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Ch 14 The Civil War

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Ch 14 The Civil War

  1. 1. The Civil War<br />1861 - 1865<br />
  2. 2. Bombing of Fort Sumter (15 April 1861)<br />
  3. 3. Beginning of the Conflict (1861)<br />Fort Sumter<br /><ul><li>15 April 1861
  4. 4. Four years to the day of Lincoln’s assassination
  5. 5. Shelling was conducted by Southern belligerents upset at the possibility of Lincoln being an anti-slavery president
  6. 6. Lincoln demands the shelling stops
  7. 7. Commands them to disband immediately
  8. 8. Known to Southerners as the beginning of “Lincoln’s Aggression”
  9. 9. The South began to systematically secede from the Union because of Lincoln’s perceived ‘aggression’.
  10. 10. Waco’s own Felix H. Robertson (CSA) was present and helped the shelling</li></ul>Border States Remain in the Union<br /><ul><li>Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland Delaware, and later West Virginia stay in the Union despite being slave states
  11. 11. West Virginia calls for gradual abolition and remains loyal to the Union throughout the conflict
  12. 12. Some stay because of Lincoln’s suspension of habeas corpus
  13. 13. Lincoln suspends it in cases involving Southern supporters
  14. 14. Becomes too risky to support the South if you were close to Washington D.C. </li></li></ul><li>Fort Sumter (1865)<br />
  15. 15. Lincoln’s First Moves (1861-1862)<br />Expanding Constitutional Powers<br /><ul><li>Suspension of habeas corpus
  16. 16. Increased size of military and navy without Congressional approval
  17. 17. Blockade of Southern ports
  18. 18. Instructs the Treasury Dept. to pay two secret agents $2 million to secure extra supplies
  19. 19. Reasoning:
  20. 20. “By general law, life and limb must be protected, yet often a limb must be amputated to save a life; but a life is never wisely given to save a limb.”
  21. 21. What does Lincoln mean by this?
  22. 22. It makes no sense to follow the Constitution letter by letter if the ultimate purpose of the Constitution – preserving the Union was under attack.
  23. 23. Congress validates most of Lincoln’s actions because of this rationale</li></li></ul><li>Military Planning (1862-1863)<br />Northern Military Planning<br /><ul><li>The “Anaconda Plan”
  24. 24. Suffocate the South from all sides and let it die by occupying a majority of the enemy territory
  25. 25. Advocated by General-in-Chief Winfield Scott
  26. 26. Called for a blockade on all Southern ports
  27. 27. Advance down the Mississippi River to cut the South into two pieces
  28. 28. This was a fairly passive military strategy
  29. 29. Scott takes on this approach partially due to Lincoln’s push for a blockade
  30. 30. The plan’s failure
  31. 31. No U.S. Navy ships could navigate the Mississippi the way Scott believed
  32. 32. The strategy was too short-sighted; Scott believed that the South would easily give up
  33. 33. Scott gives up his post and his plan to George B. McClellan</li></ul>Southern Military Strategy<br /><ul><li>Thought the war would be primarily defensive
  34. 34. General Robert E. Lee believed and advocated for this initially</li></li></ul><li>
  35. 35. Battle of Shiloh (6-7 April 1862)<br />
  36. 36. Battle of Shiloh (1862)<br />Time, Location, and Opposing Generals<br /><ul><li>6-7 April 1862
  37. 37. Hardin County, Tennessee (southwestern)
  38. 38. Union: Ulysses S. Grant and Don Carlos Buell
  39. 39. Confederate: Albert Sidney Johnston and P. G. T. Beauregard
  40. 40. Bloodiest battle in the war (up to 1862)
  41. 41. 24,000 casualties
  42. 42. More than the American Revolution, War of 1812, and Mexican War combined</li></ul>Ulysses S. Grant (Union)<br />
  43. 43. Battle of Shiloh (1862)<br />Why is it important?<br /><ul><li>Johnston was killed during the battle
  44. 44. Easily one of the best mid-level CSA officers
  45. 45. Begins a trend of mid-level CSA officer casualties that the CSA cannot easily replace and does not recover from
  46. 46. Grant’s command is questioned
  47. 47. Thought to be drunk during the battle
  48. 48. Accused of not planning for a defensive position in the first day of the battle
  49. 49. A regiment got bayoneted in their tents asleep; this makes for big news headlines
