Strategy Analysis and Choice


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Strategy Analysis and Choice

  1. 1. Chapter 6 Strategy Analysis & Choice <ul><li>Strategic Management: Concepts & Cases </li></ul><ul><li>10 th Edition </li></ul><ul><li>Fred David PowerPoint Slides by </li></ul><ul><li>Anthony F. Chelte </li></ul><ul><li>Western New England College </li></ul>
  2. 2. Chapter Outline The Nature of Strategy & Choice A Comprehensive Strategy-Formulation Framework The Input Stage
  3. 3. Chapter Outline ( cont’d ) The Matching Stage The Decision Stage Cultural Aspects of Strategy Choice
  4. 4. Chapter Outline ( cont’d ) The Politics of Strategy Choice Governance Issues
  5. 5. <ul><li>To acquire or not to acquire, that is the question – Robert J. Terry </li></ul>Strategy Analysis & Choice Life is full of lousy options -- General P.X. Kelley
  6. 6. <ul><li>-- Establishing long-term objectives </li></ul><ul><li>-- Generating alternative strategies </li></ul><ul><li>-- Selecting strategies to pursue </li></ul><ul><li>-- Best alternative - achieve mission & objectives </li></ul>Nature of Strategy Analysis & Choice Strategy Analysis & Choice
  7. 7. <ul><li>Vision </li></ul><ul><li>Mission </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>External audit </li></ul><ul><li>Internal audit </li></ul><ul><li>Past successful strategies </li></ul>Strategy Analysis & Choice Alternative Strategies Derive From --
  8. 8. Strategy Analysis & Choice Generating Alternatives -- Participation in generating alternative strategies should be as broad as possible
  9. 9. Comprehensive Strategy-Formulation Framework Stage 1: The Input Stage Stage 2: The Matching Stage Stage 3: The Decision Stage
  10. 10. Strategy-Formulation Analytical Framework Internal Factor Evaluation Matrix (IFE) External Factor Evaluation Matrix (EFE) Competitive Profile Matrix (CPM) Stage 1: The Input Stage
  11. 11. Stage 1: The Input Stage <ul><li>Basic input information for the matching & decision stage matrices </li></ul><ul><li>Requires strategists to quantify subjectivity early in the process </li></ul><ul><li>Good intuitive judgment always needed </li></ul>
  12. 12. Strategy-Formulation Analytical Framework SWOT Matrix SPACE Matrix BCG Matrix IE Matrix Grand Strategy Matrix Stage 2: The Matching Stage
  13. 13. Stage 2: The Matching Stage <ul><li>Match between organization’s internal resources & skills and the opportunities & risks created by its external factors </li></ul>
  14. 14. Stage 2: The Matching Stage <ul><li>Strengths </li></ul><ul><li>Weaknesses </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Threats </li></ul>SWOT Matrix
  15. 15. SWOT Matrix <ul><li>Strengths-Opportunities (SO) </li></ul><ul><li>Weaknesses-Opportunities (WO) </li></ul><ul><li>Strengths-Threats (ST) </li></ul><ul><li>Weaknesses-Threats (WT) </li></ul>Four Types of Strategies
  16. 16. SO Strategies Use a firm’s internal strengths to take advantage of external opportunities SO Strategies Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats SWOT
  17. 17. WO Strategies Improving internal weaknesses by taking advantage of external opportunities WO Strategies Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats SWOT
  18. 18. ST Strategies Use a firm’s strengths to avoid or reduce the impact of external threats ST Strategies Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats SWOT
  19. 19. WT Strategies Defensive tactics aimed at reducing internal weaknesses & avoiding environmental threats WT Strategies Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats SWOT
  20. 20. SWOT Matrix Developing the SWOT <ul><li>List firm’s key internal Strengths </li></ul><ul><li>List firm’s key internal Weaknesses </li></ul><ul><li>List firm’s key external Opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>List firm’s key external Threats </li></ul>
  21. 21. SWOT Matrix WT Strategies Minimize weaknesses and avoid threats ST Strategies Use strengths to avoid threats Threats – T List Threats WO Strategies Overcoming weaknesses by taking advantage of opportunities SO Strategies Use strengths to take advantage of opportunities Opportunities – O List Opportunities Weaknesses – W List Weaknesses Strengths – S List Strengths Leave Blank
  22. 22. Key Internal Factor Key External Factor Resultant Strategy Matching Key Factors to Formulate Alternative Strategies Develop a new employee benefits package = Strong union activity (threat) + Poor employee morale (weakness) Develop new products for older adults = Decreasing numbers of young adults (threat) + Strong R&D (strength) Pursue horizontal integration by buying competitor's facilities = Exit of two major foreign competitors form the industry (opportunity) + Insufficient capacity (weakness) Acquire Cellfone, Inc. = 20% annual growth in the cell phone industry (opportunity) + Excess working capacity (strength)
  23. 23. Strategy-Formulation Analytical Framework SWOT Matrix SPACE Matrix BCG Matrix IE Matrix Grand Strategy Matrix Stage 2: The Matching Stage
  24. 24. SPACE Matrix Strategic Position & Action Evaluation Matrix <ul><li>Aggressive </li></ul><ul><li>Conservative </li></ul><ul><li>Defensive </li></ul><ul><li>Competitive </li></ul>
