http://www.salesianhigh.org/gli/artGLI/artdoc4.html Winslow Homer, &quot;Snap the Whip,&quot; 1872, 22 inches high by 36 inches wide, oil paint on canvas, currently at the Butler Institute of American Art, Youngstown, OH.
Right: The Bath: 1893: http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/cassatt/toilette.jpg Center: Mother and Child: 1889: http://library.wustl.edu/subjects/art/cassatt.jpg Left: Breakfast in Bed: 1897: http://www.globalgallery.com/prod_images/hd-5469.jpg
PICASSO AND BRAQUES WERE NOT RECOGNIZED AS FOUNDERS OF CUBISM AT THE SHOW. A LOT OF PEOPLE AT THIS TIME HAD NOT YET SEEN PICASSO’S WORK. Female head:http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/images/h2/h2_1996.403.6.jpg Woman with a Mustard Pot: http://xroads.virginia.edu/~museum/armory/galleryI/I_215_350.s.jpg
http://www.artlex.com/ArtLex/a/images/armory_cez.domainstjos.lg.jpg Painting is from ca. 1877 The Met purchased the painting from a Parisian art dealer.
http://www.phillipscollection.org/american_art/artwork/Sloan-Night_Windows.htm Etching that captures the communal living of urban life. Man perched on rooftop and viewer are voyeurs, as work also explores the increased objectification of women and their bodies as women become more available and and depicted in a more sensual way.
http://content.answers.com/main/content/wp/en/0/08/The_Steerage_1907_Stieglitz_Corrected.jpg Stieglitz lobbied for photography to have a place in the fine arts
http://lakelandschools.org/wphs/erichsen/grapesofwrath/grapes%20images/aa_lange_power_2_e.jpg 1935 – founding of the WPA (Works Progress Administration) RA – Resettlement Administration – later the Farm Security Administration – oversaw emergency aid programs for families caught in the Depression and provided information to the public about both government programs and the plight of people they served. American photographer Dorothea Lange was sent to photograph the dire situation of the rural poor. At the end of an assignment to document the loves of migrant pea pickers in California, Lange stopped at a migratory camp in Nipomo and found the migrant workers there starving because the crops had frozen. Within days after the photo was printed in a San Francisco newspaper, people rushed food to Nipomo.
http://www.littlesongbox.co.uk/Files/Feminine%20Sensibility/The-Dinner-Party.jpg Detail: http://www.sofaexpo.com/chicago/2005/img/special/release/13_Judy_Chicago_dinner_party_detail.jpg Detail of Virginia Woolf and another plate: http://www.cwrl.utexas.edu/~ulrich/femhist/JudyChicagoTheDinnerParty.jpg
A Look at Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century Art and Movements
ROMANTICISM Appreciating the “impulse from a vernal wood”
O man, of whatever country you are, and whatever your opinions may be, behold your history, such as I have thought to read it, not in books, written by your fellow- creatures, who are liars, but in nature, which never lies.” --- Rousseau Rousseau and his Social Contract
Features of Romanticism <ul><li>Emphasis on the Imagination </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on the Rights of the Individual, the Common Man </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on Nature </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on Exotic Locales </li></ul>
Asher B. Durand, Kindred Spirits, 1849 Painter Thomas Cole with his friend poet William Cullen Bryant
Components of the Realism Movement <ul><li>Realism seeks to present the world as it is in its present time </li></ul><ul><li>Dialect is important; regionalism grows out of the realism movement </li></ul><ul><li>Details about the everyday lives of the common man become important </li></ul><ul><li>First criticized as grotesque and uncouth </li></ul><ul><li>Becomes socially critical </li></ul>
Winslow Homer, The Veteran in a New Field , 1865. Oil on canvas.
Edmonia Lewis, Forever Free , 1867. Marble, 3’5 1/4 “ x 11” x 7”
Thomas Eakins, The Gross Clinic , 1875. Oil on canvas.
Timothy O’Sullivan, A Harvest of Death , Getysburg, Pennsylvania, July 1863 . Negative by Timothy O’ Sullivan.
Frederic Remington, The Cavalry Charge, 1907. Oil on canvas.
Frederic Remington, Radisson and Groseilliers , 1905. Oil on canvas.
Frederic Remington, The Bronco Buster , 1905. Bronze.
