Ch 6 Texas Reconstruction


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Ch 6 Texas Reconstruction

  1. 1. Reconstruction, republicanism, and “redemption”<br />Chapter Six<br />
  2. 2. The Myth of Reconstruction<br />Southerners fought against the North to protect local institutions and states’ rights<br />The North won and then set out to deliberately enforce a policy of rape, pillage, plunder, and vindictive punishment on the South<br />The South became controlled by vindictive Union soldiers, carpetbaggers, and scalawags<br />
  3. 3. The Myth of Reconstruction<br />Carpetbagger – Northerner who came to the broken South for economic opportunity. They claimed they had the South’s interests in mind, but were all about the money.<br />Scalawags – Southerners who had always favored the Union; opposed secession, and sometimes taken up arms against the South (think of Gainesville)<br />
  4. 4. The Myth of Reconstruction<br />The North easily manipulated and subjected Southerners to unethical and inhumane punishment during Reconstruction<br />They raised taxes, ruined the economy, and used military force to perpetuate their control as long as possible<br />In essence, the South was a subjugated colony of the North (not any better off than the American colonies were in the 1760s and early 1770s)<br />
  5. 5. The Burning of Atlanta, Georgia<br />
  6. 6.
  7. 7. The “Lost Cause”<br />Arkansas<br />Alabama<br />Mississippi<br />Florida<br />Georgia<br />
  8. 8. The “Lost Cause”<br />Term first appears in 1866 in historian Edward A. Pollard’s The Lost Cause: A New Southern History of the War of the Confederates<br />Writings by Jubal A. Early for the Southern Historical Society in the 1870s push the “Lost Cause” mentality as a cultural phenomenon<br />Historian Jason Phillips argues that the Confederate “culture of invincibility” evolved into the “Lost Cause”<br />Confederates used religious overtones to justify their defeat and eventual redemption<br />
  9. 9. The “Lost Cause”<br />Major Concepts of the Movement/Cult<br />Robert E. Lee and “Stonewall” Jackson represented Southern nobility<br />Northern generals represented low moral standards and subjected the Southerners to horrific evils (Grant and Sherman are key targets)<br />Confederate losses on the battlefield were inevitable due to Northern superiority in resources and manpower (Industrialization<br />Confederates losses are also attributed to betrayal of General Lee’s subordinates (mainly Gen. James Longstreet, but this is an opinion of Lt. Gen. Early)<br />
  10. 10. The “Lost Cause”<br />Major Concepts of the Movement/Cult<br />Defense of states’ rights was the primary catalyst that led Southerners to secede from the Union<br />Preservation of slavery was never a main tenant<br />Secession was justifiable and a constitutional response to Northern cultural and economic aggression against the Southern way of life<br />Slavery was a benign institution<br />Slaves were loyal and faithful to their benevolent masters<br />
  11. 11. The “Lost Cause”<br />In Summary<br />The movement was created in part for Southerners to cope with the dramatic political, social, and economic changes that came after the war<br />This feeds directly into Southern animosity and the Southern Myth of Reconstruction<br />In part, it also feeds groups such as the Ku Klux Klan<br />The movement is transferred into the 20th century by the United Confederate Veterans and the United Daughters of the Confederacy<br />
  12. 12. The Reality of Reconstruction<br />Most historians agree that Reconstruction was very moderate (compared to what it could have been)<br />Reconstruction was a period of irregularity for Southerners as they tried to:<br />Regain admission to the United States<br />Rebuild their devastated economy<br />Cope with the emotional baggage of defeat; the “Lost Cause” cult/mentality<br />
  13. 13. The Reality of Reconstruction<br />Reconstruction was politically, economically, and socially abnormal for the South<br />Politically<br />Northern imposed Reconstruction governments pursued active government that resulted in higher taxes<br />Southerners preferred antebellum Southern government that was inactive and weak<br />Traditional Democratic leaders in the South were disfranchised while blacks were temporarily enfranchised<br />
  14. 14. The Reality of Reconstruction<br />Economically<br />Slavery was abolished<br />The Southern economy was in ruins because of war debt and the lack of an large, inexpensive labor pool<br />Socially<br />Blacks were given limited rights<br />This struck fear in the hearts of many Southerners<br />
  15. 15. The Reality of Reconstruction<br />Moderate Reality<br />There were no mass executions of Confederate politicians or military personnel<br />There was no nationalization or appropriation of plantation lands by the North<br />The North did not force war reparation payments on the South<br />The Reality of Industrialization<br />The North was now the strongest section of the nation due to rapid population increases and industrialization<br />As a result, the South was no longer an equal section of the nation.<br />
  16. 16. Lincoln’s Legacy for Reconstruction (1863-1865)<br />The Ten Percent Plan (1863)<br /><ul><li>Lincoln wanted a quick and painless method to bring the secessionist states back to the Union after the war ended
  17. 17. The plan indicated that any state would be reaccepted to the Union after 10% of the people who voted in the 1860 election took an oath to the United States.
