5.1 pop art


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5.1 pop art

  1. 1. American Pop ArtArt  109A:    Art  since  1945  Westchester  Community  College  Fall  2012  Dr.  Melissa  Hall  
  2. 2. Origins  Pop  art  originated  with  the  BriEsh  Independent  Group  Eduardo Paolozzi, I was a Rich Man’sPlaything, 1947 Richard  Hamilton,  Just  what  is  it  that  makes  today’s  homes  so  different,  so  appealing?  1956    Tate Gallery
  3. 3. Rela,ves  AffiniEes  with  French  Nouveau  Réalisme  Raymond  Hains,  ,  Pour  la  Paix  La  Démocra;e  le  Progrés  Social  1959   Arman,  Accumula;on,  1961  
  4. 4. Precursors  Neo-­‐Dada  Junk  Art  Assemblage  Happenings  
  5. 5. Pop  “Pop is everything art hasn’tbeen for the last two decades . . .It springs newborn out of aboredom with the finality andoversaturation of abstractexpressionism . . . Stifled by thisrarefied atmosphere, someyoung painters turn back to someless exalted things like Coca-Cola . . .The self-conscious brushstroke and the even more selfconscious drip are not central toits generation. Impasto is visualindigestion.”Robert Indiana Robert Indiana’s Love sculpture on 6th Ave NYC
  6. 6. Cultural  Perspec,ves:  Pop  arEsts  were  responding  to  the  rapid  growth  of  consumer  adverEsing  
  7. 7. Consumerism  “American economic successhinged on mass consumerism anda burgeoning military-industrialcomplex . . . . To make certain thenation was never again infected byeconomic depression, Americanswere urged to go on a shoppingspree: buying new cars, suburbanhomes, washing machines,refrigerators, and television sets.To ensure its global economicdominance, particularly againstcommunism, the nationdramatically enlarged its defenseindustry, and US corporations andconsumer products (Coca-Cola,Marlboros, TV) increasingly Vintage postcard for Garden State Plaza, New Jerseypenetrated foreign markets.” Image source: http://mallsofamerica.blogspot.com/2007_04_01_archive.htmlErika Doss, Twentieth Century AmericanArt, Oxford History of Art, OxfordUniversity Press, 2002, p. 125.
  8. 8. Mass  Media  And  to  the  advent  of  mass  media  technologies  While only 0.5% of U.S.households had a television setin 1946, 55.7% had one in 1954,and 90% by 1962 1950s television set Image source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Television_set_from_the_early_1950s.jpg
  9. 9. Media  Mass  Media  Mass  media  transforms  free  ciEzens  into  “consumers”   Typical American Family, 1950s Image source: http://www.noozhawk.com/green_hawk/article/ 050610_energy_toll_of_televisions_328500_watts_and_counting/
  10. 10. Mass  Media  Robert  F.  Kennedy:    first  “television”  president  Media  has  the  power  to  shape  global  poliEcs   Televised debate between Richard M. Nixon and John F. Kennedy, 1960 Image source: http://jeremywaite.wordpress.com/2010/02/02/how-will-your-name-be-remembered/
  11. 11. MediaStudies  Marshall  McLuhan,  “father”  of  Media  Studies   Marshall Macluhan, Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man, 1964
  12. 12. Avant  Garde  and  Kitsch  While  purified  abstracEon  disdained  popular  culture,  Pop  art  embraced  it  wholeheartedly  “Clement Greenberg and most ofthe abstract expressionists hadalways maintained a rigidly elitiststance toward vernacularculture . . .”Tony Schermanhttp://www.americanheritage.com/articles/magazine/ah/2001/1/2001_1_68.shtml Clement Greenberg looking at a painting by Ken Noland Image source: http://www.theslideprojector.com/art1/art1twoday/art1lecture9.html
  13. 13. Avant  Garde  and  Kitsch  The  culture  of  “kitsch”  that  Clement  Greenberg  had  derided  in  1939  had  reached  a  new  level  of  pervasiveness  and  intensity  “By 1960 Greenberg’s kitsch—television, advertising, magazines,movies, and other mass media—had lodged itself deeply inAmerica’s consciousness. Media-generated imagery was toourgent, too omnipresent, for artiststo ignore. “Tony Schermanhttp://www.americanheritage.com/articles/magazine/ah/2001/1/2001_1_68.shtml
  14. 14. A  New  Reality  “The Pop artists . . . . wereresponding to the new Americanvisual landscape, a vista ofadvertising, billboards, commercialproducts, automobiles, strip malls,fast food, television, and comicstrips. They therefore took print, film,and television images from media-based reality and transformed theminto art, often through variousmechanical means. Their pictureswere often images of images, copiesof copies, a twice-removed effect thatechoed the techniques of massproduction, the media andmarketing.” First Macdonalds, San Bernardino, CaliforniaLisa Phillips, The American Century: Art & Culture Image source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:First_McDonalds,_San_Bernardino,_California.jpg1950-2000, Whitney Museum/W.W. Norton, 1999, p.114.
