Ch 7 A Frontier Society In Transition


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Ch 7 A Frontier Society In Transition

  1. 1. Chapter Seven<br />A Frontier Society in Transition<br />
  2. 2. Texas Population (1870-1900)<br />
  3. 3. What do these statistics mean?<br />Stead increase in overall population<br />Steady increase in urban population<br />Steady decrease of black population<br />Who came to Texas?<br />Primarily white southerners<br />From Arkansas, Alabama, Mississippi, Tennessee, Missouri, Louisiana, and Georgia (in that order)<br />West Texas provided adequate for cattlemen<br />Farmers followed ranchers<br />Railroad lines are also responsible for population increases in cities<br />Texas Population (1870-1900)<br />
  4. 4. After the Civil War, northern U.S. markets for beef spurred the growth of ranching in South Texas<br />Kenedy Ranch<br />King Ranch<br />In the 1880s and 1890s, South Texas acreage was slowly converted to farmland<br />As a result, ranch hands became displaced workers<br />Railroads expanded in the area and urban development increased<br />Corpus Christi, Laredo, and Brownsville benefitted greatly from railroad expansion<br />Growth of South Texas<br />
  5. 5. King Ranch<br />Captain Richard King<br />
  6. 6. King Ranch in Popular Culture<br />
  7. 7. Kiowas and Comanches<br />Still ruled over West Texas despite Texan advances on their territory<br />Their society glorified warfare<br />They finally honed their military tactics (hit and run tactics)<br />Texan migration stopped short of Plains Indian territory<br />Their nomadic lifestyle prevented Texans from attacking any tangible military/social positions <br />Texans feared the Plains tribes<br />They tortured white victims during or after combat<br />Tortured prisoners or mutilated corpses<br />Abducted white women and children<br />This was usually enough to stave off further migration to the west<br />Indian Displacement<br />
  8. 8. Forts<br />From 1866 to 1868, the U.S. War Department established a line of defense <br />Replaced long-established U.S. troops stationed in militia units and Indian-fighter regiments along the frontier<br />However, the Plains tribes proved too resourceful and cunning<br />Easily avoided the forts<br />They were spread too far apart to be effective<br />“Comanche moon” raids<br />Comanches typically carried out some of their fiercest raids under the light of a full moon<br />U.S. soldiers began to carry out reconnaissance missions under a full moon also<br />Indian Displacement<br />
  9. 9.
  10. 10. May 1871 (Young County, TX)<br />Kiowa Chief Satanta and roughly 150 of his followers near the Fort Sill Reservation raided a supply train<br />Killed and mutilated 7 of the 12 drivers<br />Satanta did not want to relinquish Kiowa land in West Texas<br />The Salt Creek Massacre<br />Satanta<br />
  11. 11. General William T. Sherman ordered the arrest of Satanta and his followers<br />They were subsequently arrested, tried, and sentenced to death<br />However, Governor Davis pardoned this in an attempt to exercise a peace policy towards the Plains Indians<br />Satanta was released and continued his old ways<br />He was later recaptured and sent to the Huntsville state prison<br />Died in 1878 under questionable circumstances<br />The Salt Creek Massacre<br />
  12. 12. After the Salt Creek Massacre, the U.S. Army led an offensive against the Plains tribes<br />Spearheaded by Col. Ranald Slidell Mackenzie<br />Conducted very effective search and destroy missions on the Panhandle Plains in 1871<br />Against resistant Comanche bands<br />Mackenzie’s Raids<br />Col. Ranald Slidell Mackenzie<br />
  13. 13. Notable Comanche leader Quanah Parker faced Mackenzie’s forces in 1871<br />Parker was the son of Cynthia Ann Parker, a white Comanche woman who was abducted in 1836 at Fort Parker (Limestone County)<br />Objective of Mackenzie’s campaign was the forcible removal of Indians to the reservations<br />Most Indians refused to fight under circumstances to the advantage of the U.S. Army<br />Mackenzie’s Raids<br />Quanah Parker<br />
