Govt 2305-Ch_15


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GOVT 2305 - Foreign Policy

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Govt 2305-Ch_15

  1. 1. Foreign PolicyChapter 15
  2. 2. Foreign Policy Foreign Policy – a nation’s external goals and the techniques and strategies used to acquire them How do we carry out foreign policy in America?  Diplomacy – process by which states carry on political relations with each other; settling conflicts among nations by peaceful means  Economic Aid – assistance to other nations in the form of grants, loans, or credits  Technical Assistance – practice of sending experts in specialized areas to aid other nations
  3. 3. National Security Policy National Security Policy – foreign and domestic policy designed to protect the nation’s independence and political and economic integrity  Policy that is concerned with the safety and defense of the nation Defense Policy  Subset of national security policy  Typically refers to a set of policies that direct the nature and activities of the U.S. armed forces
  4. 4. Morality v. Reality in Foreign Policy Moral Idealism – philosophy that sees nations as normally willing to cooperate and agree on moral standards and conduct Political Realism – philosophy that sees each nation acting principally in its own interest Where does American stand?  Mixture of both  Manifest Destiny, WWI, WWII, etc.
  5. 5. Who Makes Foreign Policy? The Constitution created an “invitation to struggle” regarding presidential and Congressional influence over foreign policy Presidential Powers  War Powers  Executive Agreements/Treaties Other Executive Agencies  Department of State – primary authority over foreign affairs  National Security Council -- advises the president on the integration of “domestic, foreign, and military policies relating to national security”
  6. 6. Who Makes Foreign Policy? Other Executive Agencies  Intelligence Community – collection of government agencies that gather information about the capabilities and intentions of foreign governments or that engage in covert actions  Department of Defense – created to bring all the various activities of the U.S. military under the jurisdiction of a single department headed by a civilian secretary of defense Congressional Authority  War Powers Resolution of 1973  Power of the Purse
  7. 7. Foreign Policy in Historical Context The Early Years (1791-1820)  Theme: Avoid Entanglements  Lack of international power and fear of European governments lead America to vow to avoid conflicts and exchanges with Europe  However, we cannot stay away for too long  XYZ Affair, Louisiana Purchase, War of 1812
  8. 8. Foreign Policy in Historical Context The Monroe Doctrine (1823)  Isolationist foreign policy statement that stated:  European nations should not establish new colonies in the Western Hemisphere  European nations should not intervene in the affairs of independent nations in the Western Hemisphere  United States would not interfere in the affairs of European nations  Policy continued until the end of the 1800s
  9. 9. Foreign Policy in Historical Context Manifest Destiny Turns to Internationalism  Spanish-American War  Taking Manifest Destiny abroad (winning Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines) World War I  Isolationist policy returns  We only respond because of the perceived global threat (and President Wilson’s influence)
  10. 10. Foreign Policy in Historical Context World War II  A total and absolute threat requires a total and absolute response  Pearl Harbor puts America on the offensive; isolationism disappears  America’s use of the A-Bomb propels us to superpower status and ultimately fosters paranoia with the Soviet Union The Cold War  Soviet Containment (Truman Doctrine)  Arms Race and the Space Race  Cuban Missile Crisis  Détente and SALT treaties  SDI “Star Wars” program  Dissolution of the Soviet Union