  15. 15. Tom  Wesselmann  Tom  Wesselman  captures  the  media-­‐saturated  reality  of  postwar  American  society  in  a  series  of  sEll  lives  from  the  1960’s   Tom  Wesselmann,  S;ll  Life  #24,  1962,  Nelson  Atkins  Museum   Image  source:    h^p://www.greenmuseum.org/c/aen/Images/Ecology/24.php  
  16. 16. S,ll  Life  SEll  Life:    an  arrangement  of  “things”  Daniel Spoerri, Kichkas Breakfast I, 1960 Raphaelle Peale , Still Life with Cake, 1818Museum of Modern Art Metropolitan Museum
  17. 17. Tom  Wesselmann,  S;ll  Life  #24,  1962,  Nelson  Atkins  Museum  Image  source:    h^p://www.greenmuseum.org/c/aen/Images/Ecology/24.php  
  18. 18. Tom  Wesselmann  Wesselmann’s  sEll  lives  are  not  pictures  of  “things”  but  of    media  adverEsements  for  things   Tom Wesselmann’s Still Life #35 (1963) at L&M Arts Image source: http://www.artnet.com/magazineus/reviews/robinson/robinson4-17-06_detail.asp? picnum=19
  19. 19. Tom  Wesselmann,  S;ll  Life  #24,  1962,  Nelson  Atkins  Museum  Image  source:    h^p://www.greenmuseum.org/c/aen/Images/Ecology/24.php  
  20. 20. Tom  Wesselmann,  S;ll  Life  #24,  1962,  Nelson  Atkins  Museum  Image  source:    h^p://www.greenmuseum.org/c/aen/Images/Ecology/24.php  
  21. 21. Tom  Wesselmann,  Still  Life  #36,  1964  Whitney  Museum  
  22. 22. Tom  Wesselmann  Similar  to  Jasper  Johns’  Flag  –  pictures  of  images  rather  than  things   Jasper Johns, Flag, 1954-5, Museum of Modern Art  
  23. 23. Mediated  Reality  Pop  art  took  the  “second  hand”  reality  of  media  culture  as  its  subject  ma^er  
  24. 24. Mediated  Reality  Mediated  reality  refers  to  a  kind  of  pre-­‐processed  reality,  delivered  through  controlled  media  outlets  (radio;  TV,  adverEsing)   Inventor Hugo Gernsback with his T.V. Glasses. Photo: Alfred Eisenstaedt/ Time & Life Pictures/Getty Imagesene 01, 1963
  25. 25. Mediated  Reality  Pictures  of  pictures,  rather  than  things   Mediated Reality, by Barry Carlton Image source: http://photo.net/photodb/photo?photo_id=5215460&size=lg Thomas de Zengotita, Mediated: The Hidden Effects of Media on People, Places, and Things (Bloomsbury, 2005)
  26. 26. Tom Wesselmann, Still Life #28, 1963
  27. 27. Tom Wesselmann, Still Life #30, 1963Museum of Modern Art
  28. 28. Tom Wesselmann, Great American Nude #57, 1964Whitney Museum
  29. 29. Titian , Venus of Urbino, 1538
  30. 30. Willem De Kooning, Woman I, 1950-52Museum of Modern Art
  31. 31. Fe,shism  The  figures  are  typically  faceless,  with  selecEve  emphasis  on  feEshized  body  parts  (lips;  nipples)   Tom Wesselmann, Great American Nude, 1964
  32. 32. Fe,shism  The  flat  hard  edge  shapes  mimic  the  cool  impersonal  style  of  commercial  adverEsing  –  and  contemporary  hard  edge  abstracEon    Ellsworth Kelly, Blue Green Red, 1962-3Metropolitan Museum Tom Wesselmann, Great American Nude #59, 1965 Hirshhorn Museum
  33. 33. Walk-­‐In  Environments  Wesselmann  also  did  “walk-­‐in”  environments   Tom Wesselmann, Bathtub 3, 1963 Museum Ludwig
  34. 34. Tom Wesselmann, Great American Nude #48, 1963Image source: http://www.life.com/image/80663562
  35. 35. George  Segal  Figures  made  from  plaster  casts  of  real  people  and  placed  in  actual  environments     George Segal, Bus, 1962 Hirshhorn Museum
  36. 36. Mark Rothko called them walk-in Edward Hopper paintings Edward Hopper, Night Hawks, 1942George Segal, Diner, 1964Walker Art Center
  37. 37. Environments  Segal’s  sculptures  allow  the  viewer  to  enter  the  work  and  engage  with  it  as  an  experience   George Segal, Three people on four benches, 1979
  38. 38. George  Segal  Segal  is  oien  associated  with  the  Pop  Art  movement  because  his  sejngs  evoke  American  consumer  culture   George Segal, Tar Roofer, 1964 With Robert Indiana’s Love paintings
  39. 39. “In Segal’s work . . . the readymadesettings . . . are more vivid, even more‘alive’ than the plastercast figureswhich surround them. Here, the worldof things seems to participate in theevacuation of selfhood. It is thosethings, Segal suggests, rather thanhuman agency, which constitute apublic world.”David Joselit, American Art Since 1945, Thames &Hudson, 2003, p. 75 George Segal, Cinema, 1963 Albright Knox Gallery
  40. 40. Roy  Lichtenstein  Roy  Lichtenstein  began  as  an  abstract  painter   Roy Lichtenstein, Untitled, 1959
