The PresidencyChapter 11
Who Can Become President? To win the $400,000 salary, rapidly age 20 years in 8 years,  plus gain $169,000 in free expens...
1992                  2000       Bill Clinton
2000                    2008       George W. Bush
Overview: Model of the Framers Presidential Power   Directed     Executor of laws passed by Congress     Appoints, but...
Hamilton Regarding the ExecutiveBranch Federalist #70   A strong and energetic executive branch requires unity, duration...
Many Roles of the President President has 5 constitutional roles   Head of State   Chief Executive   Commander in Chie...
Many Roles of the President Head of State – role of the president as ceremonial head of  the government   Symbolic activ...
Many Roles of the President Chief Executive – role of the president as head of the  executive branch of the government P...
Many Roles of the President As Chief Executive, the president has a federal bureaucracy  consisting of 2 million federal ...
Many Roles of the President However, the president has appointment power over jobs for  the cabinet, subcabinet, federal ...
Many Roles of the President Commander in Chief – the role of the president as supreme  commander of the military forces o...
Many Roles of the President War Powers Resolution – law passed in 1973 spelling out the  conditions under which the presi...
Many Roles of the President Chief Diplomat – role of the president in recognizing foreign  governments, making treaties, ...
Many Roles of the President Chief Legislator – role of the president in influencing the  making of laws   Presidents in ...
The President and Legislation Responding to legislation   If the bill is signed by the president, it becomes law   If t...
The President and Legislation Responding to legislation   Pocket Veto -- If the president refuses to sign a bill and Con...
Other Presidential Powers Constitutional Powers – power vested in the president by  Article II of the Constitution Statu...
Other Presidential Powers Inherent Powers – powers of the president derived from the  statements in the Constitution   “...
The Institutional Presidency The Modern Presidency is Institutional   Circumscribed by rules, expectations, and organiza...
F.D.R. and the InstitutionalPresidency Agenda-Setting: The first “Hundred Days”   Set a standard that virtually all pres...
Presidential Influence Authority is important but power means more than authority   The president is powerless unless he...
Going Public A president “promotes himself and his policies in Washington  by appealing to the American public for suppor...
Does Going Public Work? Optimistic View   Presidents get a boost in the legislative agenda for programs that    they men...
The Cabinet The Cabinet – an advisory group selected by the president to  aid in making decisions   Includes 15 heads of...
The Vice Presidency The Constitution does not give much power to the Vice  President   Only format duty is to preside as...
The Vice Presidency Presidential Succession   8 VPs have become president after the death of a president    John Tyler ...
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Govt 2305-Ch_11