  50. 50. Felix H. Robertson was present and commanded a small detachment of artillery (beginning to move up in rank)</li></ul>Albert Sidney Johnston (C.S.A.)<br />
  51. 51. Bloody Pond, Battle of Shiloh<br />
  52. 52. Shiloh National Cemetery<br />
  53. 53. Battle of Antietam (17 September 1862)<br />
  54. 54. Battle of Antietam (1862)<br />Time, Location, and Opposing Generals<br /><ul><li>17 September 1862
  55. 55. Sharpsburg, Maryland (Maryland Campaign)
  56. 56. Union: George B. McClelland
  57. 57. Confederate: Robert E. Lee
  58. 58. Bloodiest single-day battle in American history
  59. 59. 23,000 casualties
  60. 60. 1st major battle on Union soil
  61. 61. Lee attempts to push the CSA into Union territory</li></ul>McClelland Gets Recalled<br /><ul><li>He is too cautious, lacks organization, planning skills, and is petrified to put his soldiers in harm’s way
  62. 62. 1/3 of the Union army never fired a shot
  63. 63. After a CSA retreat, McClelland does not pursue Lee and easily squanders a chance for a decisive Union victory
  64. 64. Lincoln recalls McClelland and replaces him of his command
  65. 65. “If you won’t use the army, could I borrow it for a time?”
  66. 66. Technically, the battle was a tactical victory for the North
  67. 67. Greatly injures CSA morale for the rest of 1862 </li></li></ul><li> McClelland Lee<br />
  68. 68. “Bloody Lane” -- 5600 casualties over an 800 yard stretch of road<br />
  69. 69. “Bloody Lane” (2005)<br />
  70. 70. Emancipation (1863)<br />The Emancipation Proclamation<br /><ul><li>Lincoln issues it shortly after the Union “victory” at Antietam
  71. 71. This plan took two years to formulate as Lincoln stalls on the issue numerous times
  72. 72. Still sees slaves as property
  73. 73. Historian ManishaSinha contends Lincoln issued it due to pressure from the black and abolitionist communities; somewhat unsubstantiated
  74. 74. Radical white Northerners thought seizing land from slave owners was the proper way to deal with the slavery issue</li></ul>What did it do?<br /><ul><li>Granted freedom to slaves in territories under CSA control
  75. 75. Some parts of Louisiana, West Virginia, and other border states were not included due to their precarious status with the Union (didn’t want them to secede)
  76. 76. Causes great fear in the South
  77. 77. Slaves running free to revolt against their masters
  78. 78. Southerners still remembering slave revolts</li></li></ul><li>Hard War (1863-1865)<br />Lincoln Reevaluates His Strategy<br /><ul><li>The Emancipation Proclamation causes a shift in Lincoln’s mentality to the notion of “hard war”
  79. 79. “Hard War” – increasing the pressures of war on the South, especially on civilians
  80. 80. Historian Mark Grimsley uses this term instead of “total war”
  81. 81. Not enough evidence to establish the Civil War as a “total war”
  82. 82. W.T. Sherman’s “March to the Sea”, the Atlanta Campaign, and “Scorched earth” policies are prime indicators of hard war</li></ul>Sherman’s March to the Sea<br /><ul><li>Goal was to cut the South into thirds as he marched to the East Coast
  83. 83. Was a reaction to increasing guerilla tactics perpetrated by the CSA in the Western Theater</li></ul>William T. Sherman (Union)<br />
  84. 84. Battle of Galveston (1 January 1863)<br />
  85. 85. Battle of Galveston (1864)<br />Time, Location, and Opposing Leaders<br /><ul><li>1 January 1863
  86. 86. Galveston, Texas
  87. 87. Union: William B. Renshaw
  88. 88. Confederate: John B. Magruder</li></ul>Significance<br /><ul><li>One of the best naval firefights of the war
  89. 89. CSA regained control of Galveston and kept it through the rest of the war
  90. 90. Union navy accidentally blew up their own ship
  91. 91. Go back to sea in defeat</li></li></ul><li>Battle of Vicksburg (May – July 1863)<br />
  92. 92. Battle of Vicksburg (May – July 1863)<br />Time, Location, and Opposing Generals<br /><ul><li>25 May – 4 July 1863 (40 day siege)
  93. 93. Vicksburg, Mississippi
  94. 94. Union: Ulysses S. Grant
  95. 95. Confederate: John Pemberton</li></ul>Significance<br /><ul><li>Union wins at Vicksburg and Gettysburg
  96. 96. Spells a major defeat for the CSA
  97. 97. Cuts CSA’s communication with the Trans-Mississippi Dept.