  41. 41. Roy  Lichtenstein  His  involvement  with  Allan  Kaprow,  Jim  Dine,  Claes  Oldenberg,  and  George  Segal,  inspired  him  to  explore  popular  imagery   Roy Lichtenstein, Refrigerator, 1962
  42. 42. Roy  Lichtenstein  This  painEng  was  based  on  an  adverEsement  for  a  vacaEon  resort  in  the  Poconos   Roy Lichtenstein, Girl with a Ball, 1961 Museum of Modern Art
  43. 43. Roy  Lichtenstein  He  didn’t  just  incorporate  the  image  into  a  collage  the  way  the  Independent  Group  did   Eduardo Paolozzi, I was a Rich Man’s Plaything, 1947 Tate Gallery Richard  Hamilton,  Just  what  is  it  that  makes  today’s  homes  so  different,  so  appealing?  1956    
  44. 44. Roy  Lichtenstein  Instead,  he  faithfully  duplicated  the  image   “The closer my work is to the original the more threatening and critical the content.” Roy Lichtenstein Roy Lichtenstein, Girl with a Ball, 1961 Museum of Modern Art
  45. 45. Roy  Lichtenstein  He  used  a  projector  to  copy  his  source  images  
  46. 46. Roy  Lichtenstein  He  used  Ben-­‐Day  dots  to  create  haliones   Roy Lichtenstein, Magnifying Glass, 1963
  47. 47. Roy  Lichtenstein  His  mechanical,  impersonal  approach  was  the  complete  opposite  of  “acEon  painEng”  
  48. 48. Roy  Lichtenstein  “Lichtenstein  .  .  .  rebelled  into  impersonality  .  .  .    he  put  the  copy  into  a  projector  and  traced  the  magnified  image  onto  a  canvas  for  the  outline  of  his  painEng.  His  trademark  Ben  Day  dots  (the  Eny  dots  used  by  printers  and  cartoonists  for  shading)  made  his  canvases  look  printed,  not  painted.  “I  wanted  to  look  programmed,”  he  told  an  interviewer.  The  hand,  bearer  of  individuality,  was  feEshized  by  abstract  expressionism.  Pop  slapped  it  away.”  Tony  Sherman,  "When  Pop  Turned  the  Artworld  Upside  Down"   Roy Lichtenstein, Girl with a Ball, 1961 Museum of Modern Art
  49. 49. Roy  Lichtenstein  The  banality  of  his  subject  ma^er  was  equally  shocking   Roy Lichtenstein, Refrigerator, 1962 Roy Lichtenstein, Standing Rib, 1962 Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles
  50. 50. Roy  Lichtenstein  It  seemed  to  be  the  anEthesis  of  the  heroic  content  of  Abstract  Expressionism   Barnett Newman, Vir Heroicus Sublimus, 1950-51 Museum of Modern Art
  51. 51. Lichtenstein’s  use  of  popular  imagery  and  impersonal  strategies  challenged   accepted  aestheEc  values  in  several  ways:  •  Originality:    by  using  “readymade”  imagery,  Lichtenstein  challenged   expectaEons  about  “originality”  (the  Etle  of  Michael  Lobel’s  book  on   Lichtenstein  is  “Image  Duplicator”)  •  Significant  Subject  MaMer:    while  the  Abstract  Expressionists  sought   “tragic  themes”  Lichtenstein’s  subject  ma^er  comes  from  the  vulgar  realm   of  popular  culture  •  Individual  style:    instead  of  a  personal  style,  Lichtenstein  “paints  like  a   machine”:    he  literally  copied  his  images  using  a  projector,  and  he  used  the   commercial  technique  of  Ben-­‐day  dots  to  create  half-­‐tones  The  deadpan,  impersonal  style  of  Pop  art,  along  with  its  unashamed  embrace   of  popular  culture  and  a  figuraEve  style,  was  in  every  way  a  rejecEon  of   the  cherished  principals  of  the  Abstract  Expressionist  generaEon  
  52. 52. Roy  Lichtenstein  Lichtenstein  is  best  known  for  his  painEngs  of  comic  books   Roy Lichtenstein, Look Mickey, 1961 National Gallery of Art
  53. 53. Roy  Lichtenstein  Many  of  them  were  based  on  the  popular  DC  comic  book  series   Roy Lichtenstein, Drowning Girl, 1963 Museum of Modern Art
  54. 54. Roy  Lichtenstein  Lichtenstein  claimed  to  be  interested  in  the  form  rather  than  the  content  “I paint my own pictures upsidedown or sideways. I often donteven remember what most of themare about. I obviously know in thebeginning what Im painting, andthat it will be funny or ironic. But Itry to suppress that while Im doingthem. The subjects arent what holdmy interest.”http://www.lichtensteinfoundation.org/kimmelman1.htm Roy Lichtenstein, Hopeless, 1963 Kunstmuseum, Basel
  55. 55. Roy  Lichtenstein  But  the  comics  he  used  epitomized  the  gender  stereotypes  of  the  era  
  56. 56. Roy  Lichtenstein  In  1962  Lichtenstein  began  his  series  of  war  painEngs  based  on  the  DC  Comic  All  American  Men  of  War   Roy Lichtenstein, Brattata, 1962
