Ch 3 The Texas Revolution


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Ch 3 The Texas Revolution

  1. 1. Chapter Three
  2. 2.  Anglos • Towns  Number increased from 3 (1821) to 21 (1835)  San Felipe de Austin, Gonzales, Velasco (near Freeport), and Matagorda were the primary towns • Survival  Anglos lived off the land, hunted wild game, fished, planted small gardens, and gathered nuts and berries  Farming only earned the minimum standard of living initially  By the early 1830s, Anglos began to plant cotton and began to make a profit  Slaves and imported technology greatly helped  1834 estimates: 7,000 bales of cotton sent to New Orleans valued at $315,000  This is a great improvement over subsistence farming
  3. 3. Anglos • Education  Numerous schools established in the 1820s and 30s  Patterned schools after those in the Southern U.S.  Private enterprise paid for children’s education  No public schooling during this era  Limitations  Not many instructors  Subpar educational facilities  Colonists who had money typically sent their children to schools in the United States
  4. 4. Anglos • The Press  Started in 1810 with the printing of “La Gaceta de Tejas”, a publication promoting republican ideals to help Mexico liberate itself from Spain  First successful press started in 1829 in Austin’s colony  Godwin Brown Cotton was the proprietor of the Texas Gazette  Started a trend of Anglos producing their own newspapers  Another instance of Anglos distancing themselves from Mexico
  5. 5.  Anglos • Religion  Mexican citizenship required all citizens to observe Christianity (Catholicism)  Very few Anglos actually did this  The Catholic Church had very few priests  Treated Anglos as a second priority  Anglos held illegal church services as a result  Conducted their own civil ceremonies in the 1830s  Father Michael Muldoon was the clergyman for Austin’s colony  He often reported colonists as faithful to Catholicism, but regularly wed couples outside the Catholicism  Anglos were cautious initially, but after 1834, the Mexican government granted them “freedom of conscience”
  6. 6.  Anglos • The Local Militias  These were the first lines of defense for the colonists  Authorized by the Mexican gov’t as alternatives to the standing army  Mexican gov’t could not adequately provide protection for all the settlers  Only Austin’s colony had an efficient and sizable militia  Other colonies failed to establish militias  Which was required by Mexican law  They simply relied on volunteer companies of a very temporary nature  These volunteer companies evolve into an early form of the Texas Rangers by 1835
  7. 7. Blacks (the peculiar institution) • Slavery perpetuates  Anglos bring in slaves under the pretext of contract labor; “perpetual contract labor”  By 1836, 5000 slaves in Texas  Most lived on Anglo plantations along the Brazos, Colorado, and Trinity Rivers  Anglos argued that development of Texas depended on slave labor  Tejanos and liberals agreed  Anglos attempted to recreate slavery as it existed in the Southern U.S.