  25. 25. SPACE Matrix Two Internal Dimensions <ul><li>Financial Strength (FS) </li></ul><ul><li>Competitive Advantage (CA) </li></ul>
  26. 26. SPACE Matrix Two External Dimensions <ul><li>Environmental Stability (ES) </li></ul><ul><li>Industry Strength (IS) </li></ul>
  27. 27. SPACE Factors Environmental Stability (ES) Technological changes Rate of inflation Demand variability Price range of competing products Barriers to entry Competitive pressure Price elasticity of demand Ease of exit from market Risk involved in business Financial Strength (FS) Return on investment Leverage Liquidity Working capital Cash flow External Strategic Position Internal Strategic Position
  28. 28. SPACE Factors Industry Strength (IS) Growth potential Profit potential Financial stability Technological know-how Resource utilization Ease of entry into market Productivity, capacity utilization Competitive Advantage CA Market share Product quality Product life cycle Customer loyalty Competition’s capacity utilization Technological know-how Control over suppliers & distributors External Strategic Position Internal Strategic Position
  29. 29. SPACE Matrix FS +6 +1 +5 +4 +3 +2 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 ES CA IS Conservative Aggressive Defensive Competitive
  30. 30. Strategy-Formulation Analytical Framework SWOT Matrix SPACE Matrix BCG Matrix IE Matrix Grand Strategy Matrix Stage 2: The Matching Stage
  31. 31. BCG Matrix Boston Consulting Group Matrix <ul><li>Enhances multi-divisional firm in formulating strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomous divisions = business portfolio </li></ul><ul><li>Divisions may compete in different industries </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on market-share position & industry growth rate </li></ul>
  32. 32. BCG Matrix Relative Market Share Position <ul><li>Ratio of a division’s own market share in an industry to the market share held by the largest rival firm in that industry. </li></ul>
  33. 33. BCG Matrix Relative Market Share Position High 1.0 Medium .50 Low 0.0 Industry Sales Growth Rate High +20 Low -20 Medium 0 Dogs IV Cash Cows III Question Marks I Stars II
  34. 34. BCG Matrix Question Marks <ul><li>Low relative market share – compete in high-growth industry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cash needs are high </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Case generation is low </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Decision to strengthen (intensive strategies) or divest </li></ul>
  35. 35. BCG Matrix Stars <ul><li>High relative market share and high growth rate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Best long-run opportunities for growth & profitability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Substantial investment to maintain or strengthen dominant position </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integration strategies, intensive strategies, joint ventures </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. BCG Matrix Cash Cows <ul><li>High relative market share, competes in low-growth industry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generate cash in excess of their needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Milked for other purposes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maintain strong position as long as possible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Product development, concentric diversification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If weakens—retrenchment or divestiture </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. BCG Matrix Dogs <ul><li>Low relative market share & compete in slow or no market growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weak internal & external position </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Liquidation, divestiture, retrenchment </li></ul>
  38. 38. Strategy-Formulation Analytical Framework SWOT Matrix SPACE Matrix BCG Matrix Grand Strategy Matrix Stage 2: The Matching Stage
  39. 39. Grand Strategy Matrix <ul><li>Tool for formulating alternative strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Based on two dimensions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Competitive position </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Market growth </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>Quadrant IV </li></ul><ul><li>Concentric diversification </li></ul><ul><li>Horizontal diversification </li></ul><ul><li>Conglomerate diversification </li></ul><ul><li>Joint ventures </li></ul><ul><li>Quadrant III </li></ul><ul><li>Retrenchment </li></ul><ul><li>Concentric diversification </li></ul><ul><li>Horizontal diversification </li></ul><ul><li>Conglomerate diversification </li></ul><ul><li>Liquidation </li></ul><ul><li>Quadrant I </li></ul><ul><li>Market development </li></ul><ul><li>Market penetration </li></ul><ul><li>Product development </li></ul><ul><li>Forward integration </li></ul><ul><li>Backward integration </li></ul><ul><li>Horizontal integration </li></ul><ul><li>Concentric diversification </li></ul><ul><li>Quadrant II </li></ul><ul><li>Market development </li></ul><ul><li>Market penetration </li></ul><ul><li>Product development </li></ul><ul><li>Horizontal integration </li></ul><ul><li>Divestiture </li></ul><ul><li>Liquidation </li></ul>RAPID MARKET GROWTH SLOW MARKET GROWTH WEAK COMPETITIVE POSITION STRONG COMPETITIVE POSITION
