Surrealism

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Revision on Surrealist Art.

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Surrealism

  1. 1. SURREALISM Revision
  2. 2. Origin <ul><li>It was an artistic movement that brought together artists, thinkers and researchers </li></ul><ul><li>They were involved in a hunt of sense of expression of the unconscious </li></ul><ul><li>They were searching for the definition of n </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New aesthetic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New humankind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New social order </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Origin <ul><li>Their forerunners were the Italian Metaphysical painters </li></ul><ul><li>It came into being after the French poet Andre Breton 1 published Manifeste du Surrealisme </li></ul><ul><li>Breton suggested that rational thought was repressive to the powers of creativity and imagination and thus inimical to artistic expression </li></ul><ul><li>Breton admired Freud and its concept of the subconscious </li></ul>
  4. 4. Beginnings <ul><li>It is closely related to some forms of abstract art </li></ul><ul><li>At the end of World War I Tristan Tzara, leader of the Dada, wanted to attack society through scandal </li></ul><ul><li>He believed that society that creates the monstrosity of war do not deserve art so he decided to create an anti-art, full of ugliness instead of beauty. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Beginnings <ul><li>Tzara wanted to offend the new industrial commercial world of the bourgeoisie. </li></ul><ul><li>His victims did not feel insulted </li></ul><ul><li>They saw this art as a reaction against old art </li></ul><ul><li>The result was the opposite to its original one because anti-art became art. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Beginnings <ul><li>One group of artists did not follow Tzara´s ideas </li></ul><ul><li>The Surrealist movement gained momentum after the Dadaá </li></ul><ul><li>It was led by Breton </li></ul><ul><li>The artists researched and studied the work of Freud and Jung </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the artists expressed themselves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the abstract tradition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the symbolic tradition </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Groups <ul><li>The two forms of expression formed two distinct trends: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Automatism </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Veristic </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>There are two different interpretations of Freud and Jung </li></ul>
  8. 8. Automatists <ul><li>Artists interpreted it as referring to a suppression of consciousness in favour of the subconscious </li></ul><ul><li>They were more focused on feeling and less analytical </li></ul><ul><li>They understood Automatism as the automatic way in which the images of the subconscious reach the conscience. </li></ul><ul><li>They believed that images should not be burdened with meaning. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Automatism <ul><li>They saw the academic discipline of art as intolerant of the free expression of feeling </li></ul><ul><li>They felt form which had dominated the history of art, was a culprit in that intolerance </li></ul><ul><li>They believed abstractionism was the only way to bring to life the images of the subconscious. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Automatism <ul><li>Coming from the Dada tradition, these artist: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linked scandal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insult </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Irreverence toward the elite´s with freedom </li></ul></ul><ul><li>They continued to believe that lack of form was a way to rebel against them. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Veristic Surrealists <ul><li>They interpreted automatism to mean allowing the images of the subconscious to surface undisturbed so that their meaning could be deciphered through analysis </li></ul><ul><li>They wanted to faithfully represent these images as a link between: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The abstract spiritual realities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The real forms of the material world. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Veristic Surrealists <ul><li>To them the object stood as a metaphor for an inner reality </li></ul><ul><li>Through metaphor the concrete world could be understood, not only by looking at the objects, but also by looking into them. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Veristic Surrealists <ul><li>They saw academic discipline and form as the means to represent the images of the subconscious with veracity </li></ul><ul><li>The images would easily dissolve into the unknown </li></ul><ul><li>They hoped to find a way to follow the images of the subconscious until the conscience could understand their meaning. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Veristic Surrealists <ul><li>The language of the subconscious is the image </li></ul><ul><li>The consciousness had to learn to decode that language so it could translate it into its own language of words. </li></ul><ul><li>Later they branched out into three other groups. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Struggle of Surrealism <ul><li>For the automatists the approach to the mystery of nature is to never become conscious of the mystery </li></ul><ul><li>The Veristic Surrealist quest is none other than the one described by Breton as the cause of freedom and the transformation of man´s consciousness </li></ul>
  16. 16. Struggle of Surrealism <ul><li>In the works of surrealist we find </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The legacy of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bosch </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brueguel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>William Blake </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Symbolic painters of the 19 th century </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The perennial questioning of philosophy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The search of psychology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The spirit of mysticism </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Struggle of Surrealism <ul><li>It is a work based on the desire to permit the forces that created the world to illuminate our vision </li></ul><ul><li>They must allow us to consciously develop our human potential. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Struggle of Surrealism <ul><li>Veristic surrealist recognize the difficulties that their movement has faced during the second half of the twentieth century as it attempted to become a major cultural force </li></ul><ul><li>The United States wholeheartedly embraced abstraction and modernism. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Struggle of Surrealism <ul><li>They shared the belief of abstract artist that </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the chaos of action painting and automatism were expression of freedom and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>that form, subjugation and inhibition walked hand in hand </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The American art establishment looked at the image of form with mistrust until the advent of Pop Art. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Struggle of Surrealism <ul><li>The Surrealism had to fight against: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pop-Art </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photorealism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Veristic Surrealism is the only historical artistic expression still in want of recognition as a cultural force in the twentieth century </li></ul>