  8. 8. Blacks (the peculiar institution) • The Slave Condition  Whites attempted to use policy and corporal punishment to control the slave population  Slave attempted to run away when possible  They typically sought refuge among Indian tribes in East Texas or in Mexican settlements in Mexico
  9. 9. Tejanos • Settlements  Descendants of the first Hispanic colonists lived in the ranching areas of Central and South Texas  Others lived in the older cities already established  Population Statistics  San Antonio: 2500 (1835)  Goliad: 700 (1834)  Nacogdoches: 537 (1835)  Victoria: 248 (1830)  Larado: 2000 (1835)
  10. 10. Tejanos • Social Divisions  Opportunities in commerce, ranching, and politics fragmented society  The Elite:  Government bureaucrats  Successful merchants/ranchers  Others from prominent families
  11. 11. Tejanos • Gender Divisions  Similar to liberties and restrictions in Spanish Texas  Rights:  Could sue for military survivors’ benefits  Could buy/sell land  Restrictions:  Could not hold political office or vote  Religion discouraged divorce  Society ostracized women adulterers  However, it turned a blind eye to men adulterers
  12. 12. Tejanos • Education  Was a growing concern in the Tejano community  Tejanos used fund-raisers to support education locally  Laredo and Nacogdoches opened schools in the 1820s  Bexar and Nacogdoches had the highest proportion of students per capita in Texas  However, education declined due to economic conditions and the turmoil of the 1830s
  13. 13. Tejanos • Militias  Primary form of defense for Tejanos  Led by local officials and followed an offensive strategies  Frequently attempted to displace Indians  Very different from Anglo militias  Tejanos had strategy and order  Anglos haphazardly formed militias for retaliatory purposes  By the 1830s, Tejano militias were highly efficient
  14. 14.  Native Americans • Eastern Indians decimated by war and disease  With Spanish missions defunct, the Karankawas lost their last sources of refuge  Karankawas became targets of Anglos who wanted their land  Austin’s colony launched an offensive against them in 1827, pushing them farther south along the coast  During the 1830s, the Karankawas numbered less than 800  They survived by stealing from Anglos and sometimes working for settlers as laborers or domestic servants
  15. 15.  Native Americans • Plains Tribes maintained traditional ways  Comanches, Apaches, and Nortenos still retained their traditional lifeways  Relied on hunting and small-scale fishing for survival  Gender differences  Women gathered food and tended crops  Men (Warriors) sabotaged Anglo settlements to stop whites encroaching on their land and stole livestock  Trading  Plains Indians traded with the Anglos  Indians specifically wanted American-made weapons  Anglos bought livestock and other property that the Indians previously stole
  16. 16.  Native Americans • Decline of the Caddos  Traditionally lived in farming communities  Anglo encroachment:  Provided alcohol to the Caddos; began to destroy their society  Anglo empresarios began to establish colonies in Caddo territory  Survival  Attempted to farm  Also traded beaver, deer, and otter pelts for weapons and household goods in Louisiana  By the late 1820s, the Caddos numbered less than 300 families
  17. 17.  Native Americans • Arrival of the Cherokee  Pressure from Americans in Georgia and Alabama forced Cherokees to migrate to northeastern Texas  Cherokee Chief Bowles located the tribe along the Trinity River  Issues with the Plains Indians forced the Cherokees to move to present-day Van Zandt and Cherokee counties  Around 80 families arrived by the late 1820s  Cherokees farmed, raised livestock, and traded with settlers in Nacogdoches  Chief Bowles attempted to acquire legal titles to their land from the Mexican government  They never received it
  18. 18. Cherokee Chief Bowles (Duwali)
  19. 19.  Centralists back in power • Santa Anna returns from retirement in 1834  Removes the acting President of Mexico  Vice President Valentin Gomez Farias  Santa Anna left Farias in charge, but felt he was way too liberal  Farias was forced to flee to the United States  Comes back to power with a Centralist agenda • Santa Anna abolishes the Federalist Constitution of 1824  Holds election of a new congress ran by Centralists  Turns all former states into military departments • Liberals denounce his new regime  Several revolts occur  Santa Anna’s military crushes opposition unmercifully