  57. 57. Roy  Lichtenstein  The  theme  was  topical  in  1962  since  the  United  States  was  at  war  in  Vietnam   Vietnam War fighter jets
  58. 58. Roy  Lichtenstein  In  contrast  to  the  female  “damsels  in  distress,”  the  men  in  this  series  are  acEon  heroes  fighEng  wars  in  vaguely  specified  locaEons   Roy Lichtenstein, Live Ammo, 1962
  59. 59. Roy Lichtenstein, Live Ammo, (Blang!), 1962
  60. 60. Roy Lichtenstein, Blam, 1962Yale University Art Gallery
  61. 61. Roy Lichtenstein, Whaam, 1963Tate Gallery
  62. 62. Detachment  The  “dramas”  Lichtenstein  presents  are  deeply  tragic  human  dramas:    love  and  war   Roy Lichtenstein, Blam, 1962 Yale University Art Gallery
  63. 63. Detachment  Yet  they  are  chillingly  devoid  of  emoEon  “Lichtenstein was not paintingthings but signs of things . . . . Byturning everything into a form thatcan be reproduced in newspapersor on television, the mediahomogenize experience . . .Lichtenstein explored this situationin a cool style that he hasconsistently described in terms ofits formal qualities, as if he had littleinterest in the subject matter . . . .Lichtenstein’s detachment from theexplicit subject is the real subject ofhis work.”Jonathan Fineberg, Art Since 1945,p. 261 Roy Lichtenstein, Drowning Girl, 1963 Museum of Modern Art
  64. 64. Detachment  Like  Jasper  Johns  and  Robert  Rauschenberg,  Lichtenstein  was  appropriaEng  material  from  everyday  life   Jasper Johns, Flag, 1954-5 Robert Rauschenberg, Retroactive, 1964
  65. 65. Detachment  Like  them,  too,  he  was  painEng  images  rather  than  things  "You know, all my subjects are always two-dimensional or at least they come fromtwo-dimensional sources. In other words,even if Im painting a room, its an image ofa room that I got from a furniture ad in aphone book, which is a two-dimensionalsource. This has meaning for me in thatwhen I came onto the scene, abstractartists like Frank Stella or Ellsworth Kellywere making paintings the point of whichwas that the painting itself became anobject, a thing, like a sculpture, in its ownright, not an illusion of something else. Andwhat Ive been trying to say all this time issimilar: that even if my work looks like itdepicts something, its essentially a flat Jasper Johns, Flag, 1954-5two-dimensional image, an object."http://www.lichtensteinfoundation.org/kimmelman1.htm Robert Rauschenberg, Retroactive, 1964
  66. 66. Challenging  Aesthe,c  Values  Lichtenstein  quesEoned  the  disEncEon  between  abstracEon  and  commerical  illustraEon  -­‐-­‐  and  between  “high”  and  “low”  art  Piet Mondrian, Composition No. 10 (Pier andOcean), 1915 Roy Lichtenstein, Golf Ball, 1962
  67. 67. Cartoonized  “Masterpieces”  Isn’t  a  Mondrian  just  like  a  flag  -­‐-­‐  an  object,  a  thing,  a  design?   Roy Lichtenstein, Non-Objective II, 1964
  68. 68. Cartoonized   “Masterpieces”  DS: And what about the paintings whichare adaptations of fine art images, yourPicassos and your Mondrians?R L: I kind of wish youd explain them tome, because it really doesnt do thesame thing. It takes something which isalready art and apparently degrades it.Its like a five-and-dime-store Picasso orMondrian. But at the same time it isntsupposed to be non-art. Its a way ofsaying that Picasso is really a cartoonistand Mondrian is too, maybe. I dontreally know. I dont think I understand it,but I think that its a way of makingcliches that occur in Picasso morecliched - a way of re-establishing thembut also making them not a cliche. Ithink that it does just that.http://www.lichtensteinfoundation.org/sylvester1.htm Roy Lichtenstein, Girl with Beach Ball, 1977
  69. 69. Cartoonized  “Masterpieces”  Lichtenstein  also  “cartoonized”  the  signature  brushstroke  of  Abstract  Expressionism   Roy Lichtenstein, Yellow Brushstroke I, 1965
  70. 70. “What Lichtenstein has given us isa set of images which look like thekind of painting that had been sorecognizable to Americanaudiences by the mid-1950s, calledAction Painting or AbstractExpressionism. But its an image ofthat work. Its a completely flatcanvas . . . theres no trace of theartists hand there at all . . . so weknow this is a kind of work of artthat makes reference tomechanical printing. And that wasthe last thing the AbstractExpressionists wanted. Theyresisted mass culture . . . At thesame time that this looks like animage of an abstract painting, hesmade a very successful kind ofabstract painting, with thesewonderful tones of white and redand yellow. So hes doing both atonce. Hes able to parody the workof the generation that precededhim. But hes also found a way inthat process to make his own really Roy Lichtenstein, Little Big Painting, 1965powerful abstract composition.” Whitney Museum of ArtMichael LobelWhitney Museum of Art
