Chapter 17 for blog


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Chapter 17 for blog

  1. 1. Chapter 17The West Transformed 1860-1896
  2. 2. Section 1Mining & Railroads
  3. 3. 1865 Western Frontier  Stretched from Mississippi River to Pacific Ocean  Native Americans, Mexican settlers, & pioneers migrating to California & Oregon  Value of the frontier was underestimated & was often called the American Desert (prior to Civil War)  Railroad builders & miners were among the 1st to transform the West & help make it a part of the Nation’s economy
  4. 4. Boom & Bust Settlement came in a rush  Where gold & silver was found  Towns formed quickly, but did not last long 1849  Gold rush in California excited the nation  Miners spread from California to Nevada, across the Rocky Mts. & to South Dakota
  5. 5. Comstock Lode 1859 (Before the Civil War)  Irish prospectors discovered gold, but Henry Comstock claimed the gold was on his land; became known as the Comstock Lode  Comstock Lode contained blue-tinted mud which made mining the gold difficult  Mud was actually loaded with silver, more valuable than the gold  Became richest silver mine in the world  Next 20 years: produced $300 million worth of silver  Nevada became center of mining
  6. 6. The Boom spreads Valuable ores found in Montana, Idaho, & Colorado Along with gold strike in South Dakota 1890s gold found in Alaska Strikes caused excitement, but few actually got rich  Gold deep underground & difficult to extract Comstock gave up mining & sold mining right for $11,000 & two mules 1880s mining had become a big business
  7. 7. Boomtown Life Tent Cities  Arose near diggings  Hotels, stores, & other wood buildings appeared later  Mining towns grew into boomtowns Merchants  Followed miners with tools, food, & clothing  Items were expensive Women  Had various jobs: opened restaurants, washed clothes, took in boarders, & baked pies
  8. 8.  ½ of miners were foreign-born  Irish, Italian, German, Spanish, & Chinese  Often faced hostility  Chinese: not allowed to claim abandoned mines; often driven out of towns by mobs
  9. 9. Frontier Justice Law & Order hard to find Vigilantes formed: self-appointed law keepers  Hunted bandits & imposed their own justice Sheriffs, marshals, & judges replaced vigilantes as boomtowns grew 1861  Colorado, Dakota, & Nevada organized into territories 1863  Arizona organized into a territory 1864  Montana organized into a territory
  10. 10. The Railroad Boom Race to lay line to boomtowns began Federal Government  Offered subsidies to railroads (grants of land or money)  For every mile of track, gov’t gave the railroad 10 sq. miles of land next to the track  180 million acres altogether  Also received federal funds
  11. 11. Spanning the Continent Transcontinental railroad dream  Rail line that would span across the continent 1862  Leland Stanford: Central Pacific Railroad, won right to build line eastward from Sacramento  Union Pacific Railroad would build west from Omaha Thousands of workers hired  Native born whites, Mexican Americans, African Americans, Chinese, & Irish  Work was hazardous & low paying  Daily progress often measured in inches May 10, 1869  Two lines met at Promontory, Utah
  12. 12. Effects of the Railroads New towns developed in the West  People & supplies poured in  Gold & silver poured out Population growth lead to addition of new states  Nevada, Colorado, North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, Washington, Idaho, & Wyoming
  13. 13. Section 2Native Americans Struggle to Survive
  14. 14. People of the Plains 360,000 Native Americans lived in the West after the Civil War Life in Transition:  Hunted, gathered, raised crops, & fished  Europeans arrival changed their lives  Tamed herds of wild horses (could travel faster & farther) & traded with French & British for guns (could kill more game w/ guns)  Some groups became wanderers & lived in tepees  Followed buffalo herds (buffalo was a source of food, shelter, & clothing)
  15. 15. Division of Labors Women managed village life  Cared for children & prepared food  Carved tools & made tepees  Sometimes they went to war  Wise women sometimes ruled Men  Hunters & warriors  Led religious lives  Sun Dance: 4 day ceremony that brought together thousands of Native American from many nations; men made pledges to the Great Spirit
  16. 16. Broken Treaties U.S. treaties promised to protect Native American lands  Miners & railroad crews as they pushed West broke these treaties Fort Laramie Treaty 1851  10 thousand people from many Plain nations gathered for a “big talk” w/ U.S. officials  Officials wanted: nations to stop following buffalo; would protect their lands “as long as the grass shall grow” if they settled permanently  Settlers soon after began settling on Native Americans land, along with the 1859 gold rush to Pikes Peak in Colorado