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Govt 2305-Ch_11

  1. 1. The PresidencyChapter 11
  2. 2. Who Can Become President? To win the $400,000 salary, rapidly age 20 years in 8 years, plus gain $169,000 in free expenses and services you must:  Be a natural born citizen of the United States  Be at least 35 years old  Been a resident within the United States for at least 14 years
  3. 3. 1992 2000 Bill Clinton
  4. 4. 2000 2008 George W. Bush
  5. 5. Overview: Model of the Framers Presidential Power  Directed  Executor of laws passed by Congress  Appoints, but with the advice and consent of the Senate  Commander of troops called into action by a Congressional Declaration of War  Little or no initiative  Law-making power of the president can be traced to Article II, Section 3  “He shall recommend to Congress…the consideration [of] such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient”  Basically, the president can recommend legislation that he feels is important
  6. 6. Hamilton Regarding the ExecutiveBranch Federalist #70  A strong and energetic executive branch requires unity, duration in office, adequate resources, and sufficient power  Hamilton argues against a plural executive (more than one president)  “tends to conceal faults, and destroy responsibility”  Singular presidents are better suited to wield the full potential of his power in a quick and effective way  Additionally, a singular president does not have to deal with endless arguments and disputes with other executives with the same power
  7. 7. Many Roles of the President President has 5 constitutional roles  Head of State  Chief Executive  Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces  Chief Diplomat  Chief Legislator of the United States
  8. 8. Many Roles of the President Head of State – role of the president as ceremonial head of the government  Symbolic activities  Decorating war heroes  Dedicating parks and post offices  Receiving visiting heads of state at the White House  Going on official state visits to other countries  Representing the nation at times of national mourning  9/11  Hurricane Katrina
  9. 9. Many Roles of the President Chief Executive – role of the president as head of the executive branch of the government President is constitutionally bound to enforce the acts of Congress, the judgments of federal courts, and treaties signed by the United States “Duty to faithfully execute the laws” is typically seen as a source of great constitutional power for the president
  10. 10. Many Roles of the President As Chief Executive, the president has a federal bureaucracy consisting of 2 million federal civilian employees  However, the president has little to do with the day-to-day functions as most of these positions are filled by civil service employees  Civil Service – a collective term for the body of employees working for the government  Applies to all those who gain governmental employment through a merit system  The president cannot use his appointment power to recommend civil service employees
  11. 11. Many Roles of the President However, the president has appointment power over jobs for the cabinet, subcabinet, federal judgeships, agency heads, and several thousand lesser jobs  Appointment power – the authority vested in the president to fill a government office or position
  12. 12. Many Roles of the President Commander in Chief – the role of the president as supreme commander of the military forces of the United States and the state National Guard units when they are called into federal service  President is the ultimate decision maker in military affairs  Presidents have exercised more authority in this capacity than any other role
  13. 13. Many Roles of the President War Powers Resolution – law passed in 1973 spelling out the conditions under which the president can commit troops without congressional approval  Requires the president to actively consult with Congress when sending American forces into action  Once troops are sent, the president must report the deployment to Congress within 48 hours  Unless Congress approves the use of troops within 60 days or extends the 60 day limit to 90 days, the troops must be withdrawn  This legislation was primarily a response to American involvement in Vietnam during the 1960s
  14. 14. Many Roles of the President Chief Diplomat – role of the president in recognizing foreign governments, making treaties, and effective executive agreements  President can extend diplomatic recognition (or refuse it) to foreign governments  President can negotiate treaties with other nations, but the Senate must approve it by a 2/3s vote  Successful treaty – Clinton and NAFTA (1993)  Unsuccessful treaty – Wilson and the League of Nations (1919)
  15. 15. Many Roles of the President Chief Legislator – role of the president in influencing the making of laws  Presidents in the 20th century have increasingly played a prominent role in creating legislative agendas  State of the Union address – annual message to Congress in which the president proposes a legislative program  Message addressed to Congress, the American people, and the world  Its impact on public opinion determines the way in which Congress will respond to the president’s agenda
  16. 16. The President and Legislation Responding to legislation  If the bill is signed by the president, it becomes law  If the bill is not signed after 10 Congressional working days, it becomes law without the president’s signature  The president can reject the bill and send it back to Congress with a veto message indicating his/her issues with the bill  Congress can then change the bill to secure presidential approval, or  Congress can reject the president’s objection and override the veto with a 2/3s vote in both the House and Senate
  17. 17. The President and Legislation Responding to legislation  Pocket Veto -- If the president refuses to sign a bill and Congress adjourns within 10 working days after the bill has been submitted to the president, the bill is killed for that session of Congress  Line-item Veto – allows the president to veto individual lines or items within a piece of legislation without vetoing the entire bill
  18. 18. Other Presidential Powers Constitutional Powers – power vested in the president by Article II of the Constitution Statutory Powers – powers created for the president through laws enacted by Congress Expressed Powers – powers of the president that is expressly written into the Constitution or into statutory law
  19. 19. Other Presidential Powers Inherent Powers – powers of the president derived from the statements in the Constitution  “the executive Power shall be vested in a President”  President should “take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed”  Essentially powers defined through practice rather than law  Emergency powers are a prime example Emergency Powers – inherent power exercised by the president during a period of national crisis  FDR – Japanese internment during WWII  GW Bush – Patriot Act and other necessary means to fight the war on terror
  20. 20. The Institutional Presidency The Modern Presidency is Institutional  Circumscribed by rules, expectations, and organizations  The presidency is now a leadership role Budgetary power and legislative agenda-setting  The Budget and Accounting Act of 1921  Established the framework for the modern federal budget  Essentially gives the president the first strike in budgetary politics  Created the Office of Management and Budget (OMB)  Created the Government Accountability Office (GAO)  Non-partisan audit, evaluation, and investigative arm of Congress
  21. 21. F.D.R. and the InstitutionalPresidency Agenda-Setting: The first “Hundred Days”  Set a standard that virtually all presidents attempt to adhere to Personal Presidency  Electoral connection  Use of media  “Fireside Chats”  President as the national savior  President as party leader  Begins with Theodore Roosevelt and becomes institutionalized with Woodrow Wilson
  22. 22. Presidential Influence Authority is important but power means more than authority  The president is powerless unless he/she has the power to persuade others of their views 19th century model of the presidency was one of clerkship  The president followed Congressional orders and executed laws 20th century model is all about new possibilities for persuasion  Institutions and bureaucratization take a backseat for TV, Internet, radio, national media, etc. Where are we now?  The persuasiveness of the individual occupying the executive office is more important today than in the past
  23. 23. Going Public A president “promotes himself and his policies in Washington by appealing to the American public for support” How does he/she do this?  General public appeal (TV, Internet, radio, national media)  Going to specific constituencies (or interest groups) where swing votes for legislation lie Unique presidential strategy  Aside from the few members of Congress who gain a national following, only the president can appeal to the whole public
  24. 24. Does Going Public Work? Optimistic View  Presidents get a boost in the legislative agenda for programs that they mention in their State of the Union address Pessimistic View  Underestimating the public’s reaction can have disastrous effects on legislative agenda Overall  Before going public, a president must be sure that  They have public opinion on their side  A counter-mobilization (cohesive opposition) will not occur
  25. 25. The Cabinet The Cabinet – an advisory group selected by the president to aid in making decisions  Includes 15 heads of executive departments and others named by the president  Originally included secretaries of state, treasury, war, and the attorney general  Neither the Constitution nor statutory law requires the president to consult with the cabinet  It is a purely discretionary group
  26. 26. The Vice Presidency The Constitution does not give much power to the Vice President  Only format duty is to preside as president of the Senate  He/she is expected to participate only informally unless he/she is breaking a tie Presidents traditionally have chosen VP nominees that help balance the ticket, attract groups of voters, or appease party factions  Lincoln choosing Southerner Andrew Johnson in 1864  Kennedy choosing Texan Lyndon B. Johnson in 1960
  27. 27. The Vice Presidency Presidential Succession  8 VPs have become president after the death of a president  John Tyler “His Accidency” was the first  Andrew Johnson was probably the worst  The Constitution is rather vague on presidential succession in cases of permanent/long-term disability  Article II, Section 1 – “in Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said Office, the same shall devolve on the Vice President.”  25th Amendment – 1967 amendment that establishes procedures for filling presidential and vice presidential vacancies and makes provisions for presidential incapacity

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