  71. 71. Challenging  Aesthe,c  Values  Is  there  really  any  difference  between  a  dot,  a  drip,  a  spla^er,  or  a  brushstroke?  “DS: Because those brush-strokes arecliches, arent they? Theyve becomecliches of contemporary art. I suppose thatRauschenberg was the first person tocomment on this when he made a veryslashing dribbly abstract expressionistpainting and then made a duplicate of it.That, I take it, was the first move in thisdirection.”http://www.lichtensteinfoundation.org/sylvester1.htm
  72. 72. Andy  Warhol  Andy  Warhol  was  born  in  Pi^sburgh  and  studied  commercial  art  at  the  Carnegie  InsEtute  of  Technology   Andy Warhol, Photo Booth Self-Portrait, c. 1963 Metropolitan Museum
  73. 73. Andy  Warhol  Launched  a  successful  career  in  New  York  as  an  award  winning  illustrator  and  designer   Andy Warhol, Shoe of the Evening, 1955 Museum of Modern Art
  74. 74. Andy  Warhol  In  1960  he  began  painEng  pictures  based  on  banal  subjects  such  as  adverEsements  and  newspaper  tabloids   Andy Warhol, Dr. Scholls, 1960 Metropolitan Museum Andy Warhol, Oil Heater, 1961 Museum of Modern Art
  75. 75. Andy  Warhol  He  also  began  exploring  cartoons,  but  gave  them  up  when  he  saw  Lichtenstein’s  work   Andy Warhol, Dick Tracy, 1960
  76. 76. Andy  Warhol  The  early  works  were  loosely  painted,  with  drippy  paint  that  made  them  look  like  “art”   Andy Warhol, Before and After I, 1960 Metropolitan Museum
  77. 77. Andy  Warhol  In  later  versions  he  explored  more  impersonal  methods  that  internalized  the  mechanical  style  of  commercial  imagery  “The reason I’m painting thisway is that I want to be amachine, and I feel thatwhatever I do and do machine-like is what I want to do.”Andy Warhol Andy Warhol, Before and After II, 1960
  78. 78. Andy  Warhol  The  discovery  of  the  photo  silkscreen  process  allowed  Warhol  to  create  impersonal  painEng  using  a  mechanical  method  of  mass  produced  recycled  media  imagery    “That’s probably one reasonI’m using silk screens now. Ithink somebody should be ableto do all my paintings for me ”Andy Warhol
  79. 79. Jackson  Pollock:    “I  am  nature”   Andy  Warhol:    “I  want  to  paint   like  a  machine”  
  80. 80. Jackson  Pollock:    “I  am  nature”  “Pop is everything art hasn’t been forthe last two decades . . . It springsnewborn out of a boredom with thefinality and oversaturation of abstractexpressionism . . . Stifled by thisrarefied atmosphere, some youngpainters turn back to some lessexalted things like Coca-Cola . . .Theself-conscious brush stroke and theeven more self conscious drip are notcentral to its generation. Impasto isvisual indigestion.”Robert Indiana Robert Indiana, Love, 1967. Screenprint Museum of Modern Art
  81. 81. Andy  Warhol  In  1963  Warhol  began  painEng  consumer  products  like  Campbell’s  Soup  and  Coca  Cola   Andy Warhol, Campbell’s Soup Can, 1964 Silkscreen on canvas
  82. 82. Andy  Warhol  Like  Jasper  Johns’  Flag,  the  images  were  representaEons  of  familiar  symbols  –  product  labels  for  Campbell’s  soup  and  Coca  Cola   Jasper Johns, Flag, 1954-55
  83. 83. Andy  Warhol  Each  canvas  is  20  X  16”  and  arranged  in  a  grid,  evoking  mass-­‐producEon  and  a  supermarket  display  The  number  32  refers  to  the  number  of  varieEes  of  soup  flavors   Andy Warhol, Campbell’s Soup, 1962 Museum of Modern Art
  84. 84. Andy Warhol, Campbell’s Soup, 1962Museum of Modern Art
  85. 85. Andy Warhol, Campbell’s Soup, 1962Museum of Modern Art
  86. 86. “When you think about it, department stores arekind of like museums.”Andy Warhol
  87. 87. Andy  Warhol  The  Campbell’s  Soup  painEngs  were  first  exhibited  in  1962  at  the  Ferus  Gallery  in  Los  Angeles  A  nearby  gallery  filled  its  front  window  with  Campbell’s  cans  and  a  sign  that  said:  “Buy  them  cheaper  here.”  
