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Ch 2 Spaniards In A Far Northern Frontera


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Ch 2 Spaniards In A Far Northern Frontera

  1. 1. Chapter Two<br />Spaniards in a Far Northern Frontera<br />
  2. 2. The “5 Gs”<br />Gold, God, Glory, Greed, and Gold<br />This is essentially what the Spanish (and everyone else) was after in North America<br />Rewards were for those who were brave enough to seek it<br />Warriors, sailors, and other ambitious men sought glory while serving the Catholic Church<br />Expanding Imperial control<br />Buffer against French and British <br />Spain’s Motivation for Settlement<br />
  3. 3. Opportunities<br />Acquire land<br />Improve their economic status<br />Cattle and mining industries were promising<br />Escape from oppression<br />Excessive unemployment<br />Natural disasters<br />Excessive taxation (in old Spain)<br />Ethnic prejudice<br />Criminals saw the frontier as a lawless opportunity to engage in smuggling and banditry<br />Spanish Settlers’ Motivations<br />
  4. 4. Few people felt crowded enough to venture to an unknown wilderness<br />Diseases severely reduced New Spain’s population<br />Labor shortages<br />Settled parts of New Spain were hit the most<br />Attempted to retain workers<br />Spanish Crown did not perceive Texas as a top priority<br />No longer served as a defensive outpost<br />Louisiana became more important<br />Lack of regional infrastructure and isolation<br />Hostile Indian tribes threatened settlers<br />Failed expeditions convinced settlers that Texas offered nothing of substantial gain<br />Texas remained one of the least-inhabited territories of New Spain<br />Spanish Settlers’ Problems<br />
  5. 5. Missions in Spanish Texas<br />Everything in the mission was state controlled<br />Responsibility<br />Catholicism was the sole religion<br />Guard the Frontier<br />Christianize the Native Indians<br />Minister to families, soldiers, and government officials<br />Missionization limited<br />Church of San Fernando in San Antonio (1738)<br />Only mission in Texas during the mid-18th century<br />Frontier Institutions<br />
  6. 6. Church of San Fernando, San Antonio<br />
  7. 7. Presidios in Spanish Texas<br />Responsibility<br />Function primarily as a defensive agent<br />Serve as trade centers<br />Attract pioneers seeking security from the wilderness<br />Assist in the missionization process<br />Discipline Indians<br />Help maintain mission Indian labor force<br />Social and economic development<br />Provide work<br />Served as a venue to exchange goods and services<br />Frontier Institutions<br />
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  9. 9. Ranching and Cattle Trade<br />Mid-18th century cattle trade began to expand<br />Missionaries were the first enter the ranching industry<br />It quickly grew out of control and frontier settlers quickly began seizing the mestenos (unclaimed cattle)to establish their own ranches<br />Plains west of San Antonio to the Guadalupe River became known as the “cradle of Texas ranching”<br />Pobladores (ranchers) made a modest living<br />Women in families grew crops for their households<br />Livestock markets connect Texas to neighboring provinces and Louisiana<br />Markets in the United States, Coahuila, and Nuevo Leon<br />Emergence of the capitalist orientation of the Texas economy<br />Frontier Institutions<br />
  10. 10. The emergence of semi-subsistence farming<br />Farming did not take hold of Spanish Texas due to numerous setbacks<br />Tejano’s reliance on ranching and commerce<br />Lack of workers to clear land, dig irrigation ditches, and tend crops<br />Scarcity and difficulties in transporting farm equipment to the frontier<br />Threat of Indian raids on standing crops<br />Absence of accessible markets that might have fostered commercialization<br />Frontier Institutions<br />
  11. 11. Towns<br />Civilian settlements were scarce in the 18th century<br />Nacogdoches – 350 settlers in 1783<br />La Bahia – 450 pobladores in 1783<br />San Antonio – 1,248 settlers in 1783<br />Laredo – 700 settlers in 1789<br />Occupations in towns<br />Artisans, vaqueros, pobladores, day laborers, merchants, bakers, tailors, shoemakers, blacksmiths, and barbers<br />Dwellings were often comprised of materials readily available in the wilderness<br />Urban problems<br />Disease (small pox and cholera) due to lack of sewage facilities and the concentration of rotting animal waste and carcasses<br />Muddy streets brought mosquitos<br />Crime – vagrants, smugglers and prostitutes<br />Lack of access to doctors<br />Possibility of attacks by Comanches or other Plains Tribes<br />Infant mortality rates were very high<br />Frontier Institutions<br />
  12. 12. Culture<br />Corridos (story-telling ballads) <br />Religious holidays observed<br />Fandango (festive dances) and music<br />Horse racing and the carreradel gallo<br />Intellectual life<br />Few books made their way to the frontier<br />Writing was for the literate<br />Government officials, missionaries, and limited amounts of settlers<br />Diaries and journals from the conquistadors and missionaries helped piece together the histories of early Native American tribes<br />Frontier Society<br />
  13. 13. Education<br />Mixed success in bringing teachers in to instruct the young in the 18th century<br />Uncertainty of frontier life<br />Belief in the uselessness of an education on the frontier<br />Lack of books<br />By the early 19th century, some type of rudimentary educational facility was established in all the settlements<br />Communications<br />Texas was connected with Mexico via the Camino Real (King’s Highway); also known as the San Antonio Road<br />Mounted couriers carried mail from New Spain to the Texas settlements<br />Frontier Society<br />