  41. 41. Grand Strategy Matrix <ul><li>Excellent strategic position </li></ul><ul><li>Concentration on current markets/products </li></ul><ul><li>Take risks aggressively when necessary </li></ul>Quadrant I
  42. 42. Grand Strategy Matrix <ul><li>Evaluate present approach </li></ul><ul><li>How to improve competitiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid market growth requires intensive strategy </li></ul>Quadrant II
  43. 43. Grand Strategy Matrix <ul><li>Compete in slow-growth industries </li></ul><ul><li>Weak competitive position </li></ul><ul><li>Drastic changes quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Cost & asset reduction (retrenchment) </li></ul>Quadrant III
  44. 44. Grand Strategy Matrix <ul><li>Strong competitive position </li></ul><ul><li>Slow-growth industry </li></ul><ul><li>Diversification to more promising growth areas </li></ul>Quadrant IV
  45. 45. Strategy-Formulation Analytical Framework Stage 3: The Decision Stage Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix (QSPM)
  46. 46. QSPM <ul><li>Technique designed to determine the relative attractiveness of feasible alternative actions </li></ul>Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix
  47. 47. QSPM Strategic Alternatives Key Internal Factors Management Marketing Finance/Accounting Production/Operations Research and Development Computer Information Systems Strategy 3 Strategy 2 Strategy 1 Weight Key External Factors Economy Political/Legal/Governmental Social/Cultural/Demographic/Environmental Technological Competitive
  48. 48. QSPM <ul><li>Requires intuitive judgments & educated assumptions </li></ul><ul><li>Only as good as the prerequisite inputs </li></ul>Limitations
  49. 49. QSPM <ul><li>Sets of strategies considered simultaneously or sequentially </li></ul><ul><li>Integration of pertinent external & internal factors in the decision making process </li></ul>Advantages
  50. 50. Cultural Aspects of Strategy Choice <ul><li>Successful strategies depend on the degree of consistency with the firm’s culture </li></ul>Organization Culture
  51. 51. Politics of Strategy Choice <ul><li>Management hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Career aspirations </li></ul><ul><li>Allocation of scarce resources </li></ul>Politics in Organizations
  52. 52. Politics of Strategy Choice <ul><li>Equifinality </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfying </li></ul><ul><li>Generalization </li></ul><ul><li>Higher-order issues </li></ul><ul><li>Political access on important issues </li></ul>Political tactics for strategists
  53. 53. Governance Issues <ul><li>Control & oversight over management </li></ul><ul><li>Adherence to legal prescriptions </li></ul><ul><li>Consideration of stakeholder interests </li></ul><ul><li>Advancement of stockholder rights </li></ul>Board of Directors Roles & Responsibilities
  54. 54. Corporate Governance Issues <ul><li>No more than 2 directors current or former company executives </li></ul><ul><li>No directors do business with the company </li></ul><ul><li>Audit, compensation, and nominating committees made up of outside directors </li></ul><ul><li>Each director attends at lest 75% of all meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Audit committee meets at least four times a year </li></ul><ul><li>CEO is not also the Chairperson of the Board </li></ul><ul><li>Shareholders have considerable power and information to choose & replace directors </li></ul><ul><li>Stock options are considered a corporate expense </li></ul><ul><li>No interlocking directorships </li></ul>Business Week’s “principles of good governance”
  55. 55. <ul><li>Key Terms & Concepts </li></ul>For Review (Chapter 6) Aggressive Quadrant Business Portfolio Attractiveness Scores (AS) Cash Cows Boards of Directors Competitive Advantage (CA) Boston Consulting Group (BCG) Matrix Competitive Quadrant
  56. 56. <ul><li>Key Terms & Concepts </li></ul>For Review (Chapter 6) Conservative Quadrant Dogs Culture Environmental Stability (ES) Defensive Quadrant Financial Strength (FS) Directional Vector Governance
  57. 57. <ul><li>Key Terms & Concepts </li></ul>For Review (Chapter 6) Grand Strategy Matrix Internal-External (IE) Matrix Halo Error Matching Industry Strength (IS) Matching Stage Input Stage Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix (QSPM)
  58. 58. <ul><li>Key Terms & Concepts </li></ul>For Review (Chapter 6) Question Marks Stars Relative Market Share Position Strategic Position & Action Evaluation (SPACE) SO Strategies Sum Total Attractiveness Score (STAS) ST Strategies Sustainability
  59. 59. <ul><li>Key Terms & Concepts </li></ul>For Review (Chapter 6) Total Attractiveness Scores (TAS) WO Strategies WT Strategies Strengths, Weaknesses Opportunities, Threats SWOT