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B) Computer Basics


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B) Computer Basics

  1. 1. Section B: Computer Basics
  2. 2. Topic Outline• Software and Common Applications• Understanding the Internet• Connecting to the Internet and Set-up of Internet connection
  3. 3. What is a computer?• It is an electronic device that stores, retrieves, and processes data, and can be programmed with instructions.• A computer is composed of hardware and software, and can exist in a variety of sizes and configurations.
  4. 4. Computer PartsHardwarerefers to the physical components of yourcomputer such as the system unit, mouse,keyboard, monitor etc.SoftwareThe software is the instructions thatmakes the computer work.It is held either on your computers harddisk, CD-ROM, DVD) and is loaded (i.e.copied) from the disk into the computersRAM (Random Access Memory), as andwhen required.
  5. 5. Software and Common Applications• System Software• Application Software• Utilities Software• Computer Security
  6. 6. Software and Common ApplicationsSystem software• Some software applications are installed with an operating system installation and either depend on the operating system to function properly or help the operating system function properly.• These kinds of applications are sometimes called system software because they are installed and, in a way, part of the operating system.• System software can be essential to the functionality of other applications as well and not just the operating system.
  7. 7. Software and Common ApplicationsOperating software• Operating System Abbreviated as OS.• Software program that enables the computer hardware to communicate and operate with the computer software.• Without a computer operating system, a computer and software programs would be useless.
  8. 8. Software and Common ApplicationsUser interface• The portion of a software program or hardware device that is used to navigate and control aspects of the software program or hardware device.• System by which people (users) interact with a machine.• The user interface includes hardware (physical) and software (logical) components.• User interfaces exist for various systems, and provide a means of:  Input, allowing the users to manipulate a system  Output, allowing the system to indicate the effects of the users manipulation.
  9. 9. Software and Common ApplicationsProgram• Software application or software program is the most commonly found software on the computer.• Also known as an application or an app.• Computer software designed to help the user to perform specific tasks. Examples include enterprise software, accounting software, office suites, graphics software and media players.
  10. 10. Software and Common ApplicationsSoftware applicationMS WORD• Proprietary word processor designed by Microsoft.
  11. 11. Software and Common ApplicationsSoftware applicationMS Access• Database management system from Microsoft that combines the relational Microsoft Jet Database Engine with a graphical user interface and software-development tools.
  12. 12. Software and Common ApplicationsSoftware applicationMS Excel• Commercial spreadsheet application written and distributed by Microsoft for Microsoft Windows and Mac OS X.• It features calculation, graphing tools, pivot tables, and a macro programming language calledVisual Basic for Applications.
  13. 13. Software and Common ApplicationsSoftware applicationMS Outlook• Personal information manager from Microsoft.
  14. 14. Software and Common ApplicationsSoftware applicationMS Internet ExplorerSeries of graphical webbrowsersDeveloped byMicrosoft and includedas part of theMicrosoftWindows lineof operating systems.
  15. 15. Utilities software designed to help analyse, configure, optimize or maintain a computer. A single piece of utility software is usually called a utility or tool. It is usually focuses on how the computer infrastructure (including the computer hardware, operating system, application software and data storage) operates. Utilities are often rather technical and targeted at people with an advanced level of computer knowledge - in contrast to application software, which allows users to do things like creating text documents, playing games, listening to music or viewing websites.
  16. 16. Utilities softwareAcrobat reader• Set of application software developed by Adobe Systems to view, create, manipulate, print and manage files in Portable Document Format (PDF)
  17. 17. Utilities softwareAdobe Flash Player• Software for viewing multimedia, Rich Internet Applications and streaming video and audio, on a computer web browser or on supported mobile devices.• Flash Player runs SWF files that can be created by the Adobe Flash authoring tool, by Adobe Flex or by a number of other Macromedia and third party tools.
  18. 18. Utilities softwareFile Compression• Data compression, source coding, or bit-rate reduction involves encoding information using fewer bits than the original representation.• Compression is useful because it helps reduce the consumption of resources such as data space or transmission capacity.WinZip• WinZip is a proprietary file archiver and compressor for Microsoft Windows and Mac OS X, developed by WinZip Computing.• WinZip creates archives in the ZIP file format but also has various levels of support for other archive formats.
  19. 19. Computer Security• includes protection of information and property from theft, corruption, or natural disaster, while allowing the information and property to remain accessible and productive to its intended users.• means the collective processes and mechanisms by which sensitive and valuable information and services are protected from publication and tampering
  20. 20. Computer SecurityComputer Virus• Computer program that can replicate itself and spread from one computer to another.• The term "virus" is also commonly, but erroneously, used to refer to other types of malware, including but not limited to adware and spyware programs that do not have a reproductive ability.Malware includes computer viruses:• Computer worms, Trojan horses, most rootkits, spyware, dishonest adware and other malicious or unwanted software, including true viruses.