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  15. 15. Non-indigenous population of Texas<br />500 people in 1731<br />3,000 people in the 1770s-1780s<br />4,000 people in 1800<br />Wide range of ethnic identities during the 18th century<br />Mestizaje<br />The process of racial and cultural union involving Europeans, Indians, and Africans<br />Sexual imbalance due to men outnumbering women<br />Soldiers and mestizos (mixed bloods from European/Indian parents) continued to mix with assimilated Indians<br />Especially around the San Antonio area<br />Continued into the 19th century<br />Frontier Society<br />
  16. 16. Wealth as Ethnic Classification<br />1780 census showed that espanoles (Spaniards) made up ½ of the Texas population<br />Misleading because it does not designate undiluted “Spanishness”<br />Served as a all-embracing label that described relative wealth, social and occupational standing, degree of cultural assimilation, and attitudes of the census takers<br />In reality, few true European Spaniards lived in Texas<br />Most belonged to the mestizo category<br />Classification on the frontier<br />Spaniards on the frontier believed that people of darker skin hue and mixed blood could “pass” as Spaniards<br />If they achieved social standing<br />Essentially, economic success could override racial makeup in classification<br />Frontier Society<br />
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  18. 18. Social Classes<br />Classes on the Texas frontier did not mirror those of New Spain’s interior<br />Crillos (American-born Spaniards who inherited their European-born parents’ possession)<br />Mestizos<br />Indians<br />Africans<br />Economic distinctions<br />Government officials and military officials had more secure incomes, but were far from rich<br />Entrepreneurs such as rancheros and farmers comprised the growing capitalist sector<br />Owned better homes and more land<br />These two groups represented the “upper class” of New Spain’s society<br />The “lower class” consisted of common laborers, semi-skilled workers, and Hispanicized Indians<br />Frontier Society<br />
  19. 19. Slavery<br />Roughly 50 blacks in Texas in the latter part of the 18th century<br />Most were not slaves<br />Either free or fugitive blacks<br />They integrated into Spanish society<br />Took on Spanish names<br />Worked as day laborers<br />Some farmers held slaves, but not many<br />Spain’s official policy forbid Africans from congregating in public and owning firearms<br />However, these regulations were not strictly enforced<br />Frontier Society<br />
  20. 20. Tejanas (Women in New Spain)<br />Rigors of frontier life blurred gender discrimination<br />Women fought Indians, helped with ranch and farm chores, performed business functions<br />Women could use the judicial system as either plaintiff or defendant<br />Women were allowed to hold material assets and investments separate from their spouse<br />Problems for women<br />Lack of social mobility<br />Little opportunity for women to establish their own vocations<br />Women could not vote or hold elected office<br />Men could legally prevent their wives from divorcing them<br />Overall, women had more rights in New Spain than women in French or British North American colonies<br />Frontier Society<br />
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  22. 22. Hispanicized Native Americans<br />A great majority of the Texas tribes resisted missionization by Catholic priests<br />Some sought missionization for protection from neighboring tribes<br />The Coahuiltecans ceased to exist after the 18th century due to Spanish displacement and missionization<br />Warfare, disease, and territorial violations decimated many Texas tribes during Spanish occupation<br />Jumanos used missionization as a means to gain military protection from competing tribes<br />Later absorbed by the Apache Nation<br />Karankawas remained defiant until the late 18th century as they attempted to seek refuge from the Comanches and needed a stable food supply during the winter months<br />Caddos retained their homelands until the mid-1850s<br />Successfully traded with the French<br />Indian Accommodation and Resistance<br />
  23. 23. Resistance Among the Plains Tribes<br />Apaches and the Wichitas openly rejected the presence of the Spanish and French<br />Responded with vicious attacks on their settlements<br />Stole livestock, horses, tools, weapons, and supplies<br />Plains Indians had better war strategies for fending off the Europeans<br />Played the Spanish against enemy tribes<br />They did not have villages or a formal military to surrender<br />Treaties meant nothing due to the sheer number of nomadic bands of Plains Indians<br />Indian Accommodation and Resistance<br />
  24. 24. France ceded Louisiana west of the Mississippi River to Spain after losses in the French-Indian Wars with Britain<br />Spain’s new Bourbon king, Carlos III established sweeping reform to streamline colonial administration<br />Jose de Galvez was sent to New Spain to research reforms<br />Marques de Rubi was sent to inspect the military and defenses <br />Reforms<br />Replaced native Mexican lower-level administrators with trusted officers from Spain<br />Lessening military and missionary presence in East Texas<br />Relocation of settlers in East Texas to San Antonio<br />Decisive policies towards Texan Indians<br />Iron-fist policy towards the Apaches<br />Appeasement policy toward the Comanches<br />The Bourbon Reforms<br />