  18. 18. The only exclusion were CSA officers and leaders.</li></ul>Congress’ Response to Lincoln: The Wade-Davis Bill (1864)<br /><ul><li>Congress felt that Lincoln was too conciliatory and weak on the secessionist states.
  19. 19. They were afraid the slave and plantation owners would quickly regain all their previous power.
  20. 20. The Wade-Davis Bill indicated that 50% of the people of a secessionist state would be required to take an oath to the United States before they could be considered for statehood.</li></li></ul><li>Phases of Reconstruction in Texas<br /><ul><li>Provisional Texas Government (1865-1866)
  21. 21. Presidential Reconstruction (1866-1867)
  22. 22. Congressional Reconstruction (1867-1870)
  23. 23. Radical Reconstruction (1870-1874)
  24. 24. Redemption (1874-1876)</li></ul>Issues:<br /><ul><li>How do secessionist states regain recognition with the United States?
  25. 25. What do we do with the Confederates?
  26. 26. Civil status for their leaders
  27. 27. What is the Constitutional and legal status of freed blacks (freedmen)?</li></li></ul><li>Andrew Jackson Hamilton (Provisional Texas Gov. 1865-1866)<br />
  28. 28. U.S. President Andrew Johnson<br />
  29. 29. Provisional Government<br />President Andrew Johnson appoints Andrew Jackson Hamilton, former U.S. congressman and Unionist as provisional Texas Governor in June 1865<br />Johnson’s Terms of Reconstruction<br />All seceded states must declare secession null and void<br />Cancel all debt accumulated during the war<br />Approve the Thirteenth Amendment<br />Ended slavery<br />Most people were required to take an oath of loyalty to the U.S.<br />Johnson wanted to end Reconstruction quickly<br />Exemptions to Johnson’s Reconstruction<br />All high-ranking ex-Confederates <br />Property owners with land values over $20,000<br />
  30. 30. Provisional Government<br />Political Factions in Texas (1865-1866)<br />Slavery is the divisive issue<br />Hamilton Unionists – proposed basic rights for freedmen; similar to national Republicans<br />Conservative Unionists – opposed granting any freedoms to blacks beyond emancipation<br />Conservative Democrats – former Secessionist Democrats; also opposed any freedoms for blacks beyond emancipation<br />
  31. 31. Constitutional Convention of 1866<br />Gov. Hamilton attempted to appease President Johnson’s rapid reinstatement of former Confederate states<br />Agenda<br />Legal status of secession<br />Declares secession illegal<br />Controversy over Texas’ war debt<br />Debt forgiven<br />Issue of slavery<br />Accepts the demise of slavery<br />Does not accept the Thirteenth Amendment (finally does in 1870)<br />
  32. 32. Constitutional Convention of 1866<br />Freedmen’s Rights<br />Constitution grants blacks freedoms federal policy forced them to concede<br />Right to purchase and sell property<br />Right to sue and be sued<br />Right to enter legally binding contracts<br />Right to testify in court against other only other blacks<br />Rights withheld<br />Election and access to public office<br />Jury participation<br />Public schools<br />25 June 1866, the Constitution of 1866 was approved<br />Essentially amended the Constitution of 1845<br />
  33. 33. James Webb Throckmorton – Texas Gov. (1866-1867)<br />
  34. 34. Presidential Reconstruction<br />Election of 1866<br />Hamilton’s faction argues that the philosophy of the Union is the only way for Texas to be readmitted as a state; selects Elisha M. Pease to head the Union campaign<br />James Webb Throckmorton, ex-Confederate general , appealed to the Conservative Democrats<br />Denied blacks’ rights<br />Advocated that a “radical” take-over by Unionists was possible<br />Would lead to a new racial order in the South<br />Political disarmament of ex-Confederates<br />Denial of a rightful place for ex-Confederate states in the Union<br />