  21. 21. Computer SecurityComputer Worms• A worm can exploit security vulnerabilities to spread itself automatically to other computers through networks.Popular: Win32 Conflicker, ILOVEYOU worm, Brontok, Doomjuice, Koobface, SupernovaComputer Trojans• Trojan horse is a program that appears harmless but hides malicious functions. Popular: Netbus, Subseven or Sub7, Y3K Remote Administration Tool, Back Orifice, Beast, Zeus, Flashback Trojan
  22. 22. Utilities softwareAnti Virus• Utilities scan for computer viruses.• Software used to prevent, detect and remove malware, such as: computer viruses, adware, backdoors, malicious BHOs, dialers, fraudtools,hijackers, keyloggers, malicious LSPs, rootkits, spyware, trojan horses and worms. Computer security, including protection from social engineering techniques, is commonly offered in products and services of antivirus software companies.
  23. 23. Utilities softwareUtility software categories• Anti-virus utilities • File managers• Backup utilities • Cryptographic utilities• Data compression • Hex editors• Disk checkers • Memory testers• Disk cleaners • Network utilities• Disk compression • Registry cleaners• Disk defragmenters • Screensavers• Disk partitions • System monitors• Disk space analyzers • System profilers• Disk storage utilities• Archive utilities
  24. 24. Understanding the InternetI. What is Internet?II. Server and ClientsIII. Understanding the WebIV. Connecting to the InternetV. Internet today
  25. 25. What is the Internet?It is the largest computer network in theworld, connecting millions of computers.A network is a group of two or morecomputer systems linked together.There are two main types of computernetworks:• Local Area Network (LAN): A LAN is two or more connected computers sharing certain resources in a relatively small geographic location, often in the same building.• Wide Area Network (WAN): A WAN typically consists of two or more LANs. The Internet is the largest Wide Area Network (WAN) in existence.
  26. 26. Servers and ClientsA Server is a computer that "serves" many different computers in a networkby running specialized software and storing information.For example, web pages are stored on servers.In peer-to-peer (P2P) networks, each computer acts as both a server and aclient. Examples of P2P software include Skype and BitTorrent.
  27. 27. Understanding the WebThe World Wide Web (WWW) The World Wide Web is a virtualnetwork of web sites connected by hyperlinks (or "links"). Web sites arestored on servers on the Internet, so the World Wide Web is a part of theInternet.Some common terms:URL (Uniform Resource Locator) also known as the web address, tells thebrowser exactly where to find the page.• Internet Protocol are sets of rules that allow for inter-machine communication on the Internet.• HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol) - transmits hyptertext over networks. This is the protocol of the Web.• HyperText is a document containing words that connect to other documents. These words are called links and are selectable by the user.
  28. 28. Understanding the WebHTML (HyperText Marckup Language ) is the backbone of the World WideWeb, which are specially-formatted documents that can contain links, as wellas images and other media.All web browsers can read HTML files.FTP (File Transfer Protocol) - transfers files between an FTP server and acomputer, for example, to download software.
  29. 29. Web BrowsersA web browser is the tool that you use to access the World Wide Web. Inorder to get the most out of the Web, its important to understand the variousfeatures of a browser.Common Web browsers:• Internet Explorer • Safari• Firefox • Opera• Chrome
  30. 30. Know how to connect to the Internet and set up an internet connection. Let’s watch this short clip.
  31. 31. Internet todayIn the early days, most people just used the Internet to search forinformation.Todays Internet is a constantly evolving tool, that not only contains anamazing variety of information, but also provides new ways of accessing,interacting and connecting with people and content.Common Terms in the Internet:VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) – also known as Internet telephone,allows user to have telephone service through an internet connection.Email (Electronic mail) – is a system for sending and receiving messagesonline.
  32. 32. Internet todayWeb Feed – also known as news feed, is a way to receive updates from yourfavorite web sites and blogs.Streaming media – If you watch a movie online or listen to iTunes radio.Online chat – is a system that allows user to communicate in real time.Instant messaging is a type of chat where you communicate with a specificperson instead of an entire chat room.
  33. 33. Internet todaySocial Networking – online services that allow people to interact with eachother and stay connected with friends and family.WiKi – is a type of website that allows content to be edited or created byanyone.
  34. 34. Internet todayPodcast – is basically a web feed for media.Social bookmarking – allows users all over the internet to share and rateinteresting sites.
  35. 35. Internet todayBlog – is a journal entry system organized around postings about whichreaders can comment.Tags – can help organize content into concepts or categories. Tags areespecially popular on blogs and social bookmarking sites.Widget – is a snippet of a program running on another site that can beembedded on your own Web page.
  36. 36. Surging Internet Usage in Southeast Asia