Ch 11 Slavery In The Old South


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Ch 11 Slavery In The Old South

  1. 1. <ul><li>1820-1850 </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>Social Classes in the Old South </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plain Folk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Planter Class </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proslavery Arguments </li></ul><ul><li>Slavery and the Law </li></ul><ul><li>Slave Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Slave Resistance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nat Turner’s Rebellion </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Major Crops of the South, 1860 </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Industry in the Old South </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Three out of four white southerners did not own slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Living conditions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lived on self-sufficient farms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Isolated areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A large majority were poorly educated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A large majority supported slavery and the planter elite </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional loyalty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Racism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kinship ties </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some of the poorer class dissented </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Andrew Johnson and Joseph Brown </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spoke out against the planter elite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saw the differences in class/economics and were angry </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Typical Poor Family in the South </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Less than ¼ of the population in the South fell into this category </li></ul><ul><li>Majority of the slave-holding families owned 5 or less slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Less than 2,000 families owned 100 slaves or more </li></ul><ul><li>Ownership of slaves provided: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wealth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Slavery was a profit-making system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cotton was the primary economic system in the South </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Invested in infrastructure and managed their plantations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plantation mistresses cared for sick slaves, oversaw domestic servants, and supervised the plantation while the master was away </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Slave owners spent the majority of their money on material goods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rise of consumerism in the Old South </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Affluent Family in the Old South </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Slave owners were committed to a hierarchal, agrarian society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The agrarian society of Jefferson </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Paternalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The male is the head of the household and the ultimate master of the plantation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Became ingrained in slave society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enabled slave owners to think of themselves as kind and responsible masters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ironic as they bought and sold human property while believing slaves were less than human </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Code of Honor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Men frequently dueled each other to defend their reputation, reputation of their wives, and family’s honor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Women were greatly limited in the Old South due to the prevalence of this paternalist ethos </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Depicting the Paternalist Ideal of the Old South </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Average Number of Slaves per Household, 1860 </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Slave Population as of 1860 </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Between 1820 and 1860, fewer Southerners believed that slavery was a necessary evil that had to be tolerated </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons for this shift in mentality: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commitment to white supremacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biblical sanction of slavery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Historical precedent that indicated that slavery was essential to human progress </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most importantly, Southerners believed that the institution of slavery guaranteed equality for whites in the South </li></ul><ul><li>Slavery in context with Liberty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>White southerners believed themselves the true heirs of the American Revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Southern preachers argued that the submission of inferior (blacks) to superior (whites) was a “fundamental law” </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Notice of Sale for Slaves </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>How does the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution factor into pro-slavery arguments? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Southerners began to believe that equality and freedom spelled out in these two documents were not truly universal entitlements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The vagueness of the Founding Fathers coming back again to cause confusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>John C. Calhoun believed that the interpretation abolitionists were using with these two documents was dangerous to the institution of slavery and the South in general. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>George Fitzhugh’s view </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ universal liberty” was the exception, not the rule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed that slaves were the “happiest and freest” people in the world because they did not have financial burdens </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proslavery arguments after 1830 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Southerners defended slavery in terms of their own liberty and freedom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Without slavery, freedom for white southerners was not possible </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Bottom Line: Slaves were property and had little to no legal rights </li></ul><ul><li>What slaves could not do: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Testify against a white person </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carry a fire arm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn how to read or write </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leave the plantation without permission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gather in a group without a white person present </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Get married without permission of their master </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spend free time without permission of their master </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resist sexual assault </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How masters enforced laws </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whipping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exploiting social divisions among slaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incentives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Threat of sale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual exploitation </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Engraving of Slave Punishment </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Living Conditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>American slaves were better treated than slaves in the West Indies and Brazil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Better diets, lower infant mortality, and longer life expectancies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The paternalistic ethos in the South contributed to this </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lower rates of deaths attributed to malaria and yellow fever </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High costs of slaves </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These better conditions were made to strengthen slavery </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Labor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occupied the majority of a slave’s daily experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Types of jobs: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cutting wood </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Working in mines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Working on docks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Laying railroad track </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Planting/working in fields </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Repairing bridges/roads </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Skilled artisans </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Families </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marriage was illegal, but many slaves married and created families </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Masters often sanctioned marriages between slaves </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slave families often continued their lineage by naming their children after relatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slave community often had a significantly higher number of female-headed households </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Selling of Slaves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10% of the teenage slaves in the Upper South were sold in the interstate slave trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slave traders did not care about family ties </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional gender roles did not matter in the workplace; everyone worked equally in the fields </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slave attempted to fall back on traditional gender roles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family was vital to passing traditions and culture from parent to child </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Slave Woman in the Field </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Black Christianity was distinctive from Christianity observed by whites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offered slaves hope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Almost every plantation had its own black preacher </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Worshipped in biracial churches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free blacks often established their own churches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Masters saw Christianity as another means of social control on slaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attend services conducted by white ministers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Desire for Liberty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slave culture rested on a sense of the injustice of bondage and desire for freedom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Folklore gloried the weak over the strong </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The great majority of slaves realized the injustice of slavery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saw the Founding Documents (Declaration of Independence and Constitution) as hypocritical </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Forms of resistance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Breaking of tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feigning illness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doing poor work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poisoning the master </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Armed assault </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Running away </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fugitive Slaves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically, 1,000 slaves escaped a year (mostly from the Upper South) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slaves escaping in the Deep South often went to large cities to blend with the free black population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slaves who escaped typically followed the North Star </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Underground Railroad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Loose organization of abolitionists who helped slaves escape </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Harriet Tubman – escaped slave who made 20 trips to Maryland, leading slaves to freedom </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Newspaper Ad for the Return of an Runaway Slave </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>1811 – Louisiana experienced an uprising on sugar plantations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slaves marched toward New Orleans before being captured by the militia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1822 – Denmark Vesey </li></ul><ul><ul><li>African-American slave brought from the Caribbean to South Carolina </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious, believed the Bible condemned slavery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed the Declaration of Independence was hypocritical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planned a slave revolt that was to take place on 14 July 1822 (Bastille Day) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Was caught and executed before the plan could take place </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>1831 – Nat Turner, a slave organized a revolt in Virginia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marched through Southampton County attacking white farmers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>80 slaves joined Turner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>60 whites were killed before the militia put down the rebellion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Last large-scale rebellion in the South </li></ul><ul><li>The rebellion greatly shocked white Southerners </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Virginia discussed emancipating their slaves; failed to get enough votes in the House </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Instead of freeing their slaves, Virginia created new laws to severely limit their slaves </li></ul><ul><li>This rebellion marks a turning point in which the Old South becomes determined to defend slavery at all costs </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Engraving of Nat Turner’s Rebellion </li></ul>