  17. 17. Sand Creek Massacre 1860s  Native Americans forced from their land around Pikes Peak  Many warriors resisted & attacked supply trains & homes  Colonel John Chivington  Led 700 volunteers to attack Cheyenne at Sand Creek  Cheyenne were friendly & under army protection; they raised a white flag to signal peace  Chivington ordered men to attack; more than 100 men, women, & children died
  18. 18. Buffalo Soldiers Sand Creek Massacre ignited an era of war African Americans who fought on the Plains for 20 years  Part of the U.S. army  Fought Native Americans & bandits  Started roads & communication lines still found today
  19. 19. End of the Buffalo 1870s  Giant herds of buffalo vital to Native American way of life began to decline  Railroads had hunters kill the animals to feed their crews  Others killed them because the value of the buffalo hides  Hides were removed and rest of animal was left
  20. 20. Last Stand for Custer & the Sioux 1860s  New treaties between U.S. & Native Americans Reservations  Kiowas, Comanche, & Arapahos moved to Oklahoma  Life was terrible; poor soil made farming difficult  Sioux & Cheyenne moved to Black Hills  1874 gold rush flooded area with miners  Sitting Bull & Crazy Horse led attacked to keep whites out
  21. 21. Little Bighorn June 1876  Colonel George Armstrong Custer ordered to force Native Americans onto a reservation  Attacked a large band of Sioux & Cheyenne at Little Bighorn Valley in Montana Territory  Custer & all his men died at the Battle  Crazy Horse & Sitting Bull victory did not last long
  22. 22. Other Efforts at Resistance Nez Perces  Lived in Idaho, Oregon, & Washington  Bred horses & cattle  Many agreed to go to reservations  Chief Joseph fled with a large band in 1877 to Canada  U.S. army pursued them  Nez Perces traveled 1,300 miles in 75 days  Army caught band near Canadas border  Chief Joseph declared as he surrendered, “I shall fight no more forever”
  23. 23.  The Navajos  Raised sheep, horses, & cattle in the Southwest  Some bands raided settlers’ farms for livestock  Army called in for protection  1864  Navajos defeated in Arizona after a series of wars  Were taken on a “Long Walk” to the Pecos River where they suffered years of disease & hunger
  24. 24.  The Apaches  Fierce resistance  Geronimo refused to go to reservation  From Mexico Geronimo & men attacked settlers in Arizona & New Mexico for 10 years  1886  Geronimo was captured & sent to a reservation in Oklahoma
  25. 25. The Ghost Dance 1880s  Native Americans across the Plains began performing a unique dance  Dancers fell into a trance; believed they were talking to ghosts of their ancestors; believed their ancestors & buffalo would return & white people would leave December 1890  Native American police went to a Sioux Village to stop dances  In a struggle to arrest Sitting Bull, police killed him Sioux tried to flee to avoid further violence  Army pursued them to Wounded Knee Creek in SD  Sioux began to give up guns; a shot rang out & army troops opened fire with machine guns and rifles  200 Sioux men, women, & children were killed  30 soldiers died  The Battle of Wounded Knee marked the end of the era of Indian
  26. 26. The Failure of Reform Reformers criticized gov’t for treatment of N.A. Susette La Flesche  Father was Omaha chief  Talked about destruction of Native American culture in lectures & articles Alice Fletcher  Promoted Native American rights  Became agent of U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs
  27. 27. The Dawes Act Passed in 1887 Tried to end Native American’s wandering and turn them into farmers  Received 160 acres to farm Schools were also set up to make Native Americans children more like other children Dawes Act failed  Few took to farming  Land sold cheaply to dishonest whites  Federal agents replaced native leaders  Traditional ways given up, like the buffalo hunt  Many grew dependent on the government for food & supplies
  28. 28. Section 3The Cattle Kingdom
  29. 29. The Rise of the Cattle Industry Wild cattle wandered open range  Called longhorns  Little care needed: prairie grass & watering holes Means & Markets  Stray herds grew from strays lost by Spanish ranchers  American settlers: set up ranches, but didn’t round up stray herds; no means to get them to market  Railroads: provided means to get longhorns to market; demand for beef to feed city dwellers, miners, & soldiers rose
  30. 30. The Long Drives 1860s  Cattle began to be rounded up  Cowhand were hired  Skilled riders who knew how to herd cattle  Moved cattle to rail lines in Kansas, Missouri, & Wyoming (about 1,000 miles away) Cattle Drives  Spring was ideal time  Grass was long & rivers flowed full  Multiple horses used  Allowed for fresh horse each day  Drives lasted 2-3 months  Followed worn trails  Chisholm Trail: San Antonio, TX to Abilene, Kansas  Goodnight Loving Trail: led to rail towns in Wyoming