  88. 88. Andy  Warhol  The  arEst  then  began  creaEng  replicas  of  Brillo  boxes  and  other  products,  constructed  out  of  wood   Andy Warhol, Brillo, 1964. National Gallery of Canada
  89. 89. The  Readymade  “By making the cartons non-functional and uprooting them fromtheir ordinary context, Warholforces us to look at them freshly.They comment on the way thatcommercial packaging transforms amundane, household product into aglamorous, desirable commodity.Warhol also focuses our attentionon the significance of these objectsas representatives of theimpersonal, commercializedconsumer society in which we live.”National Gallery of Canada Andy Warhol, Brillo (Soap Pads), 1965 Rubell Family Collection, Miami
  90. 90. The  Readymade  “People in a capitalist society . . .begin to treat commodities as ifvalue inhered in the objectsthemselves, rather than in theamount of real labor expended toproduce the object . . .” Andy Warhol, Brillo (Soap Pads), 1965 Rubell Family Collection, Miami
  91. 91. Celebri,es  In  addiEon  to  commonplace  “products,”  Warhol  also  did  portraits  of  celebriEes   Andy Warhols Liz Taylor on display in London http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2123864/3-jumble-sale-sketch-turns-Warhol- artwork-valued-1-3m.html#ixzz1zfXUuYlT
  92. 92. Celebri,es  The  pictures  were  not  painEngs  of  “people,”  but  copies  of  their  mass-­‐produced  publicity  photos   Andy Warhol, Liz, 1964 Metropolitan Museum
  93. 93. Celebri,es  “Liz is presented as a culturalcommodity "packaged" for publicconsumption. Warhol creates iconsthat reflect societys worship of theevanescent gloss of materialculture”http://www.ackland.org/art/exhibitions/eyeinthesky/warhol.html Andy Warhol, Liz, 1964 Metropolitan Museum
  94. 94. Celebri,es  The  Marilyn  series  was  also  based  on  publicity  photos,  not  “life”   Andy Warhol, Turquoise Marilyn 1962
  95. 95. Celebri,es  In  his  Gold  Marilyn,  he  treats  the  media  star  like  a  religious  icon   Andy Warhol, Gold Marilyn, 1962 Museum of Modern Art
  96. 96. Celebri,es  In  his  Marilyn  Diptych  he  mimics  the  mass-­‐producEon  process  by  which  the  girl,  Norma  Jean  Baker,  was  transformed  into  media  icon   Andy Warhol, Marilyn Diptych, 1962 Tate Gallery
  97. 97. Andy Warhol, Marilyn Diptych, 1962Tate Gallery
  98. 98. The  Warhol  Persona  Warhol  transformed  himself  into  a  depthless  media  icon:    an  “image,  with  no  content  Warhol became a mirror, hisconversation limited to "Oh, gee"and "Gosh" and—rarely honestly—"Thats great.”http://nymag.com/arts/art/features/47184/index3.html Robert Mapplethorpe, Andy Warhol, 1987
  99. 99. The  Warhol  Persona  “The interviewer should just tellme the words he wants me to sayand I’ll repeat them after him. Ithink that would be so greatbecause I’m so empty I just can’tthink of anything to say.”Andy Warhol Robert Mapplethorpe, Andy Warhol, 1986
  100. 100. The  Warhol  Persona  “If you want to know all about AndyWarhol, just look at the surface of mypaintings and films and me, and thereI am. There’s nothing behind it.”Andy Warhol Robert Mapplethorpe, Andy Warhol, 1983 Tate Gallery
  101. 101. James  Rosenquist  James  Rosenquist  began  his  career  as  a  commercial  billboard  painter   James Rosenquist with one of his paintings
  102. 102. James  Rosenquist  He  used  these  skills  to  create  billboard-­‐sized  painEngs  that  drew  upon  the  imagery  and  impact  of  contemporary  adverEsing   James Rosenquist, Hey! Let’s Go for a Ride!, 1961
  103. 103. James  Rosenquist   Rosenquist’s  images  oien  juxtapose   unrelated  images,  mimicking  the   informaEon  overload  of  contemporary   society  “I’m amazed and excited andfascinated about the way things arethrust at us, the way this invisiblescreen that’s a couple of feet in frontof our mind and our senses isattacked by radio and television andvisual communications, through thingslarger than life, the impact of thingsthrown at us, at such a speed andwith such a force that painting and theattitudes toward painting andcommunication through doing apainting now seem very oldfashioned . . .” James Rosenquist, I Love You with My Ford 1961James Rosenquist Moderna Museet, Stockholm
  104. 104. James Rosenquist, I Love You with My Ford 1961
  105. 105. James  Rosenquist  In  President  Elect  an  image  of  the  newly  elected  John  F.  Kennedy  is  combined  with  a  woman’s  hand  holding  a  piece  of  cake  and  a  fragment  of  a  car   James Rosenquist, President Elect, 1964 Pompidou
  106. 106. James Rosenquist, President Elect, 1964Pompidou
  107. 107. James  Rosenquist  The  first  “ TV  President”  in  history,    Kennedy  was  an  icon  of  a  new  kind  of  media  celebrity   James Rosenquist, President Elect, 1964
  108. 108. James  Rosenquist  By  picturing  the  newly  elected  American  President  amongst  emblems  of  luxury  commodiEes,  Rosenquist  drew  a  direct  connecEon  between  “democracy”  and  “consumerism”  “The face was from Kennedyscampaign poster. I was veryinterested at that time in peoplewho advertised themselves.What did they put on anadvertisement of themselves? Sothat was his face. And hispromise was half a Chevrolet anda piece of stale cake.”James Rosenquist James Rosenquist, President Elect, 1964