  20. 20. Santa Anna Farias
  21. 21. Centralists back in power • Liberal Response  Attempt to raise money to oppose the Centralists in 1835  Two laws are passed to sell 400 leagues of public land to raise money to oppose Santa Anna • Texan Response  Many disapproved of investors acquiring real estate simply for profit  Centralists feared that the investors would raise a militia to oppose Santa Anna’s gov’t
  22. 22.  Travis’ Anahuac raid • William B. Travis leads a raid on Anahuac after getting news that Mexico was preparing to send troops into Texas • Forces the surrender of 44 Mexican troops • Reasons for invading  Immediate cause: Travis had issues with import tariffs that left many unable to pay for needed goods  Social cause: Travis, a member of the War Party, felt that the Anahuac raid would rally people to support Texas independence from Mexico • Response:  Some responded favorably to Travis’ actions  However, committees of correspondence were still divided about Texas independence (sounds a lot like the Second Continental Congress)  Most in Texas were still waiting for Mexico’s response before making a decision
  23. 23. Mexico’s Response • Many Centralist political and military leaders saw Travis’ raid as clear indication of a Texan revolt  The local Anahuac gov’t refused to arrest Travis • Liberal Mexican leaders go into hiding  Lorenzo de Zavala, now a prominent Federalist fled to Texas  To escape arrest by the Centralist regime  Wanted to be close to his East Texas land possessions
  24. 24.  Relations unravel • Committees of correspondence  August 1835 – communities call meetings to decide whether to work with the Mexican gov’t or openly rebel  September 1835 – Stephen F. Austin arrives in Texas, recently released from prison  Threw his support behind the War Party and separation from Mexico • General Cos arrives  20 September 1835 – Cos and troops land at Copano Bay  March to Goliad and reinforce it  Continue marching to Bexar  Rumors circulate that Cos and Centralist forces intend to free slaves, oppress Texans, and lay waste to the region
  25. 25.  Battle of Gonzales • 30 September 1835 – Mexican Lieutenant Castanada arrives at Gonzales to take a cannon the Mexicans loaned the settlers to fight Indians • Castanada feared crossing the Guadalupe River would cause a conflict  Attempted to negotiate by shouting across the river  Finally gave up as Texans refused to comply and left • 2 October 1835 – Texans fire on Centralist troops with the cannon in question; a small skirmish ensues • Texans drape a flag stating, “COME AND TAKE IT!” on the cannon • Mexican forces do not fare well; Texans call for Mexican surrender  Castanada is forced to retreat • The incident becomes largely perceived as the “Lexington of Texas” by Americans • One week later, the Texans take Goliad and obtain a large cache of military supplies
  26. 26. Texans Capture San Antonio • Late Oct. 1835 -- Austin and Texan volunteers move into San Antonio  Quarantine the city which was under the control of General Cos (800 to 1200 troops) • 5 December 1835 – Ben Milam and Edward Burleson lead 550 men on a surprise attack  Milam dies during the battle • 11 December 1835 – Cos’ army is defeated  They were cut off from supplies and reinforcements  Cos retreats to Mexico and promises to honor the Constitution of 1824
  27. 27. Edward Burleson Benjamin Milam
  28. 28.  Consultation of 1835 • 3-14 November 1835 -- 58 delegates from 12 Texas communities met at San Felipe de Austin • Branch T. Archer elected president of the Consultation • Sam Houston elected as Commander of the Regular Army • Declared commitment to federalism (based on the Constitution of 1824)  Wanted to win support from Mexican liberals and assistance from the U.S. • Texans affirmed the need for Texas’ independence • Consultation empowered the new gov’t to seek financing for the expected war
  29. 29. Samuel Houston Branch T. Archer
  30. 30.  Mexican Army Moves into Texas • February 1836 – Mexico hastily recruits soldiers for the impeding conflict  Lowe classes, political opponents of Santa Anna, and 300 Mayan Indians recruited • March1836 – Santa Anna and General Jose Urrea move their armies toward Texas  Santa Anna moves toward San Antonio  Urrea moves toward GoliadJose de Urrea
