat networks; no concept of areas or boundaries. RIP Network
  15. 15. Slide 15 RIP Configuration Steps Create and configure VLANs. 1. Configure the VLAN with an IP address. 2. Enable IP Forwarding. 3. Enable RIP on VLANs that do RIP routing. 4. Enable RIP globally on the switch. 5. Verify RIP configuration.
  16. 16. Slide 16 General IP Configuration Commands Create and configure VLANs: • create vlan <vlan name> • configure vlan <vlan name> add ports <portlist> Configure VLAN with an IP address: • configure vlan <vlan name> ipaddress <ipaddr> {<netmask> | <mask length>} Enable IP forwarding: • enable ipforwarding
  17. 17. Slide 17 RIP Specific Configuration Commands Enable RIP on VLANs that do RIP routing: • configure rip add vlan [<vlan name> | all] Enable RIP globally on the switch: • enable rip Disable RIP on VLANs: • configure rip delete vlan [<vlan name> | all] Disable RIP globally on the switch: • disable rip When RIP is disabled on the interface, the parameters are not reset to their defaults.
  18. 18. Slide 18 RIP Configuration Example Configuration for R1: create vlan vlan1rip configure vlan1rip add ports 1 configure vlan1rip ipaddress 10.1.0.1/24 create vlan vlan0rip configure vlan0rip add ports 2,3 configure vlan0rip ipaddress 10.0.0.1/24 enable ipforwarding configure rip add vlan vlan0rip configure rip add vlan vlan1rip enable rip Similar configurations for R2 and R3 .1 10.0.0.0 / 24 VLAN0rip .2 .1 .3 .2 10.2.0.0 / 24 VLAN2rip .3 10.3.0.0 / 24 VLAN3rip R2 R3 R1 10.1.0.0 / 24 VLAN1rip RIP Network
  19. 19. Slide 19 RIP Timer and Cost Configuration Commands Configure RIP update timer: • configure rip updatetime {<seconds>} Configure RIP route timeout: • configure rip routetimeout {<seconds>} Configure RIP garbage time: • configure rip garbagetime {<seconds>} Configure RIP VLAN cost: • configure rip vlan [<vlan name> | all] cost <cost>
  20. 20. Slide 20 Additional RIP Configuration Commands Configure RIP receive version: • configure rip rxmode vlan [vlan name | all] [none | v1only | v2only | any] Configure RIP transmit version: • configure rip txmode vlan [vlan name | all] [none | v1only | v2only | any] Enable or disable specific RIP features: • [enable | disable] rip [aggregation | export | |originate-default | poisonreverse | splithorizon | triggerupdates | use-ip-router-alert] Unconfigure RIP: • unconfigure rip {vlan <vlan name>}
  21. 21. Slide 21 Verifying RIP Configuration Timers RIP, Split Horizon, Triggered Updates, Poison Reverse Status
  22. 22. Slide 22 Verifying RIP Interfaces and Routes
  23. 23. Slide 23 Verifying IP Forwarding and VLAN Interface VLAN name and IP address
  24. 24. Slide 24 Verifying the Route Source Preferred route flag Origin of route is RIP
  25. 25. Slide 25 Summary You should now be able to: Describe the RIP routing protocol. Identify the limitations of RIP version 1. List the benefits of RIP version 2. Interpret RIP routing table entries. Describe the Split Horizon and Poison Reverse loop resolution protocols. Describe the operation of triggered updates. Configure the RIP routing protocol. Verify the RIP configuration. Test RIP operation.
  26. 26. Slide 26 Lab Turn to the Routing Information Protocol (RIP) Lab in the ExtremeXOS™ Operations and Configuration - Lab Guide Rev. 12.1 and complete the hands-on portion of this module.
  27. 27. © 2008 Extreme Networks, Inc. All rights reserved. ExtremeXOS Operation and Configuration, Version 12.1. Part number DOC-00919. Review Questions
  28. 28. © 2008 Extreme Networks, Inc. All rights reserved. ExtremeXOS Operation and Configuration, Version 12.1. Part number DOC-00919. This presentation contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties, including statements regarding our expectations as to products, trends and our performance. There can be no assurances that any forward-looking statements will be achieved, and actual results could differ materially from forecasts and estimates. For factors that may affect our business and financial results please refer to our filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission, including, without limitation, under the captions: “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” and “Risk Factors,” which is on file with the Securities and Exchange Commission (http://www.sec.gov). We undertake no obligation to update the forward-looking information in this release.
  29. 29. © 2008 Extreme Networks, Inc. All rights reserved. ExtremeXOS Operation and Configuration, Version 12.1. Part number DOC-00919. The End © 2008 Extreme Networks, Inc. All rights reserved. ExtremeXOS Operation and Configuration, Version 12.1. Part number DOC-00919.© 2008 Extreme Networks, Inc. All rights reserved. ExtremeXOS Operation and Configuration, Version 12.1. Part number DOC-00919.

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