  35. 35. Presidential Reconstruction<br />Social Status of Freedmen<br />Roughly 250,000 in Texas (1865)<br />Some freedmen remained in slavery until 1868<br />Whites did not accept them as free<br />Distrusted and feared them<br />Saw them as an economic and social burden<br />White racial superiority was the norm<br />Paranoia over the potential mixing of black men and white women<br />Later becomes one of the typical justifications for lynching against blacks<br />
  36. 36. Black Codes in Texas<br />1866, Texas state legislature enacted this set of laws to dictate black economic progress<br />Contract labor law (binding agreement)<br />Could be thrown in prison and sent to work for the state if they refused to work<br />Blacks prohibited from interracial mixture<br />Could not hold public office<br />Could not serve on juries or bear witness against a white person<br />Could not vote<br />The social conditions for blacks greatly deteriorated under Throckmorton and Presidential Reconstruction<br />
  37. 37. Freedmen’s Bureau<br /><ul><li>Established in 1866 to help fight for the rights of freedmen in hostile areas in the South
  38. 38. Had an impossible task; only 1000 agents in the South
  39. 39. Was an experiment in social policy that might have worked in the New Deal era or the 1960s
  40. 40. Goals:
  41. 41. Establish schools for blacks
  42. 42. Aid to poor/aged blacks
  43. 43. Settle racial disputes
  44. 44. Secure equal treatment and civility for blacks in the court system
  45. 45. Made decent gains in healthcare and education, but it gets overshadowed with Reconstruction and lasting racial animosity</li></li></ul><li>Freedmen’s Bureau in Texas<br />Public Perception<br />Viewed as carpetbaggers who were bent on rendering the South powerless<br />Intruders interfering with race relations<br />Opportunists who worked solely for the money they earned from their office<br />Limited manpower<br />Only 70 agents and subordinates in Texas<br />Lacked the personnel to truly help freedmen integrate into society<br />General G. M. Gregory<br />First head of the Freedmen’s Bureau in Texas<br />Attempted to fully integrate freedmen into society<br />Asserted that freedmen had full legal rights<br />Texans protested enough to get him transferred to Maryland<br />
  46. 46. Freedmen’s Bureau in Texas<br />Education<br />Teachers difficult to recruit<br />Instruction not easy in an atmosphere promoting white supremacy<br />School supplies hard to find<br />16 schools in 1865<br />Some improvements were made in health care and social aid for blacks<br />
  47. 47. Freedmen’s Bureau in Texas<br />Education<br />Teachers difficult to recruit<br />Instruction not easy in an atmosphere promoting white supremacy<br />School supplies hard to find<br />16 schools in 1865<br />Some improvements were made in health care and social aid for blacks<br />
  48. 48. Radical Reconstruction<br />
  49. 49. Military Occupation<br />Public Perception<br />Texans openly condemned them<br />Openly attacked them in hit-and-run operations<br />Believed that the military was involved in too many aspects of their lives (violated rugged individualism’s version of republicanism)<br />Goals<br />Protecting the western and southern frontiers from Indian attacks<br />Protecting the civil rights of freedmen and Unionists<br />Escorting cattle herds<br />Censoring the press<br />Inspections and quarantines at ports<br />Sanitation programs<br />
  50. 50. The 9th Cavalry at Ft. Davis<br />
  51. 51. Military Occupation<br />Military issues<br />Public drunkenness<br />Stealing<br />Soldiers destroyed farm goods<br />Stole livestock<br />Destruction of private property<br />Openly criticized former Confederates<br />
  52. 52. Republican Party Factions<br />Not everyone was happy with President Johnson’s vision of Reconstruction, especially the Republicans<br />Radical Republicans<br />States should be treated like conquered provinces<br />All means should be taken to guarantee the rights of freedmen<br />All southerners should take an oath of allegiance before voting or serving in government<br />Conservative Republicans<br />Worried about mainstream Republican ideology<br />Endorsing tariffs<br />Promoting internal improvements<br />Moderate Republicans<br />Somewhere between the two extremes<br />Overall, Republicans felt Johnson was too lenient and the Civil War was in vain if Southern states were brought back into the Union with prewar political/social structures<br />