  14. 14. The U.S. Army resorted to ruthless measures<br />Slaughtering pony herds<br />Destroying Indian villages<br />Confiscating food, weapons, and necessities for survival<br />This policy was effective<br />Frequency of Indian raids decreased dramatically<br />Mackenzie’s Raids<br />
  15. 15. Final military operation against the Plains Indians in northwestern Texas<br />Multi-pronged assault from New Mexico, Kansas, Oklahoma, and West Texas<br />September 1874 – Mackenzie and his troops skirmish with Comanches at Palo Duro Canyon<br />After the skirmish, he ordered the slaughtering of the tribe’s pony herd<br />Without their horses, the Comanches were easily subdued<br />Remnants of the Plains Tribes moved to the Oklahoma reservations in 1875<br />Red River War<br />
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  17. 17. Their way of life was detrimental to their survival<br />Lacked a system of supply depots and armories essential for warfare<br />Lacked a support network of factories and farms<br />Lacked an efficient infrastructure effective enough to stave off whites moving west<br />War strategy did not favor prolong conflict against well-trained and well-armed opponents<br />Decline of the buffalo herds<br />Decline of the Plains Tribes<br />
  18. 18. Major decline was during the 1870s and 1880s<br />Causes<br />Tribal migrations increased slaughtering<br />Partially for sustenance and essential byproducts<br />Partially for its trade value (alcohol)<br />Anglo range animals contaminated the herds with diseases<br />Horses, cattle, and sheep<br />European livestock upset the ecology of the region<br />Whites shot buffalo for sport<br />Buffalo hides became profitable<br />By the early 1880s, less than 200 buffalo were left on old Texas feeding grounds (previously thousands)<br />Decline of the Buffalo Herds<br />
  19. 19. Roughly 5 million longhorns grazed throughout Texas in 1865<br />Majority were “mavericks”, belonging to the first person to brand them<br />Era of the Cattle Kingdom began during the mid-1860s until the mid-1880s<br />Demand for beef in the North pushed up the price of cattle<br />$3-4 a head in Texas would bring $30-$40 a head in the upper Mississippi Valley<br />The Cattle Kingdom<br />
  20. 20. First “long drive” was in 1866<br />Passed through the Nueces Valley, Austin, Fort Worth, Denison, and finished at the railhead at Sedalia, Missouri<br />Dealers would ship the cattle north for huge profits<br />Problems<br />Bandits and Indians<br />Missourians were problematic<br />Shot cattle<br />Tried to turn herds back south<br />Did anything to keep cattle out of Missouri<br />Preferable rail shipping point became Abilene, Kansas as a result<br />Wide-open plains<br />Allowed Texas cowboys to avoid problems in Missouri<br />Texans reached Abilene via the Chisholm Trail<br />Over 35,000 cattle were driven from Texas to Abilene in 1867<br />Cattle Trails<br />
  21. 21.
  22. 22. Cattlemen in the South Plains and Panhandle made free use of grasslands on the open range<br />Known as “free rangers”<br />Notables: John Chisum, Charles Goodnight, C. C. Slaughter, George Littlefield, and Oliver Loving<br />Free rangers were often ruthless asserting their “range rights”<br />Used violence to drive away intruders<br />Many free rangers obtained legal title to public lands when the government put it on the market<br />Range Rights<br />
  23. 23. Several gigantic ranches emerged out of the need of speculators to legalize claims on the open range<br />Ranches provided labor and shared profits with financial sponsors<br />Notable ranches:<br />JA Ranch (Charles Goodnight)<br />700,000 acres in Palo Duro Canyon<br />Shoe Bar Ranch (Thomas S. Bugbee)<br />450,000 acres in the Panhandle<br />Matador Land and Cattle Company (based out of Scotland)<br />300,000 acres in Motley County<br />Land and Cattle Companies<br />
  24. 24. Largest of the Texas ranches<br />Along the western boundary of the Panhandle<br />Owned by a Chicago syndicate<br />3,050,000 acres in payment for building the new state capitol in Austin (1888)<br />XIT Ranch<br />
  25. 25.
