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- 1. Modeling and Representing Atoms on Paper How to draw Bohr Diagrams and Electron Dot Diagrams (sometimes called Lewis Structures)
- 2. Bohr Diagrams <ul><li>Pictographic representation of an Atom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shows information about the nucleus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electron energy levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good for index cards and flash cards </li></ul></ul>
- 3. <ul><li>Start with a rectangle about 2” x 4” </li></ul>Bohr Diagrams
- 4. <ul><li>At the top write the name, Atomic number, Mass number of the element and the atomic mass </li></ul>Bohr Diagrams Carbon Atomic # = 6 Mass # = 12 Atomic mass = 12.011 amu
- 5. <ul><li>Draw a small circle below the text that will represent the nucleus of the atom </li></ul>Bohr Diagrams <ul><li>In the circle write: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the elemental symbol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the number of Protons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the number of Neutrons </li></ul></ul>Carbon Atomic # = 6 Mass # = 12 Atomic mass = 12.011 amu C 6p + 6n 0
- 6. <ul><li>Draw a larger circle around the nucleus circle to represent the first energy level for electrons </li></ul>Bohr Diagrams Carbon Atomic # = 6 Mass # = 12 Atomic mass = 12.011 amu <ul><li>Add more circles outside to include all of the energy levels you need for the atom. </li></ul><ul><li>(Hint: In what period is the element?) </li></ul>Carbon is in Period two and therefore needs two energy levels C 6p + 6n 0
- 7. <ul><li>Now add electrons, as small dots, to each energy level as allowed until you have the proper number of electrons for a neutral element. </li></ul>Bohr Diagrams Carbon Atomic # = 6 Mass # = 12 Atomic mass = 12.011 amu The number of electrons should be equal to the number of protons. Remember: C 6p + 6n 0 If you need a third level make your circles a little smaller. 8 3 8 2 2 1 # of e - Energy Level
- 8. <ul><li>You now have a complete Bohr Diagram </li></ul>Bohr Diagrams Carbon Atomic # = 6 Mass # = 12 Atomic mass = 12.011 amu C 6p + 6n 0
- 9. Electron Dot Diagrams <ul><li>Also called Lewis Structures </li></ul><ul><li>Representation of valence electrons only </li></ul><ul><li>Useful only for “Representative elements” </li></ul><ul><li>Gives some indication of the geometry (shape) of compounds when used for bonding diagrams </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to draw </li></ul>
- 10. Electron Dot Diagrams <ul><li>The Elemental Symbol serves as the representation of the nucleus </li></ul>C
- 11. Electron Dot Diagrams <ul><li>Dots are added around the nucleus to show electrons only in the outer energy level </li></ul>C Carbon has only 4 electrons in the 2 nd energy level so we need only represent those 4 Like the Hund rule add 1 electron per side, then add more as needed.
- 12. Electron Dot Diagrams <ul><li>Lewis structures only apply to “Representative elements” (Group A elements) </li></ul>C Only s and p sublevel electrons in the outer or highest energy level are shown. These are called valence electrons. The maximum number of electrons that can be shown are 8
- 13. Electron Dot Diagrams <ul><li>Lewis structures only apply to “Representative elements” (Group A elements) </li></ul>O The maximum number of electrons that can be shown are 8 Only s and p sublevel electrons in the outer or highest energy level are shown. These are called valence electrons.
- 14. Electron Dot Diagrams <ul><li>Lewis structures only apply to “Representative elements” (Group A elements) </li></ul>Cl The maximum number of electrons that can be shown are 8 Only s and p sublevel electrons in the outer or highest energy level are shown. These are called valence electrons.
- 15. Electron Dot Diagrams <ul><li>Lewis structures only apply to “Representative elements” (Group A elements) </li></ul>Li The maximum number of electrons that can be shown are 8 Only s and p sublevel electrons in the outer or highest energy level are shown. These are called valence electrons.
- 16. Electron Dot Diagrams <ul><li>Transition metals don’t have valence electrons. They have Oxidation Numbers </li></ul>Fe Cu Ag Pb +2 +2 +2 +4 We’ll Talk about Oxidation Numbers Next Week!

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