  53. 53. Republican Party Motives<br />Question: Can radicalism be truly sincere?<br />Opinion 1: Republicans were selfish and recruited blacks into their ranks to diminish the strength of hostile white southerners<br />Opinion 2: Republicans were truly desiring to make a meaningful change in the South<br />Really wanted blacks to have equality under the law<br />
  54. 54. Congressional Reconstruction (1867-1870)<br />Reconstruction Act of 1867<br /><ul><li>Johnson really tried to keep this one from getting passed
  55. 55. The act effectively seized control of Reconstruction from Johnson
  56. 56. More Radical Republicans were coming into Congress; outnumbering moderates and Democrats
  57. 57. The act divides the South into 5 military districts
  58. 58. First District: Virginia
  59. 59. Second District: North and South Carolina
  60. 60. Third District: Georgia, Alabama, and Florida
  61. 61. Fourth District: Arkansas and Mississippi
  62. 62. Fifth District: Texas and Louisiana
  63. 63. Republican Party was established in Houston on 4 July 1867
  64. 64. All ex-Confederate states required to write new constitutions with all races participating in the constitutional conventions (blacks must be granted suffrage and allowed to hold public office)</li></li></ul><li>Effects of the 1867 Reforms in Texas<br />The Reconstruction Acts barred ex-Confederate office holders from voting<br />Those that took the oath of the U.S. and then participated in the Confederacy<br />However, over 59,000 white Texas were able to most<br />Many were ex-Confederate soldiers<br />Loophole: those that swore to uphold the U.S. Constitution were not subjected to the scrutiny of the Reconstruction Acts of 1867<br />Roughly only 7,000 to 10,000 Texas were disenfranchised<br />
  65. 65. Congressional Reconstruction (1867-1870)<br />Johnson Gets Impeached<br /><ul><li>Congress attempts to impeach him twice; they succeed the second time
  66. 66. Charge him with violating the Tenure of Office Act
  67. 67. He narrowly escapes being thrown out of office
  68. 68. Good lawyers convince Congress he would play nice until the end of his term
  69. 69. Johnson becomes the first president to get impeached and the first to succeed an assassinated president</li></ul>Christmas Day Amnesty Act<br /><ul><li>Johnson grants unconditional amnesty to all Confederates on 25 December 1868, less than a month before he turned over the office to Ulysses S. Grant</li></ul>14th Amendment<br /><ul><li>Guarantees citizenship for all freedmen</li></ul>15th Amendment<br /><ul><li>Guarantees suffrage (right to vote) regardless of race, color, or previous servitude (slavery)
  70. 70. Feminists enraged because they were not included</li></li></ul><li>Texas Under Martial Law<br />General Philip Sheridan removes Texas Governor Throckmorton from office effective 30 July 1867<br />Elisha M. Pease is appointed as the interim governor<br />An election for a constitutional convention is announced for February 1868<br />Gen. Philip H. Sheridan<br />
  71. 71. Elisha M. Pease – Texas Governor<br />Congressional Reconstruction<br />
  72. 72. Convention of 1868<br />Black Participation<br />Republicans invited blacks to participate <br />George T. Ruby of Galveston was the most prominent<br />Black leaders demanded that voter registration boards included black members<br />Roughly 48,000 freedmen registered to vote for the Convention of 1868<br />Despite violence, over 82 percent of registered blacks voted in February 1868<br />George T. Ruby<br />