  31. 31.  Texas Military Issues • Officers had issues maintaining order and discipline • Enlisted men showed more respect for immediate, local leaders  Did not follow chain of command • Army was primarily volunteers  Fought when needed, but left to care for their families and property after a crisis ended  Texas Government Issues • Problems in the military echoed problems in gov’t • Individualistic Texans could not agree on the best course of action for independence  Some still felt sympathy for Mexico  Some did not know whether to join the War or Peace Parties  Some argued land claims were the paramount issue
  32. 32. Felix Huston, Brigadier General Fatigues Texas Army Uniform, Fall 1836, variant 2 Texas Army Uniform, Fall 1836, variant 1
  33. 33.  Texas Declaration of Independence • 1 March 1836 – Delegates met to declare independence, adopt a new gov’t, and constitution • Grievances in the Declaration  Santa Anna had overthrown the Constitution of 1824, substituted it with tyranny  Mexican gov’t subjugated Texas to Coahuila and Texas did not have a voice in gov’t  Denied Texans a right to a trial by jury  Denied Texans the right to religious freedom  Denied Texans the right to bear arms  Mexican failed to establish a system of education for Texans • The Declaration went further to denounce Santa Anna for using military justice to supplement civilian justice
  34. 34. Causes of the War • Traditional Interpretation – the Texas rebellion was a courageous act of liberty-loving Texans against an intolerant and undemocratic Mexican gov’t • Constitutional Interpretation – the Texas rebellion was primarily a constitutional conflict against the Centralist Party, which consistently followed a discriminatory policy against the Texans  Revoking the Constitution of 1824 meant war
  35. 35.  Causes of the War • Economic Interpretation – “land-trafficking thesis”; influential men moved to Texas to turn a profit on land transactions  When Mexico moved against Texas in 1835, those men threw their support behind the rebellion to maintain and preserve their land interests • Economics/Federalism thesis – war was started to preserve long-standing political values and recent economic achievements  Federalism fostered immigration, political liberty, slavery, and economic progress  Santa Anna’s Centralist gov’t threatened Texas’ notion of gov’t by the people and individualist entrepreneurship  Thus, the rebellion intended to protect individual liberty, slavery, and agricultural advances Anglos made in Texas
  36. 36. Causes of the War • Inferiority Thesis  Anglos refused to assimilate or conform to Mexican rules, customs, and Catholicism  Relatively isolated, the Texans attempted to govern themselves  They refused to pay duties, objected to troop increases in the Mexican army (designed to make Texans respect Mexico’s laws)  Ethnocentrism (racism) was the cause of the conflict  Texans viewed Mexicans as a politically and culturally inferior people living under a broken gov’t
  37. 37. Causes of the War • Inferiority Thesis  Anglos arrived in Texas conditioned to think negatively of Mexican people  Mexicans’ darker skin and Catholicism set off U.S. Anglos’ views that they were biologically inferior and culturally flawed  Anglos were conditioned to believe in the U.S. interpretation of “Manifest Destiny”  Their job was to “rescue” the underdeveloped region from a backward people and an instable government  Basically, the goal was to make Texas a state in the U.S. as quick as possible
  38. 38. Causes of the War • War and Racism thesis  Racism was not an issue until the war started  People lived so removed that contact between Anglos and Tejanos coexisted fairly well; had the same economic and political goals  The war itself spurred anti-Mexican prejudice  The conflict made Anglos view Mexicans as decadent, brutal, and subhuman. (Santa Anna certainly did not help correct this)  Prejudice evolved from a need to justify the conflict and domination over Tejanos
  39. 39. Fall of the Alamo • Mexican Forces: Santa Anna (18,000) • Texan Forces: William B. Travis (182 to 189) • 23 February 1836 – Santa Anna arrives in San Antonio to find the Alamo fortified by Texan forces  He begins to lay siege for a final assault • 6 March 1836 – around 0500, 1800 of Santa Anna’s troops begin moving toward the Alamo  The deguello, a bugle call signaling “no quarter” is sounded