  98. 98. Splits the CSA into two
  99. 99. Union now had control of the Mississippi River and access to Texas
  100. 100. Pemberton surrenders on 4 July 1863
  101. 101. Vicksburg does not celebrate the Forth of July until the late 1940s
  102. 102. The CSA slowly begins the descent to total defeat after Vicksburg </li></li></ul><li>The Gettysburg Address<br />Theme: The Nation<br /><ul><li>Traces the American experience from past to future
  103. 103. Uses the founding of the nation in 1776 and the signing of Declaration of Independence to highlight “all men are created equal”
  104. 104. Lincoln never demonizes the South during the address
  105. 105. The North and the South share the responsibility and burden of the war
  106. 106. Total length of the speech: 3 minutes; 272 words
  107. 107. “the nation will have a new birth of freedom”
  108. 108. “…soldiers will not have died in vain”</li></li></ul><li>Ex Parte Milligan ( October 1864)<br />Can the President Claim Emergency Powers?<br /><ul><li>Beyond those claimed in the Constitution?</li></ul>The immediate answer is: yes.<br /><ul><li>The case of Lambdin P. Milligan
  109. 109. Arrested in Indiana for charges of conspiracy to aide CSA prisoners in escaping and rejoining the CSA army
  110. 110. Tried by a military commission because Lincoln had placed Indiana under martial law
  111. 111. Milligan was found guilty and sentenced to death
  112. 112. Ex Parte Milligan
  113. 113. Supreme Court ruled in favor of Milligan’s claim that the military commission had no right to try him
  114. 114. Because the regular courts were still functioning (even during war)
  115. 115. The big idea is….</li></ul>Even during times of war, if regular courts still function, the government cannot impose military trials on civilians<br />
  116. 116. Interpretations of Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address (1864)<br />War as Punishment<br /><ul><li>“The Almighty has his own purposes”
  117. 117. Matthew: “woe unto the world because of offenses”
  118. 118. Possibly the most terrifying thing a president has ever said:
  119. 119. “If God wills that this war continue until all the wealth piled by the bondman’s two hundred and fifty years of unrequited toil shall be sunk, and until every drop of blood drawn with the lash shall be paid by another drawn with the sword…so still it must be said ‘the judgments of the Lord, are true and righteous altogether’.”