  73. 73. Constitutional Convention of 1868<br />Ab initio (from the beginning); “to be treated as invalid from the outset”<br />Belief that all official acts passed under secession to help the Confederacy were null and void<br />Belief in equality for freedmen<br />Support for state financing of public schools<br />Use of eastern railroad interests to build new lines in Texas<br />Disenfranchisement of ex-Confederates<br />Edmund J. Davis’ “Radical” faction believed in it<br />Pease and Hamilton’s “Moderate” supporters rejected it<br />This issue becomes the key argument for the convention<br />By August 1868, the delegates disband without a constitution because funding ran out<br />
  74. 74. Constitution of 1869<br />Delegates meet again in February 1869 to approve the measures presented in the convention from 1868<br />Departed from the Texas political tradition in numerous ways:<br />Granted suffrage and general civil rights to blacks<br />Enthusiastic support for all Texans to receive a public education<br />Checks and balances between local/county and state statutes<br />State laws increasing the power of the governor<br />Attempted to keep railroad interests from taking public land<br />
  75. 75. Rise of the Ku Klux Klan<br />
  76. 76. Rise of the Ku Klux Klan<br />Reaction to Reconstruction<br /><ul><li>Klan was created in 1865 immediately after the end of the Civil War
  77. 77. Created by a group influenced by the theatre
  78. 78. Attempting to conceal their purpose under the symbolism of carnival
  79. 79. Really did not gain steam until Radical Reconstruction in the late 1860s
  80. 80. The group was essentially a reaction to two things:
  81. 81. A rising number of discontented veterans in the South
  82. 82. Dramatically altered social situation where whites had to reclaim white supremacy
  83. 83. Waco’s own Felix H. Robertson was most likely a member (his son was a member of the Klan in the 1920s)
  84. 84. The Klan becomes tied with the Democratic Party
  85. 85. Essentially a para-military force that served the interests of Democrats, planters, and all those who wished for white supremacy to return to an “Old South”
  86. 86. The group relates well to the “Lost Cause” mentality
  87. 87. President Grant effectively uses federal power to silence the Klan throughout the rest of Reconstruction
  88. 88. Ku Klux Klan Act of 1871
  89. 89. They never really go away; just go underground until the 1920s</li></li></ul><li>
  90. 90.
  91. 91.
  92. 92.
  93. 93.
  94. 94. Klansmen in Mississippi<br />
  95. 95. Ku Klux Klan Warning to Carpetbaggers in Ohio<br />
  96. 96. Texas Governor Edmund J. Davis<br />
  97. 97. The 1869 Election<br />Radical Republican candidate – Edmund J. Davis<br />Supported ab initio along with the 13th and 14th amendments<br />Moderate Republicans – A. J. Hamilton<br />Hamilton did not really care about their program<br />Moderates were trying to appeal to Democrats<br />Democrats do not nominate a candidate<br />Some could not vote/hold office due to disenfranchisement<br />Democrats were afraid another Dem. Governor would prolong Reconstruction in Texas<br />Democrats were attempting to show their defiance by boycotting the polls<br />
  98. 98. The 1869 Election<br />Results:<br />Davis wins; 39,838 to 39,005 (Hamilton)<br />Democrats did not want to support a man who fled to the North and engaged in their politics (Hamilton)<br />Constitution of 1869 approved<br />72,366 to 4,928<br />Pease resigned in September 1869<br />Texas military commander Gen. Reynolds appoints Davis governor in January 1870<br />After the U.S. Congress received results of the election, Texas was restored to the Union on 30 March 1870<br />President Ulysses S. Grant signed the bill<br />
  99. 99. Blacks in the Texas Legislature<br />The Twelfth Legislature (1870-1871)<br />2 black senators<br />12 black representatives<br />Constituted 12 percent of the membership<br />George T. Ruby<br />Established a political base in Galveston<br />Became president of the Union League in 1868<br />Served as senator from Galveston from 1869-1873<br />Matt Gaines<br />Self-educated slave who became a preacher after the war<br />Advocate in the Texas Senate for African-American causes and constant critic of those temperate on race issues<br />
  100. 100.
