Key Dates: 1908-1914
The Cubist art movement began in Paris around 1907. Led by
Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque, the Cubists broke from
centuries of tradition in their painting by rejecting the single
viewpoint. Instead they used an analytical system in which
three-dimensional subjects were fragmented and redefined from
several different points of view simultaneously.
The movement was conceived as ‘a new way of representing the
world’, and assimilated outside influences, such as African art,
as well as new theories on the nature of reality, such as
Einstein’s Theory of Relativity.
Cubism is often divided into two phases – the Analytic phase
(1907-12), and the Synthetic phase (1913 through the 1920s).
The initial phase attempted to show objects as the mind, not the
eye, perceives them.
The Synthetic phase featured works that were
composed of fewer and simpler forms, in brighter
colours. Other major exponents of Cubism
included Robert Delaunay, Francis Picabia, Jean
Metzinger, Marcel Duchamp and Fernand Léger.
Sir Jacob Epstein
A French 19th century art movement which
marked a momentous break from tradition in
European painting. The Impressionists
incorporated new scientific research into the
physics of colour to achieve a more exact
representation of colour and tone.
Impressionist art is a style in which the artist
captures the image of an object as someone would
see it if they just caught a glimpse of it. They paint
the pictures with a lot of color and most of their
pictures are outdoor scenes. Their pictures are
very bright and vibrant. The artists like to capture
their images without detail but with bold colors.
While the term Impressionist covers much of
the art of this time, there were smaller
movements within it, such as Pointillism, Art
Nouveau and Fauvism.
Edouard Manet Eugene Boudin
Frederic Bazille Alfred Sisley
Edgar Degas Pierre-Auguste Renoir
Mary Cassatt Camille Pissarro
Claude Monet Walter Richard
Founded in Paris in 1924 by André Breton with his
Manifesto of Surrealism, the movement’s principal aim
was ‘to resolve the previously contradictory conditions
of dream and reality into an absolute reality, a super-
A literary and art movement, dedicated to expressing
the imagination as revealed in dreams, free of the
conscious control of reason and convention. Surrealism
inherited its anti-rationalist sensibility from Dada, but
was lighter in spirit than that movement. Like Dada, it
was shaped by emerging theories on our perception of
reality, the most obvious influence being Freud’s model
of the subconscious.
The major artists of the movement were Salvador Dali,
Max Ernst, René Magritte and Joan Miró. Surrealism’s
impact on popular culture can still be felt today, most
visibly in advertising.
Marcel Duchamp Georgia O’Keeffe
Max Ernst Sir Henry Moore
Rene Magritte Joan Miro
Salvador Dali Pablo Picasso
Man Ray Dorothea