  120. 120. All are guilty
  121. 121. Everyone’s hands are stained with the blood of centuries of slavery
  122. 122. Where do we go from here?</li></ul>The American people must act as agents of God’s grace and mercy<br /><ul><li>“malice towards none”
  123. 123. “charity for all”</li></li></ul><li>The Saltville Massacre (1-3 October 1864)<br />
  124. 124. The Saltville Massacre (October 1864)<br />Time, Location, and Opposing Leaders<br /><ul><li>1 – 3 October 1864
  125. 125. Saltville, Virginia
  126. 126. Union: Stephen G. Burbridge
  127. 127. Confederate: Felix H. Robertson</li></ul>Significance<br /><ul><li>Union attempts to seize Saltville (due to natural salt mines); wanted to cut off more CSA supplies
  128. 128. 5th U.S. Colored Cavalry fought bravely during the battle and sustained many casualties
  129. 129. The “Massacre” occurred after the battle as mercenary Champ Ferguson’s posse killed most of the wounded black Union soldiers
  130. 130. Some affiliated with Felix H. Robertson’s unit joined in
  131. 131. Clearly a war crimes issue</li></li></ul><li>The Saltville Massacre (October 1864)<br />Felix H. Robertson<br /><ul><li>Youngest major (and later General) in the CSA army
  132. 132. Born near Independence, Texas (close to Houston)
  133. 133. Left West Point to fight with the CSA (and his family)
  134. 134. Became notoriously known as a cold blooded killer because of the Saltville Massacre
  135. 135. Only Texan to serve as a General in the CSA army
  136. 136. Lived in Waco for the rest of his life after the war; became a lawyer</li></ul>Champ Ferguson<br /><ul><li>Confederate mercenary who randomly joined up with a unit if it involved killing someone
  137. 137. Born in Kentucky
  138. 138. Had a strange obsession with killing anyone affiliated with the anti-slavery movement and/or the North
  139. 139. The resident Southern guerilla sociopath that everyone, including Southern soldiers feared
  140. 140. “When Rebel guerilla Champ Ferguson showed up at your house, you could be sure of one thing; you were about to die.”
  141. 141. Executed for war crimes on 20 October 1865
  142. 142. One of a few that were executed after the war</li></li></ul><li>Appomattox Courthouse (1865)<br />
  143. 143. Appomattox Court House (1865)<br />Time, Location, and Opposing Leaders<br /><ul><li>9 April 1865
  144. 144. Appomattox Court House, Appomattox, Virginia
  145. 145. Union: Ulysses S. Grant
  146. 146. Confederate: Robert E. Lee</li></ul>Significance<br /><ul><li>Final battle of the CSA Northern Virginia army
  147. 147. Surrender was the only option
  148. 148. Many of Lee’s officers (including James Longstreet who greatly miscalculated the Union in Gettysburg) agreed on surrender
  149. 149. Lee, “there is nothing left for me to do but to go and see General Grant and I would rather die a thousand deaths.”
  150. 150. Grant’s reply: “General, your note on this date is but this moment, 11:50 AM, rec’d., in consequence of my having passed from the Richmond and Lynchburg road. I am at this writing about four miles West of Walker’s Church and will push forward to the front for the purpose of meeting you. Notice sent to me on this road where you wish the interview to take place.”</li></li></ul><li>Appomattox Court House (1865)<br />Lee Surrenders<br /><ul><li>Lee shows up at Appomattox Court House in an immaculate Confederate uniform
  151. 151. Grant shows up in a mud spattered uniform with no side arm, no regalia, and only a tarnished shoulder strap showing his rank
  152. 152. The two generals spend a great deal of time discussing their past and service in the Mexican War
  153. 153. Grant offers Lee a very generous deal:
  154. 154. None of his officers or men would be imprisoned or prosecuted
  155. 155. Grant would supply food for Lee’s starving army
  156. 156. CSA soldiers could take home their horses and mules for spring planting
  157. 157. Lee agrees and said it would have a positive effect on reconciling the torn country
  158. 158. 10 April 1865: 27, 805 Confederates surrender</li></li></ul><li>Gen. Joshua Chamberlain (USA)<br />
  159. 159. Chamberlain’s Salute of Honor<br />
  160. 160. What Were They Fighting For?<br />Numbers<br /><ul><li>633,000 Americans died in the Civil War
  161. 161. 373,000 Union
  162. 162. 260,000 CSA</li></ul>Goals<br /><ul><li>North
  163. 163. Preservation of the Union, the “last great hope in the world”
  164. 164. South
  165. 165. Preservation of our way of life
  166. 166. Slavery, plantations, antebellum mentalities
  167. 167. An economic system welded to tradition and slavery
  168. 168. Both believed God was on their side</li></ul>Lasting Effects<br /><ul><li>North
  169. 169. Civic Religion forms out of the fusion of religion and God’s ‘just cause’ for Lincoln’s “last great hope in the world”
  170. 170. South
  171. 171. “Lost Cause” mentality – the South was defeated unjustly
  172. 172. They were fighting for the same cause as the Revolution
  173. 173. Freedom from oppression</li>

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