  109. 109. James  Rosenquist   Rosenquist’s  most  famous  painEng  is   his  86  foot  long  F-­‐111  -­‐-­‐  a  response  to   the  arms  race  and  American   involvement  in  Vietnam  “It is the newest, latest fighter-bomberat this time, 1965. This first of its typecost many million dollars. People areplanning their lives through work onthis bomber, in Texas or Long Island.A man has a contract from thecompany making the bomber, and heplans his third automobile and his fifthchild because he is a technician andhas work for the next couple of years.The original idea is expanded,another thing is invented; and theplane already seems obsolete. The James Rosenquist, F 111, 1964-65prime force of this thing has been to Museum of Modern Artkeep people working, an economictool; but behind it, this is a warmachine.”James Rosenquist
  110. 110. James Rosenquist, F 111, 1964-65Museum of Modern Art
  111. 111. James Rosenquist, F 111, 1964-65Museum of Modern Art
  112. 112. The FactoryArt  109A:    Art  since  1945  Westchester  Community  College  Fall  2012  Dr.  Melissa  Hall  
  113. 113. The  Warhol  Persona  In  1963  Warhol  established  a  studio  at  231  East  47th  Street  which  became  known  as  the  "Factory"     Ugo Mulas, Andy Warhol at the Factory, East 47th St., New York. Image source: http://imageshack.us/photo/my-images/84/warholmulas.jpg/sr=1
  114. 114. The  Warhol  Persona   “It wasnt called the Factory for nothing. It was where the assembly-line for the silkscreens happened. While one person was making a silkscreen, somebody else would be filming a screen test. Every day something new.” John Cale Gerard Malanga silk screening with Andy Warhol in the Factory, c. 1965. Image source: http://www.wornthrough.com/2012/01/
  115. 115. The  Warhol  Persona  Warhol  treated  art  like  a  business,  and  the  Factory  operated  like  a  large  corporaEon  “Business art is the step thatcomes after Art. I started as acommercial artist, and I want tofinish as a business artist . . .Being good in business is themost fascinating kind of art.During the hippie era people putdown the idea of business –they’d say ‘Money is bad,’ and‘Working is bad,’ but makingmoney is art and working is artand good business is the bestart.”Andy Warhol
  116. 116. Films  In  the  early  1960’s  Warhol  shiied  to  making  films   Image source: https://www2.bc.edu/~doann/andyfilms.html
  117. 117. Films  Influenced  by  John  Cage’s  aestheEc  of  “found  sound,”  the  films  did  not  have  a  plot  or  script   Andy Warhol lines up a shot during the filming of Taylor Meads Ass at his studio, The Factory, New York, 1964. Photograph: Fred W McDarrah/Time & Life Pictures/Getty Image
  118. 118. Films  In  Kiss,  for  example,  the  enEre  film  consists  of  a  couple  making  out   Andy Warhol, Kiss, 1964
  119. 119. Films  Empire  is  a  staEonary  shot  of  the  Empire  State  building  that  lasts  for  eight  hours  and  five  minutes   Andy Warhol, Film Still from Empire, 1964
  120. 120. Andy Warhol, The Chelsea Grils, 1966http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KvOnRdMi4OM“With Chelsea Girls, a 1966 movie about people who hung out inthe Chelsea hotel, they made the Variety charts—and, according toMorrissey, a profit of $100,000. They also struck the deepest nerveto date”http://nymag.com/arts/art/features/47184/index3.html
  121. 121. The  Velvet  Underground  Warhol  also  became  involved  in  the  music  industry,  and  sponsored  the  the  revoluEonary  pop  group  the  Velvet  Underground   1967, Andy Warhol with Nico, Lou Reed, and The Velvet Underground
  122. 122. The  Velvet  Underground  For  Warhol  and  his  circle,  the  emerging  pop  music  scene  was  the  new  avant  garde  
  123. 123. The  Velvet  Underground  Rock  concerts  were  “Happenings,”  with  an  emphasis  on  experience   Beatles Concert, 1966
  124. 124. Celebrity  Warhol  himself  achieved  “rock  star”  celebrity  “In the fall of 1965, when Andyand Edie went to his opening atthe Institute of Contemporary Artin Philadelphia, nearly fourthousand people crushed into thetwo small rooms and the staffhad to take the paintings downfor security. It was an artopening without art.”Jonathan Fineberg, p. 256 Andy Warhol stands in front of a limited edition serigraph of Princess Grace of Monaco to benefit the Institute of Contemporary Art here in Philadelphia on June 1, 1984 http://www.upi.com/enl-win/e2ed527418b55cd6865c593144382a06/
  125. 125. Celebrity  “I wondered what it was that madeall those people scream,: Warhollater recalled. “I’d seen kids screamscream over Elvis and the Beatlesand the Stones – rock idols andmovie stars – but it was incredible tothink of it happening at an artopening . . . But then, we weren’tjust at the art exhibit – we were theexhibit, we were the art incarnate”Andy Warhol, cited in Fineberg, p. 256 Beatles Concert, 1966
  126. 126. Celebrity  The  Factory  days  came  to  an  end  when  Warhol  was  the  vicEm  of  a  near  fatal  shooEng   Richard Avedon, Andy Warhol, 1969, from The Sixties Image source: http://www.villagevoice.com/1999-12-07/art/fully-booked/
  127. 127. Celebrity  The  shooter  was  Valerie  Solanos,  a  fringe  member  of  the  factory  crowd,  and  sole  member  of  a  radical  feminist  group  called  S.C.U.M.  (the  Society  for  Cujng  up  Men)   Valerie Solanos Image source: http://hilobrow.com/2010/04/09/valerie-solanas/
  128. 128. Celebrity  Warhol’s  wounds  were  nearly  fatal,  and  the  arEst  was  scarred  for  life   Richard Avedon, Andy Warhol, 1969