  26. 26. Cattle boom waned in the mid-1880s<br />Long drives were not cost-effective<br />Cattle lost weight on the trail and did not bring premium prices<br />Kansas law prevented cattle from passing through the state<br />Spread of Texas tick fever<br />Land upset the ecological balance<br />Land could only support so many cattle<br />Ranchers routinely overstocked it<br />Freezes and droughts in the mid-1880s devastated the industry<br />Ranchers never recovered<br />Decline of the Cattle Kingdom<br />
  27. 27. Ranchers divided the entire range with barbed wire<br />Careful calculation on how many cattle each pasture could contain<br />Controlled animal breeding<br />New interest in ranching methods<br />Ranchers left a settled region<br />Farmers followed the ranchers<br />Western expansion of railroads gave rise to towns<br />Abilene (TX), Sweetwater, Big Spring, Midland, and Odessa<br />Legacy of the Cattle Kingdom<br />
  28. 28. Industry did not become profitable until the 1870s<br />Areas around the San Antonio River, Rio Grande, and Gulf of Mexico were particularly profitable<br />Supported more than 3.5 million Mexican and Mexican-cross sheep (1885)<br />323,000 goats (1885)<br />Expansion in the Rio Grande plain lead to expansion in West Texas<br />Overall, more than 4,750,000 sheep in Texas (1886)<br />Second to California<br />Sheep and Goat Ranching<br />
  29. 29. Violence picked up after the Civil War<br />The 1870s and early 1880s were particularly violent<br />Vigilante movements<br />90,000 mile triangular expanse<br />Houston (Gulf Coast), Hill County (west of San Antonio), Dallas/Fort Worth (North Texas)<br />Types of Violence<br />Feuds<br />Gunfighting<br />Lynching<br />Whitecapping<br />Cattle/Sheep Rustling<br />Violence and Lawlessness<br />
  30. 30. Known as the longest and bloodiest feud in Texas<br />Occurred in DeWitt County (1867-1876)<br />Identified as a “community feud”<br />Coalition of immediate and distant relatives, sympathizers, and those who had a vested interest in the outcome<br />Notable events<br />Ex-Confederate Doboy Taylor murdered 5 Union soldiers during military rule (1867)<br />Bill Sutton (Union sympathizer) killed 2 members of the Taylor family<br />By 1874, roughly 2,000 men were involved in the dispute<br />Some hired gunslingers were involved<br />By 1876, the Texas Rangers were called in, effectively ending the feud<br />Sutton-Taylor Feud<br />
  31. 31. DeWitt County Courthouse<br />
  32. 32. Most prominent and dangerous gunfighter after the Civil War<br />Killed more men than Billy the Kid, Jesse James, or “Wild Bill” Hickok<br />Killed more than 20 men from 1868-1878<br />Ardent supporter of the Confederate cause<br />Terrorized blacks<br />Terrorized Gov. Davis’ state police<br />Hired gun for the Sutton-Taylor feud<br /> John Wesley Hardin<br />
  33. 33. John Wesley Hardin<br />Hardin’s Grave, El Paso, Texas<br />
  34. 34. Lynching<br />Typically a racially charged form of extralegal justice used to assert white supremacy on black and Mexican Texans<br />Rape and murder were typical charges for lynching<br />Lynching numbers increase after the decline of the Ku Klux Klan in the early 1870s<br />Continued until the mid-1940s in Texas<br />Roughly 500 black lynchings were estimated between 1870 and 1900<br />The number declines around 1890, but picks back up during the Progressive era<br />Anti-lynch laws had little effect<br />Lynching<br />
  35. 35. Has a distinctive connection to the Ku Klux Klan of the 1870s<br />Originally a ritualized form of enforcing community standards, appropriate behavior, and traditional rights<br />Men who abused their wives/children<br />People who were lazy<br />Women who had children out of wedlock<br />Took on a distinct anti-black characteristic in Texas and the South<br />In Central Texas, economic motives were cause for whitecapping incidents<br />Attempting to scare black sharecroppers off of land that whites felt they had a right to work<br />Forms of violence<br />Burning down houses<br />Beating and abusing blacks in front of other blacks<br />Public whipping<br />Non-violent forms of whitecapping<br />Posting signs on blacks’ or merchants’ doors<br />Verbal threats<br />Public humiliation<br />Whitecapping<br />