Features of Impressionism, 1880’s <ul><li>Seeks to present life in its present moment </li></ul><ul><li>As such, very concerned with effects of light </li></ul><ul><li>Impressionist absorption with light on color also deepened and encouraged by new color theories of late 19 th century </li></ul><ul><li>Impressionist movement also seen at first in a negative light </li></ul>
Claude Monet, Impression: Sunrise 1872 . Oil on canvas.
Claude Monet, Terrace at Sainte-Adresse , 1866-67. Oil on canvas.
Modernism: 1900-1950 “You are all a lost generation.” -- Gertrude Stein to Ernest Hemingway
Features of Modernism <ul><li>Loss of values and deep sense of alienation from and disillusionment with the world as a result of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>World War I </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rise of science </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“God is dead.”—Nietzsche </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Origin of Species : Man did not come from God, but from monkeys </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased urbanization of the world and subsequent loss of small-town caring and values </li></ul></ul>
The Armory Show, 1913 Officially known as The International Exhibition of Modern Art
The show’s purpose was to question the boundaries of art as an institution <ul><li>The show took place at New York’s 69 th Street armory, on Lexington Avenue between 25 th and 26 th Streets </li></ul><ul><li>It was home to approx. 1250 paintings, sculptures and decorative works by over 300 European and American artists </li></ul>
Marcel Duchamp, Nude Descending a Staircase , 1912 <ul><li>One of the most controversial works from the Armory Show, Duchamp’s painting gave rise to many spoofs, such as Rude Descending a Staircase and Food Descending a Staircase </li></ul><ul><li>One critic offered prize money to anyone who could find the nude </li></ul>From Gallery I of the show
Europeans at The Armory Show One third of the show’s artists were European, and movements such as Impressionism, Post-Impressionism, Fauvism and Cubism were represented in the show
THE MOST FAMOUS CUBISTS: Georges Braques, Mozart Kubelick, 1912. Influence of the Jazz Age
PABLO PICASSO: THE OTHER FAMOUS CUBIST Head of a Woman, 1909 Woman with a Mustard Pot
The First Cezanne in an American Museum: The Metropolitan Museum of Art Hill of the Poor or, as it’s now known, View of the Domain St. Joseph
Americans at The Armory Show Most of the American artists in the show belonged to the Ashcan School, whose most influential members were known as The Eight
John Sloan, Sunday, Women Drying Their Hair , 1912
George Bellows Circus, 1912, at the Armory Show Stag at Sharkey’s , 1909, one of Bellows’ most famous paintings
Robert Henri: Founder of the Ashcan School <ul><li>Name was derogatory </li></ul><ul><li>Given because subject matter of artists seemed to be ashcans </li></ul><ul><li>Subject matter was of lower class people going about ordinary tasks of life </li></ul><ul><li>Genre painting </li></ul><ul><li>Brought attention to injustices done to lower classes . . . </li></ul>
Injustices such as the Sex Trade Abastenia St. Leger Eberle, White Slave , 1910
America During the Modernist Era War, the Depression, Immigration, Racism and Urbanization
Alfred Stieglitz <ul><li>Stieglitz is one of the most famous 20 th -century American photographers </li></ul><ul><li>He also helped organize the Armory Show and launched the careers of many American artists </li></ul><ul><li>One of them was Georgia O’Keefe, a woman who also became his lover </li></ul><ul><li>The Steerage , a print from 1907, shows Stieglitz’s interest in capturing human feeling and repeating shapes and patterns </li></ul>
Jacob Lawrence, The Migration of the Negro , panel 1 and then panel 3, 1940-1. 60-painting series depicting the flight of Black people from South to North
Grant Wood, American Gothic , 1930. <ul><li>One of the most famous American paintings ever, this work is iconic and highly parodied and reproduced </li></ul><ul><li>People mostly thought the work dignified the life of rural Americans </li></ul><ul><li>In fact, Wood was considered a Regionalist and focused on Iowa in particular </li></ul>
POP ART returned to representational art but used consumer culture and mass media as inspirations Roy Lichtenstein Left: Hopeless, 1963 Right: Maybe , 1963
The Most Famous Pop Artist <ul><li>Andy Warhol, Campbell Soup, 1964 </li></ul><ul><li>Have we reduced art to mass merchandise or have we elevated mass merchandise into art? </li></ul><ul><li>YOU DECIDE </li></ul>