TX History Ch 11.3


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TX History Ch 11.3

  1. 1. Chapter 11: The Texas Revolution Section 3: The Siege of the Alamo
  2. 2. Bellwork <ul><li>Would you fight a battle in which you knew you would most likely lose? Why or why not? </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Mexican Army Advances <ul><li>Santa Anna decides to personally lead the attacks on Texas </li></ul><ul><li>Feb 1835: Santa Ann reaches the Rio Grande with 6000 forces and heads towards San Antonio </li></ul>General Antonio L ópez de Santa Anna
  4. 4. The Mexican Army Advances <ul><li>Texans unprepared for Mexican advance </li></ul><ul><li>Col. James Neill had just over 100 troops in San Antonio </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Mexican Army Advances <ul><li>Jim Bowie —sent by Houston to the Alamo to evaluate the situation there in Jan 1836 </li></ul>James “Jim” Bowie
  6. 6. The Mexican Army Advances <ul><li>Sam Houston recommends the Alamo be destroyed </li></ul><ul><li>Gov. Smith disagrees noting improvements made to its defenses </li></ul>Statue of Sam Houston
  7. 7. The Mexican Army Advances <ul><li>The Alamo was located along the Old San Antonio Road—one of the two major routes through Texas—it would be one of the first locations Mexicans reached </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Mexican Army Advances <ul><li>Bowie arrives at the Alamo </li></ul><ul><li>Writes a letter saying the fortification is too valuable to abandon: </li></ul>
  9. 9. “ The salvation of Texas depends on keeping Bexar (San Antonio) out of the hands of the enemy…we will rather die in these ditches than give them up to the enemy.” — Jim Bowie
  10. 10. The Mexican Army Advances <ul><li>Gov. Smith orders Col. William B. Travis to gather reinforcements and go to San Antonio </li></ul><ul><li>Travis gathered 30 volunteers </li></ul>William B. Travis
  11. 11. William B. Travis <ul><li>Born 1809 in South Carolina </li></ul><ul><li>1817 family moved to Alabama </li></ul><ul><li>Assistant Teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Lawyer </li></ul>
  12. 12. William B. Travis <ul><li>1828: Married a former student </li></ul><ul><li>Started a newspaper </li></ul><ul><li>Adjutant in state militia </li></ul>Restored Law Office of William B. Travis
  13. 13. William B. Travis <ul><li>1831: Abandoned wife, son, and unborn daughter </li></ul><ul><li>Entered Texas and started a law practice at Anahuac </li></ul><ul><li>Active in War Party politics </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Mexican Army Advances James Bonham & the Mobile Grays from Alabama Davy Crocket led a dozen volunteers from Tennessee
  15. 15. Davy Crockett <ul><li>Born 1786 in TN </li></ul><ul><li>Killed a bear at age 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Often played hooky </li></ul><ul><li>Ran away from home to avoid a beating from his father </li></ul>
  16. 16. Davy Crockett <ul><li>1806: Married Polly Finley </li></ul><ul><li>1813: Joined the TN militia </li></ul><ul><li>1815: wife dies and remarries </li></ul><ul><li>1817: elected Justice of the Peace </li></ul>
  17. 17. Davy Crockett <ul><li>1821: elected to the TN legislature </li></ul><ul><li>1827 & 1829: elected to U.S. Congress </li></ul><ul><li>1831: defeated for re-election </li></ul>
  18. 18. Davy Crockett <ul><li>1833: elected once again to the U.S. Congress </li></ul><ul><li>1835: lost bid for reelection by 252 votes </li></ul><ul><li>“ You may all go to hell and I will go to Texas!” </li></ul>
  19. 19. The Mexican Army Advances <ul><li>Col. Neill leaves the Alamo to care for sick family, puts Travis in command </li></ul><ul><li>Bowie and Travis argue over control and agree to share command </li></ul>
  20. 20. The Siege Begins <ul><li>Built up defenses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Walls built to 12 feet high and 2 feet thick </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Palisades—high fences made of stakes behind which soldiers could fight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>21 cannons placed around the Alamo </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. The Siege Begins <ul><li>Alamo originally a mission, not a fort </li></ul><ul><li>3 acres </li></ul><ul><li>1000 soldiers to properly defend </li></ul>
  22. 22. The Siege Begins <ul><li>Hopes for reinforcements </li></ul><ul><li>Feb 23, 1823: Mexican troops spotted heading towards San Antonio </li></ul><ul><li>Gather supplies and get behind walls </li></ul>
  23. 23. The Siege Begins <ul><li>Santa Ann demands surrender </li></ul><ul><li>Texans reply with a a cannon shot </li></ul><ul><li>Santa Anna raises red flag </li></ul>Flag that flew over the Alamo
  24. 24. The Siege Begins <ul><li>Feb 24: Mexican troops begin to fire </li></ul><ul><li>Travis writes letter </li></ul><ul><li>Day 4: Travis orders troops to stop firing </li></ul>Excerpt from Travis letter
  25. 25. Fall of the Alamo <ul><li>March 1: 32 volunteers arrive from Gonzales </li></ul><ul><li>189 troops inside the Alamo </li></ul><ul><li>Santa Ann had at least 1800 forces </li></ul><ul><li>March 5: Line in the sand </li></ul>
  26. 26. Fall of the Alamo <ul><li>March 6: Texans awakened suddenly: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>shouts from Mexicans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Santa Anna’s army played “El Degüello” </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Fall of the Alamo <ul><li>5:00 am: four columns of Mexican soldiers attack </li></ul><ul><li>Halted by Texas artillery </li></ul><ul><li>Mexican soldiers regroup and overwhelmed the Texans </li></ul>
  28. 28. Fall of the Alamo <ul><li>Mexican soldiers enter the Alamo by the hundreds </li></ul><ul><li>Mexicans capture a cannon </li></ul><ul><li>Hand-to-hand combat follows until almost all defenders killed </li></ul>
  29. 32. Fall of the Alamo <ul><li>At least 182 Texans killed </li></ul><ul><li>At least 8 Tejanos killed at the Alamo while fighting for Texas </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately 600 Mexican casualties </li></ul>
  30. 33. Alamo Cenotaph
  31. 34. Fall of the Alamo <ul><li>Survivors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Susanna Dickinson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ana Salazar Esparza </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slave and a few other noncombatants </li></ul></ul>Susanna Dickinson
  32. 35. Fall of the Alamo <ul><li>Santa Anna believed that after taking the Alamo he had achieved a total victory against Texas. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Remember the Alamo!” </li></ul>