  129. 129. Cri,cal  Recep,on  But  Pop  art  was  hugely  successful,  and  it  changed  the  art  world  forever  “Until pop arrived, vanguardAmerican art had fought its battles inprivate. “Up through the fifties andeven in the early sixties,” HiltonKramer says, “the New York galleriesshowing serious art you could counton the fingers of two hands. By theend of the sixties, the number ofgalleries had increased by four orfive hundred percent. Pop art notonly changed the tone of the artworld, it changed its size.””Tony Scherman, “When Pop Turnedthe World Upside Down” http://www.lichtensteinfoundation.org/newsweekapr1966.htm
  130. 130. Cri,cal  Recep,on  In  1964  Life  magazine  asked  if  Roy  Lichtenstein  was  the  worst  arEsts  in  the  U.S.  Most  established  criEcs  thought  he  was   http://www.lichtensteinfoundation.org/lifemagroy.htm
  131. 131. “Abstract expressionism had drawn the artist’s gaze inward, to a purely subjective realm.What was hard for its artists and ideologues to accept about pop was its reversal of this gaze,its redirection of the artist’s awareness outward: to the teeming, exciting, vulgar new world ofearly-sixties America. Pop argued that the world was worth looking at—and it won theargument.Tony Sherman, “When Pop Turned the World Upside Down”
  132. 132. The Death and Disaster SeriesArt  109A:    Art  since  1945  Westchester  Community  College  Fall  2012  Dr.  Melissa  Hall  
  133. 133. The  End  of  Camelot  Pop  art  developed  during  a  transiEonal  Eme  in  American  history  PoliEcal  AssassinaEons     John  F.  Kennedy  (1964)   Malcolm  X  (1965)   Robert  Kennedy  (1968)   MarEn  Luther  King  (1968)  
  134. 134. Race  Riots   1965:    Wa^s  Race  Riots   1966:    Chicago,  New  York,  Cleveland,   BalEmore   1967:    Detroit,  Newark,  Rochester,   New  York,  Birmingham,  New  Britain  Race riots in the Watts section of Los Angeles, August 11-15, 1965 Police subdue an injured rioter during race rights riots in Newark, N.J.http://www.liu.edu/cwis/cwp/library/african/2000/1960.htm (Three Lions/Getty Images) http://abcnews.go.com/US/popup?id=3371026
  135. 135. An,-­‐War  Movement   Pulitzer prize winning photograph of Kent State Massacre by Paul Filo, 1970Vietnam War Protest in Washington, D.C. by FrankWolfe, October 21, 1967http://farm1.static.flickr.com/110/272804879_3142f28321.jpg
  136. 136. Detachment  Detachment:  A  mirror  of  society?  A  psychological  defense  mechanism?   Roy Lichtenstein, Girl with a Ball, 1961 Museum of Modern Art
  137. 137. Death  and  Disaster  Series  Andy  Warhol’s  Death  and  Disaster  series  engaged  directly  with  the  violence  of  the  era   Andy Warhol, 129 Die in Jet (Plane Crash), 1962
  138. 138. When did you start with the“Death” series?“I guess it was the big planecrash picture, the front page ofa newspaper: 129 DIE. I wasalso painting the Marilyns. Irealized that everything I wasdoing must have been Death. Itwas Christmas or Labor Day—aholiday—and every time youturned on the radio they saidsomething like, “4 million aregoing to die.” That started it. Butwhen you see a gruesomepicture over and over again, itdoesn’t really have any effect.”http://artnews.com/issues/article.asp?art_id=2404 Andy Warhol, 129 Die in Jet (Plane Crash), 1962
  139. 139. Death  and  Disaster  Series  Car  crashes  Race  riots  The  electric  chair  The  assassinaEon  of  JFK   Andy Warhol Ambulance Disaster, 1963
  140. 140. Death  and  Disaster  Series  News  photographs  photo-­‐silkscreened  onto  canvas,  with  li^le  alteraEon   Andy Warhol Ambulance Disaster, 1963
  141. 141. “We went to see Dr. No at Forty-second Street. isaster  Series   movie, Death  and  DIt’s a fantasticsoCar  crashes   walked outside and cool. Wesomebody threw a cherry bomb Race  riots  right in fronthair   us, in this big crowd. The  electric  c of The  assassinaEon  of  JFK  And there was blood, I saw blood onpeople and all over. I felt like I wasbleeding all over. I saw in the paperlast week that there are morepeople throwing them—it’s just partof the scene—and hurting people.My show in Paris is going to becalled “Death in America.” I’ll showthe electric-chair pictures and thedogs in Birmingham and car wrecksand some suicide pictures.”Andy Warholhttp://artnews.com/issues/article.asp?art_id=2404 Andy Warhol, White Burning Car, 1963
  142. 142. Andy Warhol, Birmingham Race Riot, 1963. Tate GalleryAndy Warhol, Red Race Riot, 1963
  143. 143. Andy Warhol, Electric Chair, 1964. Tate Gallery
  144. 144. “You’d be surprised who’ll hang an electric chair in the living room. Especially if the background matches the drapes.” Andy WarholAndy Warhol, Orange Disaster: Electric Chair, 1963http://www.tate.org.uk/servlet/ViewWork?workid=21767&searchid=15486
  145. 145. “People sometimes say the way things happen in movies is unreal, but actually its the way things happen to you in life that’s unreal. The movies make emotions look so strong and real, whereas when things really do happen to you, its like watching television -- you don’t feel anything.” Andy WarholAndy Warhol, 16 Jackies, 1964Walker Art Center
  146. 146. “During the 60s, I think, people forgot what emotions were supposed to be. And I don’t think they’ve ever remembered. I think that once you see emotions from a certain angle you can never think of them as real gain. That’s what more or less happened to me.” Andy WarholAndy Warhol, 16 Jackies, 1964Walker Art Center