TX History Ch 18.2


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TX History Ch 18.2

  1. 1. Chapter 18: Texas & the Civil War Section 2: The Civil War Begins
  2. 2. Bellwork <ul><li>What are the Union’s options against the South? </li></ul>
  3. 3. A Call to Arms <ul><li>April 1861: Confederate attack on Fort Sumter marked beginning of Civil War </li></ul>
  4. 6. Fort Sumter—April 4, 1861
  5. 7. Fort Sumter—April 1865
  6. 8. A Call to Arms <ul><li>Lincoln calls for 75,000 volunteers </li></ul><ul><li>Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina secede </li></ul><ul><li>Thousands of Texans rushed to join Confederate forces. </li></ul>
  7. 9. A Call to Arms <ul><li>End of 1861: 25,000 Texans in Confederate army </li></ul><ul><li>Regiments —units of about 1,000 soldiers </li></ul>
  8. 10. A Call to Arms Terry’s Texas Rangers B.F. Terry Hood’s Texas Brigade John Bell Hood Ross’s Texas Brigade Lawrence Sullivan Ross
  9. 12. A Call to Arms <ul><li>Albert Sidney Johnston —Texan who was the second highest-ranking officer in the Confederate army until he was killed in battle </li></ul>Albert Sidney Johnston
  10. 14. Texas Readies for War <ul><li>Texas troop ill-equipped </li></ul><ul><li>Texas government seized federal property </li></ul><ul><li>Captured $1 million worth of supplies in San Antonio </li></ul><ul><li>State’s resources put to use </li></ul>
  11. 15. Resources & Strategies <ul><li>Northern Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Larger population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Railroads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Factories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Established government </li></ul></ul>
  12. 16. Resources & Strategies <ul><li>Southern advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Experienced military leaders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experience in riding horses and using firearms </li></ul></ul>
  13. 17. Resources & Strategies <ul><li>Confederate strategy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defensive war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>South’s greatest resource for trade with the world was cotton </li></ul></ul>
  14. 18. Resources & Strategies <ul><li>Union strategy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blockade of southern seaports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take control of the Mississippi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capture Richmond, Virginia—capital of Confederacy </li></ul></ul>
  15. 19. Resources & Strategies <ul><li>War in three theatres: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>East: Washington D.C. & Richmond </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tennessee and Mississippi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>West of the Mississippi River </li></ul></ul>
  16. 20. The Major Battles of the Civil War <ul><li>Major battles took place east of the Mississippi </li></ul><ul><li>First Battle of Bull Run (July 1861): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Union attempt to capture Richmond </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Union forces drove out of Virginia </li></ul></ul>
  17. 21. Home destroyed during First Battle of Bull Run—July 1861
  18. 22. The Major Battles of the Civil War <ul><li>Battle of Antietam (September 17, 1862): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lee clashes with Union force in Maryland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Union victory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>12,000 Union casualties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>13,000 Confederate casualties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bloodiest day in American History </li></ul></ul>
  19. 23. President Lincoln and Gen. George B. McClellan in the general's tent
  20. 24. Allan Pinkerton, President Lincoln, and Maj. Gen. John A. McClernand
  21. 25. Battle of Antietam—September 17, 1862
  22. 26. Confederate Dead at Antietam
  23. 27. The Major Battles of the Civil War <ul><li>Battle of Gettysburg (July 1-3, 1863) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Union victory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lee on defensive for the rest of war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>23,000 Union casualties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>28,000 Confederate casualties </li></ul></ul>
  24. 28. Soldiers at Gettysburg
  25. 29. Union and Confederate Dead at Gettysburg
  26. 30. The Major Battles of the Civil War <ul><li>The struggle to control the Mississippi River Valley was costly and of major significance to the war. </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of Shiloh (April 1862): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Costly for both sides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Albert Sidney Johnston killed </li></ul></ul>
  27. 31. The Major Battles of the Civil War <ul><li>Siege of Vicksburg (July 1863): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlled traffic on Mississippi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Six week siege </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confederacy split in two </li></ul></ul>
  28. 33. U.S.S. St. Louis (Ironclad)
  29. 34. Section 2: The Civil War Begins Northern Strategy Southern Strategy