  25. 25. Spanish King Carlos III<br />
  26. 26. Effects of the Reforms<br />Refugees from East Texans requested to return to their homes in East Texas<br />Texas Governor finally gives in and lets them resettle along the Trinity River, near present-day Nacogdoches<br />Teodoro de Croix was charged with the task of Indian pacification<br />Agreed with Rubi that the Apaches were the primary enemies <br />Collusion with the Comanches and Norteno bands would best serve Spain’s purpose to undermine the Apaches<br />Renewed warfare in Spain (Europe at large) left the Spanish frontier with little military resources to pacify the Apaches<br />De Croix was left with the task of using small commissions and cheap gifts to pacify the Apaches<br />It didn’t work<br />The Bourbon Reforms<br />
  27. 27. Secularization of Missions<br />Make the missions less dependant on the government and more dependant on the parishioners<br />All under the assumption that a large majority of Native Americans in Texas were missionized<br />In reality, missionization did little and only a small fraction of Native Americans were true converts<br />Missions were slowly deserted due to several reasons<br />Anti-church sentiment ushered in by the Enlightenment made the intellectual support of missions unfeasible<br />Seemed hypocritical for Spain to continue the fusion of Church and State<br />Economic stability of the province depended on a good market<br />Live stock was the answer<br />Spain saw the taxation potential of treating missionary cattle as private property<br />Native Americans did not convert in the large numbers expected<br />End of the Spanish Era<br />
  28. 28. Military issues<br />Soldiers were not well equipped to deal with increasing Indian raids<br />Highly mobile Comanches and Witchitas attacked farmers, civilian settlements, raided ranches, and began to trade with the United States<br />Presidios were ill-prepared to deal with this growing issue<br />Presido installations were in constant need of repair<br />Under staffed, under equipped<br />Food shortages<br />Lack of uniforms<br />Morale was at an all time low for the Spanish military stationed in New Spain<br />End of the Spanish Era<br />
  29. 29. Imperial intrusion was greatly resented<br />Most of the settlers in New Spain had come to appreciate their semiautonomous relationship with the wilderness<br />They did not appreciate Europe’s interference that did not benefit or acknowledge the struggles they endured<br />King had prohibited international trade and came down especially hard on ranchers<br />Nacogdoches had to continue trading illegally to ensure its survival<br />Rancheros around San Antonio illegally traded with the United States for tobacco and other finished goods<br />In short, legal restrictions on ranchers (the sole means of profit for those in Texas) greatly irritated the settlers<br />Notions of Mexican autonomy began to develop<br />End of the Spanish Era<br />
  30. 30. Mexican Revolutionaries<br />Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla<br />Juan Bautista de lasCasas<br />
  31. 31. Spain’s European wars go sour <br />Spain increases taxation in New Spain due to its financial distress<br />To make matters worse, France’s Napoleon conquers Spain in 1808<br />The Spanish government goes into hiding <br />New Spain establishes juntas (committees) to protect the New World empire until Spanish monarchs could reclaim the throne<br />Revolt against the Spanish Empire<br />Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, a priest from Dolores was exposed as a plotter against the Spanish government<br />Opted to begin a war against Spain’s failed government<br />The revolt echoed throughout New Spain and Texas<br />Juan Bautista de lasCasas took up Hidalgo’s message and rallied up revolutionary support in the San Antonio area<br />Mexican Revolution<br />
  32. 32. Setbacks<br />While lasCasas and Hidalgo did displace some Spanish officials, they were ultimately arrested and sentenced to death for treason<br />Tejanos expressed great sympathy for the independence movement and civil war ultimately followed<br />The United States showed interest in helping the fledgling revolutionaries <br />Gutierrez de Lara worked to successfully claim Texas independence from Spain<br />Series of battles lasting until 1821<br />Battle of Medina River (20 mi. south of San Antonio) – the bloodiest battle ever fought on Texas soil; 1,300 rebel soldiers killed<br />Mexican Revolution<br />
  33. 33. 300 Years of Spanish Rule Ends<br />Few Tejanos mourn its passing<br />A new Mexico looked forward to confronting problems of Indian hostility and economic underdevelopment by:<br />Enticing new settlers<br />Spreading urban settlements<br />the growth of the pastoral industries<br />Hispanic law remained after the Revolution<br />Debtor protection (animals nor agricultural devices could be confiscated)<br />Community property laws (including women&apos;s’ laws) remained<br />The Spanish Legacy<br />
  34. 34. Spanish Cultural Heritage<br />Spanish-Mexican terminology<br />The rodeo<br />Outsiders could still become part of the family unit<br />A new Tejano Culture<br />Obedezcopero no cumplo(I obey but do not comply)<br />Informal community building<br />Traits of ruggedness<br />Norteno culture<br />The will to work, applied to strength and prowess<br />Determination and courage in the face of danger<br />The Spanish Legacy<br />