Carolingian and Ottonian Art


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Carolingian and Ottonian Art

  1. 1. The  Carolingian  Renaissance  Art  108:    Ancient  to  Medieval  Westchester  Community  College  Fall  2012  
  2. 2. Carolingian EmpireCharlemagne was King of theFranks from 768-814His reign is referred to as theCarolingian period
  3. 3. Carolingian Empire The Franks expanded their territory in the 6th-7th centuries
  4. 4. In 732 Charles Martel stopped the advance of Muslim armiesTomb of Charles Martel, Saint DenisImage source:
  5. 5. The CarolingianRenaissanceHis son Charlemagne was crownedHoly Roman Emperor by the Popein Rome in 800 CE Coronation of Charlemagne (742-814) by the Pope Leo III at Rome on December 25, 800: 14th century manuscript illumination "Les Grandes Chroniques de France"
  6. 6. Carolingian EmpireA descendant of one of thebarbarian hordes, Charlemagnewas now Holy Roman Emperor A Frankish Warrior, illustration from James Harvey Robinson, An Introduction to the History of Western Europe, 1902 Image source:
  7. 7. Carolingian EmpireNo Roman Emperor is completewithout an equestrian portrait Equestrian Statue of Charlemagne, Bronze, 21 cm Louvre
  8. 8. Carolingian EmpireSo Charlemagne was a RomanEmperor wannabe Equestrian Statue of Charlemagne, Bronze, 21 cm Louvre
  9. 9. Only Charlemagne’s statue is only9 1/2 inches tall, while the statue ofMarcus Aurelius is 11 feet tall! Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius, c. 175 CE
  10. 10. The Palatine ChapelEvery Emperor needs a capital, andCharlemagne established his atAachen, in GermanyHe built a palace and a chapel The creation of a "New Rome" was Charlemagnes guiding vision when he began the construction of the Palace Chapel in the former Roman spa resort Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle) in ca. 786 - laying the foundation stone for one of Europes oldest Northern stone buildings. Image source:
  11. 11. The Palatine ChapelThe Chapel was designed by thearchitect Odo of MetzIt is in the shape of an octagontopped by a dome
  12. 12. The Palatine ChapelIt was modeled on San Vitale
  13. 13. The Palatine ChapelWith its massive arches and dome,the chapel represented a revival ofthe monumental grandeur ofRoman Imperial architecture The Palatine Chapel of Charlemagne, Aachen, Germany, 792-805
  14. 14. Revival of LearningCharlemagne was a greatsupporter of literacy and learningIn this image we see him givingcounsel to his son while a scriberecords his “pearls of wisdom” Charlemagne giving counsel to his son Pippin the hunchback; 10thc. copy of an original dating to c. 829-836 Wikimedia
  15. 15. Revival of LearningHe invited Alcuin of York to reformeducation at monasteries and tostandardize the bible text Robin Maur and the scholar Alcuin of York with the Archbishop of Mainz, from a Carolingean manuscript, c. 831-840 Image source:
  16. 16. Standardized BibleTextFor centuries the bible had beenhand-copied by scribes Eadwine the Scribe, from the Eadwine Pslater, c. 1160-1170
  17. 17. Carolingian MinisculeLatin script is very hard to interpret-- it is all capitals, and there are nospaces Folio 14 recto of the Vergilius Romanus contains an author portrait of Vergil Image source:
  18. 18. Carolingian MinisculeCarolingian scribes invented a newstyle of writing called Carolingianminiscule -- the basis of our modernstyle of writing today Page of text (folio 160v) from a Carolingian Gospel Book (British Library, MS Add. 11848), written in Carolingian minuscule Image source:
  19. 19. ManuscriptIlluminationCharlemagne also provided hisscribes with examples of Greek andRoman art St. John, Coronation Gospels (Gospel Book of Charlemagne) 800-810 CE Wikimedia Commons
  20. 20. ManuscriptIlluminationThis is an “author page” introducingthe Gospel of Saint Matthew in theCoronation Gospels St. Matthew, Coronation Gospels (Gospel Book of Charlemagne) 800-810 CE