  21. 21. Characteristics <ul><li>It was highly influenced by the psychoanalysis: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Images are as confusing and startling as those of dreams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can have a realistic, though irrational style, precisely describing dreamlike fantasies. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Characteristics <ul><li>They were influenced by: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Symbolism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Metaphysical Painting of Giorgio de Chirico </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dadaism </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Characteristics <ul><li>Some of them have a more abstract style. </li></ul><ul><li>In this case they invented spontaneous techniques, modelled upon the psychotherapeutic procedure of free association as a means to eliminate conscious control in order to express the working of the unconscious mind, such as exquisite corpse. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Exquisite Corpse <ul><li>There were aleatoric techniques for producing visual or literally art </li></ul><ul><li>This activity was frequently considered as a game. </li></ul><ul><li>It is based upon an old parlour game in which players take turns writing on a sheet of paper folded it to conceal part of the writing and them pass it to the next player for another contribution. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Exquisite Corpse <ul><li>This technique was used by artists to produce drawings and collages. </li></ul><ul><li>The first efforts are reminiscent of children’s books that allow the making of pictures with multiple ages divided at various levels, involved assigning a section of a body to each player </li></ul>
  26. 26. Exquisite Corpse <ul><li>A majority resulted in images that only vaguely resembled the human form. </li></ul><ul><li>Some participants in early exquisite corpses were Tanguy, Miro and Man Ray. </li></ul><ul><li>Later adaptations have involved using other means of passing the work around, using different media. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Artists <ul><li>Some of the better known representatives of this movement are: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Max Ernst </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Frida Kahlo </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Marc Chagall </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Joan Miro </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Man Ray </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Salvador Dali </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>René Magritte </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Yves Tanguy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oscar Dominguez </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Techniques <ul><li>Surrealism has the same lack of prejudice of Dadaism both in the use of photographic procedures and object production out of their normal use. </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional techniques, because those can be appropriate for depicting imaginations </li></ul>
  29. 29. Max Ernst <ul><li>He reached to the deepest critic of the form as a depiction and the style as something unitary. </li></ul><ul><li>He used any technique that would be useful for transmitting his ideas. He used: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frottage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>His work is frequently a pile of rubbish of bourgeois culture. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Joan Miro <ul><li>He used symbolic keys to depict the unconscious. </li></ul><ul><li>His principle is not the organic world. </li></ul><ul><li>His world is simple, clear </li></ul><ul><li>His mythology is easy, transparent. </li></ul><ul><li>His painting is unstressed, freely chromatic, without equilibrium among signs and colours </li></ul>
  31. 31. Hans Arp <ul><li>He was previously involved in the Dadaism. </li></ul><ul><li>He depicted organic forms, both in painting and sculpture. </li></ul><ul><li>He used: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Geometric shapes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orthogonal images </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuously curve forms, concave and convex. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Yves Tanguy <ul><li>He invented the anti-Nature: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Never ending landscapes, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planet like settings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of light and sun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remains of an organic life : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mummified fruits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fossils and shells </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Salvador Dali <ul><li>His view is full of sexual connotations. </li></ul><ul><li>Highly rhetorical works. </li></ul><ul><li>Mix of lubricous and holy </li></ul><ul><li>He overcame cynically the bolshevism. </li></ul><ul><li>Ambiguous mix of reaction and anarchy. </li></ul><ul><li>Very complicated compositions. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Rene Magritte <ul><li>He is the artist who worked in a deepest way the lack of logic of the image. </li></ul><ul><li>He invented the anti-history </li></ul><ul><li>He discovered the non-sense of the normal. </li></ul><ul><li>He created with great detail and realism images of ambiguous significance that could have a double sense </li></ul>
  35. 35. Expansion <ul><li>Other artist contributed to the expansion of the Surrealism, equally in Europe and in the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>Soon it appeared as a way of eluding the reality of the problems through: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ambiguity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paradox </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Expansion <ul><li>The movement gained prestige with the adhesion of artists such as Picasso. </li></ul><ul><li>The analytical cubism, discomposing the objects did a similar work as that of the Surrealism. </li></ul>

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