TX History Ch 20.2


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TX History Ch 20.2

  1. 1. Chapter 20: The Indian Wars Section 2: War on the Plains
  2. 2. The Salt Creek Raid <ul><li>Problems remain after Treaty of Medicine Lodge </li></ul><ul><li>Indians frustrated with reservation life </li></ul><ul><li>Some Indians begin to attack Texas settlements </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Salt Creek Raid <ul><li>July 1870: U.S. troops defeated in battle after chasing Kiowa that attacked a stagecoach </li></ul><ul><li>August 1870: Kiowa leader White Horse leads a series of attacks </li></ul><ul><li>Legislature asks for help </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Salt Creek Raid <ul><li>1871: Gen. William T. Sherman sent to Texas </li></ul><ul><li>Has doubts about Indian threat </li></ul>General William T. Sherman
  5. 5. The Salt Creek Raid <ul><li>May 1871: Kiowa & Comanche under big Tree, Satank, & Satanta attack wagon train near Salt Creek </li></ul><ul><li>7 men killed </li></ul>Big Tree & Santanta
  6. 6. The Salt Creek Raid <ul><li>Salt Creek Raid —Kiowa and Comanche attack on a wagon train that caused a shift in military policy towards Indians </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Salt Creek Raid <ul><li>Sherman has Big Tree, Satank, & Satanta arrested </li></ul><ul><li>Satank killed while trying to escape </li></ul><ul><li>Big Tree & Satanta convicted or murder and sentenced to death </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Salt Creek Raid <ul><li>Gov. E.J. Davis changes sentence to life in prison </li></ul><ul><li>Released from prison in 1873 </li></ul>Governor E.J. Davis
  9. 9. Mackenzie’s Raids <ul><li>The Salt Creek Raid convince the war department that Indians must be forced onto reservations. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Mackenzie’s Raids <ul><li>Ranald S. Mackenzie —U.S. colonel who became famous fighting American Indians on the frontier </li></ul>Ranald S. Mackenzie
  11. 11. Mackenzie’s Raids <ul><li>Colonel Mackenzie’s campaign in Texas was meant to force all of the Indians onto reservations. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Mackenzie’s Raids <ul><li>Fall 1871: Mackenzie begins raids </li></ul><ul><li>Led by Tonkawa Indian scouts </li></ul><ul><li>Fought battle against Comanche at Blanco Canyon </li></ul>
  13. 13. Mackenzie’s Raids <ul><li>Quanah Parker —Comanche leader whose mother was a captured settler </li></ul>Quanah Parker
  14. 14. Cynthia Parker <ul><li>Captured by Comanche in 1836 </li></ul><ul><li>Lived with Comanche </li></ul><ul><li>1860: captured by Texas Rangers </li></ul><ul><li>Always wanted to return to Comanche </li></ul>Cynthia Parker
  15. 15. Mackenzie’s Raids <ul><li>Mackenzie pursues Comanche into Panhandle </li></ul><ul><li>Escape during snowstorm </li></ul><ul><li>Spring 1872: Mackenzie renews attacks following Indian raids </li></ul>
  16. 16. Mackenzie’s Raids <ul><li>September 29, 1872: Mackenzie’s troops defeat a Comanche force near Pampa </li></ul><ul><li>Killed Comanche, destroyed village, & took 120 women and children prisoner </li></ul><ul><li>Parker led unsuccessful attack to free prisoners </li></ul>
  17. 17. Mackenzie’s Raids <ul><li>Mackenzie kept prisoners at Fort Concho to try & convince others to surrender </li></ul><ul><li>Many Comanche abandoned life on plains & move to reservations </li></ul><ul><li>Mackenzie goes to Mexican border to stop Kickapoo & Lipan Apache attacks </li></ul>
  18. 18. The Slaughter of the Buffalo <ul><li>Plains Indians depended on buffalo for generations </li></ul><ul><li>Risks to survival of buffalo: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Westward expansion of railroads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of new tanning technology & a market for hides </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. The Slaughter of the Buffalo <ul><li>Risks to survival of buffalo: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Buffalo guns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desire to force Plains Indians to live on reservations </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. The Slaughter of the Buffalo <ul><li>Buffalo guns allowed hunters to kill from a long distance away. </li></ul>
  21. 21. The Slaughter of the Buffalo <ul><li>“ Let them (hunters) kill, skin, & sell until the buffaloes are exterminated. Then your prairies can be covered with speckled cattle.” </li></ul><ul><li>--General Philip Sheridan </li></ul>General Philip Sheridan
  22. 22. The Slaughter of the Buffalo <ul><li>Buffalo killed in order to force Indians to move. </li></ul><ul><li>Growing market for buffalo hides nearly made them extinct . </li></ul><ul><li>1872-1874: estimated 4.3 million buffalo killed </li></ul>