  40. 40.  The Alamo • Texans were armed with 21 artillery pieces and a team of expert marksmen led by volunteer Davy Crockett • Texans repelled the first wave of Mexican troops that attempted to breach the walls • Within 10 minutes, Santa Anna was forced to commit his reserves as Texans continued to fend off Mexican forces
  41. 41.  Fall of the Alamo • Mexican reserves finally overtook the Alamo and Texan volunteers were forced to fall back inside the compound • The battle ended within 20 minutes • Mexicans continued to slaughter Texan survivors for another hour after the battle ended • Santa Anna gave orders to spare no one’s life, but several from the Alamo survived • Susannah Dickinson, her child, and a black slave belonging to Travis survived
  42. 42. Fall of the Alamo • Within minutes of the battle’s end, Santa Anna captured and executed 6 or 7 Texas volunteers  Among them was Davy Crockett • Overall, Santa Anna lost 500 to 600 men in the siege • At least 180 Texans were killed
  43. 43.  The Goliad Massacre • Mexican Forces: Urrea • Texan Forces: James W. Fannin • Urrea was advancing toward Goliad from Matamoras  His army had already met resistance at San Patricio, Agua Dulce, and Refugio • 19 March 1836 – Fannin decided to abandon the garrison at Goliad and move his army toward Victoria  Lack of supplies at Goliad made for a bad defense James W. Fannin
  44. 44.  The Goliad Massacre • As Fannin and his army retreated, they were intercepted by Urrea at Coleto Creek • 20 March 1836 – Fannin was forced to surrender. Urrea marched the Texan army back to Goliad • Urrea sends a request to Santa Anna for clemency for the Texas prisoners  Santa Anna responds with an execution order • 27 March 1836 – Urrea’s men executed 340 Texas  Fannin was forced to watch his men executed and was the last to die  30 Texans managed to escape  The bodies were stacked and burned
  45. 45. Texan Response to the Alamo and Goliad • Old allegiances to immediate leaders were dissolved • Sam Houston received a greater deal of respect and unity of command was acknowledged • Houston was training troops in mid-March 1836, began to move away from Santa Anna’s army • Troops began to rally around the Texan cause  “Remember the Alamo” and “Remember Goliad” became common themes
  46. 46. The “Runaway Scrape” • Anglos and Tejanos began a mass exodus from their homes and property in Central Texas  Taking only what they could easily carry and limited amounts of livestock • They headed toward the Texas-Louisiana border seeking refuge • Cold weather, floods, and mud intensified the refugees’ hardship as they attempted to stay ahead of the Mexican army
  47. 47. The Battle of San Jacinto • Mexican Forces: Santa Anna (1,360) • Texan Forces: Sam Houston (910) • 20 April 1836 – Santa Anna caught up with Sam Houston’s forces at the San Jacinto River  Santa Anna effectively boxed in Texan forces, but was shut off on 3 sides by Texans  The San Jacinto was on Santa Anna’s right and was surrounded by swampy terrain behind him  Orderly retreat for Santa Anna was almost impossible
  48. 48.  The Battle of San Jacinto • 21 April 1836 – 1530 to 1600, Houston and Tejano forces led by Juan Seguin attacked Santa Anna’s army • Within 18 minutes, Houston’s men had full control of Santa Anna’s camp  The Mexican army became disorganized and lost ground  Texans chased them as they fled into the river and swamp, killing any Mexican soldier they could find • During the battle, Texans rallied behind the battle cries, “Remember the Alamo” and “Remember Goliad”
  49. 49. The Battle of San Jacinto • Texans killed Santa Anna’s men until nightfall • Mexican casualties: 630 dead, 208 wounded, 730 prisoners • Texan casualties: 8-9 injured, 17-30 injured • Santa Anna was forced to surrender
  50. 50.  Treaties of Velasco • 22 April 1836 – Santa Anna was captured by Sam Houston’s army  Began negotiating an agreement to spare Santa Anna’s life in exchange for Mexican retreat from Texas • 14 May 1836 – Santa Anna signs the Treaties of Velasco  Acknowledging Texas’ independence from Mexico  Vowed to remove all Mexican forces from Texas  Accepted Texas’ boundary at the Rio Grande River  Promised to ensure Mexico’s recognition of Texas • Mexico refused to accept the Treaties  However, they did not have the means to wage another offensive • Texas independence had been won