  101. 101. E. J. Davis’ Administration<br />Most agree he initiated Radical Reconstruction in Texas<br />Assisted primarily by scalawags<br />Agenda<br />Organize a state police force<br />Empowered to assist local officials<br />Organize a state militia<br />Guard the frontier and Mexican border<br />Homestead program to encourage farming<br />160 acres for those who worked land for 3 yrs.<br />Bureau of Immigration<br />To attract European settlers<br />Public School System<br />More railroad construction projects<br />Higher taxes came as a result of this progressive agenda<br />
  102. 102. Davis’ Critics<br />Extravagant Spending<br />Most of the state’s revenue under Davis went to funding:<br />Law enforcement<br />School System<br />Frontier Defense<br />These were issues common to Texas’ political ideals<br />Opponents condemned Davis on the following points:<br />Central gov’t usurpation of local autonomy<br />Davis was too friendly with Northern railroads<br />Believed state taxation was unnecessary<br />
  103. 103. Democratic Take-Over (1873)<br />Democrats won majorities in both houses of the Thirteenth Legislature (1873)<br />Democrats began an assault against Davis’ programs<br />Cut his public school system<br />Abolished the state police<br />Changed the homestead policy to make land less affordable<br />However, they passed an amendment to use land grants to entice railroad construction<br />
  104. 104. U.S. President Ulysses S. Grant<br />
  105. 105. A Nation in Transition (1873-1874)<br />The Grant Administration<br /><ul><li>Known primarily as an era of scandals
  106. 106. Grant had difficulty dealing with a Congress that was split on issues such as:
  107. 107. Tariffs
  108. 108. Currency
  109. 109. Civil Service Reform
  110. 110. Mark Twain reflects on this period as an ‘age of excess’; also becomes known as the “Gilded Age”</li></ul>Panic of 1873<br /><ul><li>Really marks the shift between Radical and Redemptive Reconstruction
  111. 111. The economy in the South was bad, but it gets much worse
  112. 112. Cotton prices fall in half
  113. 113. Many small landowners, merchants, and some wholesalers go bankrupt
  114. 114. Sharecropping becomes common
  115. 115. Sharing the risk of owning land; black and white farmers participate
  116. 116. Crop-Lien System – farmers have to commit a portion of their year’s crops as collateral for purchasing needed goods
  117. 117. President Grant takes the blame; Republicans lose many seats in Congress</li></li></ul><li>Freedmen<br />Sharecropping<br />Farmers delivered a portion of their year’s crops to the landowner for:<br />Land to farm<br />Planting necessities (fertilizer, seed, etc.)<br />Tools<br />Farm animals<br />Some degree of independence<br />Farmers established their own work schedules<br />Chronic indebtedness was normal for sharecroppers<br />Interest rates on bank loans roughly 15%<br />
  118. 118. Freedmen<br />Potential Jobs<br />Cowboys (working ranches in East Texas)<br />State Police or Militia<br />Army service on the frontier<br />Women’s jobs<br />Worked in white households<br />Menial tasks for substandard wages<br />Some black Texans managed to start businesses, but this was rare at the time<br />
  119. 119. Freedmen<br />Religion<br />Independent black churches rose in number during Reconstruction<br />Churches served many functions:<br />Religious services<br />Social activities<br />Educational instruction<br />Political planning<br />Workforce planning<br />Religion reinforced people’s sense of morality and proper behavior<br />A majority of blacks joined the Baptist denomination during this era<br />Methodists also represented a significant percentage<br />
  120. 120. Redemptive Reconstruction (Texas Gov. Richard Coke)<br />
  121. 121. Richard Coke’s Grave, Oakwood Cemetery, Waco, Texas<br />
  122. 122. Redemptive Reconstruction<br />Gubernatorial Election of 1874<br />Davis ran again on a Republican ticket<br />Richard Coke ran as a Conservative Democrat<br />Ex-Confederate from Waco<br />“Redemptive Democrats”<br />Restoring states’ rights<br />Overthrowing the Republican/freedmen coalition<br />“Redeeming Texas” to its former glory<br />Coke won the election<br />100,415 to 52,141<br />
  123. 123. Transition Issues<br />Ex parte Rodriguez<br />Texas Supreme Court case that ruled Coke’s election illegal<br />Rodriguez, citizen from Harris County, found to have voted twice<br />Caused a panic among Republicans regarding voter fraud<br />The “Semi-Colon Court”<br />Rodriguez’s lawyers asserted that the 1869 Constitution was in conflict with a law passed by the 13th Legislature<br />“…all elections shall be held at the county seats until otherwise provided by law; and the polls shall be open for four days”<br />