  21. 21. ManuscriptIlluminationThe naturalistic style derives fromRoman art, rather than localtraditionsPage introducing the Gospel of MarkLindisfarne Gospels, c. 698-721British Library St. Matthew, Coronation Gospels (Gospel Book of Charlemagne) 800-810 CE
  22. 22. Saint Matthew, Lindisfarne Gospels, c. 698-721 St. Matthew, Coronation Gospels (Gospel Book of Charlemagne) 800-810 CE
  23. 23. Portrait of Menander, c. 70 CE, Pompeii St. Matthew, Coronation Gospels (Gospel Book of Charlemagne) 800-810 CE
  24. 24. The Ebbo GospelsThis page is from a Gospel bookmade for Bishop Ebbo, Archbishopof ReimsIt is an “author page” introducingthe Gospel of Saint Matthew Saint Matthew, from the Ebbo Gospels, c. 816-835
  25. 25. The Ebbo GospelsThe artist who made it wasprobably looking at the sameRoman prototype used by theilluminator of Charlemagne’sGospel Saint Matthew, from the Ebbo Gospels, c. 816-835
  26. 26. The Ebbo GospelsThe artist uses distortion andexpressive line to communicate thefrenzy of divine inspiration Saint Matthew, from the Ebbo Gospels, c. 816-835
  27. 27. The Ebbo GospelsThe expressive style of Carolingianart is like the cartoons of Dr. Seuss:emphasis on expression, throughexaggerated gesture andexpression Utrecht Psalter, fol. 83r, containing the text and illustration of Psalm 149 Image source:
  28. 28. Psalm 1491 Praise the LORD...3 Let them praise his name with dancing and make music to him with timbrel and harp.6 May the praise of God be in their mouths and a double-edged sword in their hands,7 to inflict vengeance on the nations and punishment on the peoples,8 to bind their kings with fetters, their nobles with shackles of iron,
  29. 29. Psalm 1503 Praise him with the sounding of the trumpet, praise him with the harp and lyre,4 praise him with timbrel and dancing, praise him with the strings and pipe,5 praise him with the clash of cymbals, praise him with resounding cymbals.
  30. 30. Ottonian KingdomCharlemagne’s Empire was dividedup amongst his successors
  31. 31. Ottonian KingdomIn the 10th century the Eastern partof the Empire was ruled by a newSaxon line of kings called theOttonians
  32. 32. Ottonian KingdomThis page is from the Gospel Bookof Otto IIIIt portrays the king seated on athrone with members of the clergyand his knights Gospel Book of Otto III, 997-1,000 CE
  33. 33. Ottonian KingdomThe image draws upon Justinian’smosaic in San Vitale Gospel Book of Otto III, 997-1,000
  34. 34. Image source:
  35. 35. Leaf of a diptych: The Emperor Triumphant (Justinian)6th c.Louvre
  36. 36. Ottonian KingdomLike Charlemagne, the OttonianKings were great supporters ofmonasteries St, Michael’s, Hildesheim, Germany, 1001-1033 Image source:
  37. 37. Ottonian KingdomBishop Bernward of Hildesheimwas close to the Ottonian kings Nave, St. Michael’s, Hildesheim Image source:
  38. 38. Ottonian KingdomHe commissioned a massive set ofbronze doors for his new church atHildesheimOver 16 feet tall, they represent thefirst appearance of monumentalsculpture since the fall of theRoman Empire Bronze Doors of Bishop Bernward at Hildesheim, 1001-1033 16’ 6” h Image source:
  39. 39. Ottonian KingdomThe panels depict episodes fromthe Old and New Testaments Schematic diagram of the scenes on the doors of Bishop Bernward Image source:
  40. 40. Ottonian KingdomThe style of the reliefs draws uponthe expressive style ofcontemporary manuscriptillumination
  41. 41. Bayeux TapestryThe Bayeux Tapestry isanother work thatexemplifies thedevelopment ofnarrative storytelling Funeral Procession to Westminster Abbey, and Battle of Hastings, Bayeaux Tapestry, c. 1070-1080
  42. 42. Bayeux TapestryIt is a 228’ long tapestryillustrating the NormanInvasion of England,based on RomanTriumphal columns Funeral Procession to Westminster Abbey, and Battle of Hastings, Bayeaux Tapestry, c. 1070-1080
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