  31. 31. Life on the Trail Hard & Dangerous Work Cowhands kept herds together as the cattle moved along the trails  Developed nerves of steel  Stampedes could occur without warning  Swift river currents could carry longhorns away  Fought grass fires, pulled cattle from swamps, & cased off thieves Often spent 18 hours in the saddle Earned less that $1 per day
  32. 32. Spanish Roots Cowhands learned herding methods from Spanish & Mexican vaqueros  Riding, roping, & branding  Wore Mexican spurs & leather chaps  Cowboy hat came from Mexican sombrero  Used leather lariat, lasso, to catch cattle and horses  1/3 of western cowhands were Mexican
  33. 33. The Wild West Cattle drives ended at towns along railroad lines  Towns were unruly & developed fantasy of Wild West Cow Towns  1867 Joseph McCoy  Cowboys need place for a bath, good meal, bed, & fun  Cattle needed place to be penned  Founded Abilene, Kansas were Chisholm Trail met Kansas Pacific Railroad  1st cow town: settle at end of cattle trail  Rival cow towns soon developed  Wichita & Dodge City  Dance halls, saloons, hotels, & restaurants served cowboys  Gunfights were rare
  34. 34. The Myth of the West Myths  Spread due to rough-tumble life in cow towns  Filled w/ violence, adventure, & opportunity William “Buffalo Bill” Cody  Former buffalo hunter  Created traveling Wild West show in 1883  Gun-slinging cowboys & Native Americans performed  Sharp shooting & horseback riding  Depicted frontier events (Custer’s Last Stand)  Annie Oakley broke stereotype of woman
  35. 35. Boom and Bust in the CattleKingdom Last from 1860s to 1880s Area of ranches, trails, & cow towns known as cattle kingdom Ranchers profited as herds & markets grew The Cattle Boom:  Buy calf for $5 & sell mature steer for $60  Profits were extremely high, especially with the introduction of new breeds of cattle  Caught fewer diseases & had more meat than longhorns  People from East coast & Europe began investing millions in huge cattle companies
  36. 36. The Boom Ends Mid-1880s  7 million cattle roamed the open range  More than land could feed  1886 & 1887  Scorching summers & frigid winters killed millions of cattle  Economic depression put many city dwellers out of work, & demand for beef dropped  Sheep starting competing with cattle for grasses  Farmers fenced open range to keep cattle away from crops  Ranchers had to buy expensive feed Giant cattle ranches gave way to smaller ones that grew their own feed Railroads brought lines closer to ranches, doing away with long cattle drives
  37. 37. Section 4Farming in the West
  38. 38. Homesteading 1900  ½ million farmers settled the Great Plains Homestead Act  Passed in 1862  Offered 160 acre plot to anyone who resided on land for 5 years  Chance for poor to own farms  Few had money to move west & start a farm  Land companies took over large areas illegally  160 acres not enough to grow crop for profit  1 in 3 homesteaders lasted 5 years
  39. 39. Railroads Promote Farming Railroads gave away some of 180 million acres they got from the government  Recruited people from eastern U.S., Ireland, Germany, & Scandinavia to settle Great Plains  More farms = more shipping
  40. 40. A Hard Life on the Plains Not an easy life  Scare water supply & crops difficult to grow  Farmers struggled to make ends meat Busting Sod  Early settlers cut sod into bricks to build walls for their homes  Kept homes cool in the summer & warm in the winter
  41. 41. New Farming Methods Plows made of wood or iron were not strong enough to break through tough sod 1877  John Deere of Illinois invented a sodbusting plow made of steel Plain farmers, or sodbusters, used drills to plant crops  Buried seeds into the ground where there was moisture Reapers were used to harvest crops & threshers to beat off the hard coverings of the grains
  42. 42.  Windmills used to pump water from hundreds of feet below ground Fences were used to keep cattle away from crops Barb wire was used  1874 Joseph Glidden invented it
  43. 43. Farm Families Whole families worked farms  Men labored from dawn to dusk  Children tended animals & helped with chores  Women kept the house, planted & harvested crops, educated children, nursed the sick, sewed clothing, preserved food, & made basics like candles & soap
  44. 44. Exodusters African Americans streamed onto the plains Became known as exodusters because they believed they were like the Jews fleeing slavery in Egypt Some took up farming, others moved to towns Men often worked as hired hands & women as laundresses
  45. 45. The Spanish Southwest Spanish speaking farmers & sheepherders resided along the border with Mexico, some before the Mexican American War Many of the new railroad lines were built with the help of Mexican immigrants Ricos, Hispanic large landowners  Fought to keep their lands deeded under Spanish or Mexican law
  46. 46. A Last Rush for Land 1880s  Few areas of unsettled land on the Plains remained  Federal Government agreed to open Oklahoma to homesteaders Boomers & Sooners