  124. 124. Transition Issues<br />The “Semi-Colon Court”<br />Supreme Court argued that the semicolon made the two clauses independent<br />Thus, the legislature could not alter the voting period<br />Davis’ Issue<br />Option 1: Disregard the Supreme Court and uphold the election<br />Option 2: Uphold the Supreme Court’s action and disregard the election<br />Davis wired President Grant for assistance<br />Grant replies he wants nothing to do with the issue<br />Davis assumes that Grant wanted him to disregard the Supreme Court’s decision<br />
  125. 125. Coke’s Administration<br />Agenda<br />Appealed to business interests<br />Moderate endorsement of railroad and industrial expansion<br />Also appealed to agrarian sentiments<br />Farmer’s society known as the “Grange” greatly supported Coke<br />The “Redeemer” Agenda<br />Republicans destroyed Southern prosperity<br />It was up to the “Redeemers” to deliver the South from Republican rule<br />How?<br />Moderate industrialization<br />Lower expenses of gov’t<br />Lower taxes<br />Create an inexpensive labor supply<br />
  126. 126. Constitution of 1876<br />Democrats demanded a new constitution<br />Wanted to erase Reconstruction mandates<br />Wanted to overturn Republican successes for freedmen<br />Return to limited government<br />Davis calls a convention in 1875<br />75 of the 90 delegates were professed Democrats<br />41 farmers made the largest professional bloc<br />Lawyers came in second with 29<br />Notable delegates<br />Lawrence “Sul” Ross<br />John S. “Rip” Ford<br />
  127. 127.
  128. 128. Constitution of 1876<br />Return to Jacksonian Democracy<br />Limited gov’t and frugality<br />Used the Constitution of 1845 as a model<br />Prohibited the state from chartering banks<br />Texas could regulate corporations and railroad companies<br />State debt ceiling of $200,000<br />Virtually abolished the public school system<br />Set a strict tax rate<br />
  129. 129.
  130. 130. Constitution of 1876<br />Return to Jacksonian Democracy<br />Limited gov’t and frugality<br />Used the Constitution of 1845 as a model<br />Prohibited the state from chartering banks<br />Texas could regulate corporations and railroad companies<br />State debt ceiling of $200,000<br />Virtually abolished the public school system<br />Set a strict tax rate<br />
  131. 131. Constitution of 1876<br />Suffrage and Poll Taxes<br />Delegates from East Texas wanted a poll tax<br />To disfranchise blacks (most could not afford to pay the tax)<br />Republicans and Grangers defeated the proposal<br />A poll tax is later added though<br />Struck down voter registration<br />Disfranchised women<br />Aliens could vote though<br />Essentially, it was a return to Jacksonian concepts of universal manhood suffrage<br />
  132. 132.
  133. 133. Constitution of 1876<br />The Executive Branch<br />Governor had traditional charge to oversee the execution of laws, but had no real authority to do so<br />Goes back to distrust of central government<br />Term of office cut from 4 to 2 years<br />Governor could veto legislation<br />Legislature can override with 2/3s vote<br />Governor can call special session of the legislature<br />Voters would now choose:<br />Lieutenant governor<br />Comptroller<br />Treasurer <br />Land Commissioner<br />Attorney General<br />
  134. 134. Constitution of 1876<br />Education<br />Many argued that parents should bear responsibility for education<br />White landowners did not want to pay to educate black children<br />Grangers advocated for local control of education<br />Can save money and establish schools that worked around crop cycles<br />Constitution passed a $1 tax on males between 21 and 60 to support “state education”<br />No provisions for local taxes and funding for community schools<br />Public education remained inadequate as a result<br />
  135. 135. Constitution of 1876<br />Public School Land<br />Constitution endowed a permanent school fund from land previously set aside<br />The University of Texas took away the 3 million acres granted in 1858<br />However, it was granted 1 million acres over pools of oil<br />
  136. 136. Constitution of 1876<br />Adoption<br />Approved 53 to 11 in November 1875<br />Legacy<br />Texas still operates under the Constitution of 1876<br />One of the longest and convoluted state constitutions in the country<br />Alabama and California edge out Texas on length<br />The document is highly restrictive in nature<br />State of Texas only has powers explicitly granted<br />No “Necessary and Proper Clause”<br />Essentially functions as a limiting document<br />Revision<br />As of November 2009, 643 amendments proposed, 467 approved<br />