  36. 36. 1874 – The Texas Rangers replaced Gov. Davis’ state police force<br />Two Units:<br />Special Force (Captain L. H. McNelly, commander)<br />Frontier Battalion (Major John B. Jones, commander)<br />Assignments<br />Collecting taxes<br />Ensuring safety of prisoners from extralegal mobs<br />Maintaining peace during court cases<br />Monitoring elections<br />Mediating labor disputes<br />Enforcing quaruntines<br />Texas Rangers<br />
  37. 37. Major John B. Jones<br />Captain L. H. McNelly<br />
  38. 38. Extreme enforcement<br />Frequently overstepped the laws they were enforcing<br />Ley de fuga(law of flight)<br />Mexican tradition (empowered law enforcement to shoot fleeing prisoners)<br />Became standard practice<br />Entered Mexico illegally numerous times<br />“justifiable homicide” was allowed to thwart particularly violent crimes<br />Beatings and indiscreet shootings to restore order<br />Society consented to the Rangers’ use of excessive force<br />Texas Rangers<br />
  39. 39. San Antonio<br />Center of military installations and point of departure for western exploration<br />Population: 20,000 (1880)<br />Houston<br />Became a huge port city in the late 19th century due to the confluence of railroads<br />Population: 9,000 (1870) / 44,000 (1900)<br />Galveston<br />Another major port city<br />Population: 14,000 (1870)<br />Hit by a devastating hurricane in 1900<br />Texas Cities<br />
  40. 40. San Antonio, Texas, 1905<br />
  41. 41. Houston, Texas, 1905<br />
  42. 42. Galveston, Texas, 1905<br />
  43. 43. Dallas<br />Became a transporation/shipping center for North Texas <br />Attracted many ranchers and farmers<br />Became a hub for financial and cultural activity<br />Fort Worth<br />Became a major city after the cattle boom of the 1870s and 1880s<br />By 1900, it was the 5th largest city in the state<br />Texas Cities<br />
  44. 44. Dallas City Hall, 1906<br />
  45. 45. Fort Worth City Hall, 1908<br />
  46. 46. Minority Communities<br />Texas did not have numerous self-sustaining black communities during this period<br />Did not have business districts and professionals to serve the minority communities<br />Most develop and become fully segregated in the early 20th century<br />Mexicans had fully segregated communities (barrios) in some towns<br />San Antonio and Corpus Christi<br />Small business districts existed, but poverty prevented professionals from sustaining needed services (doctors, lawyers)<br />Texas Cities<br />
  47. 47. Settlers used religious gatherings to escape from general isolation of a society still primarily on the frontier<br />People traveled by horseback or wagon to church houses, schools, or tents where ministers would come preach<br />Circuit riders were common during this period<br />Conservative Protestantism was the most common<br />Baptists and Methodists were the largest denominations<br />Religion<br />
  48. 48. Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)<br />Founded in Paris, Texas (1882)<br />Led to opportunities for women to campaign for prohibition and other political issues<br />Child labor laws<br />Educational opportunities for women and children<br />Women’s suffrage<br />Successfully lobbied the state legislature to found Texas Women’s University<br />Women’s Organizations<br />
  49. 49. Women’s Club Movement<br />Texas Federation of Women’s Clubs (TFWC) founded in Waco<br />Focused on literary studies initially<br />Membership mainly from the middle class<br />Turned to public activism<br />Cultural issues<br />Improving social conditions<br />Enhancing education<br />Promoting child welfare<br />Beautifying municipalities<br />Sanitation issues<br />These become some of the primary issues of the Progressive era<br />Women’s Organizations<br />
  50. 50.
  51. 51. “German Belt”<br />Germans represented the largest ethnicity of immigrants in Texas<br />Primarily located in three areas of Central Texas<br />Population: 30,000 (1860) / 130,000 (1887)<br />Other Groups<br />Slavs (Fayetteville)<br />Czechs (West)<br />Poles (around the San Antonio River and Brazos River)<br />European Immigrants<br />