Early Medieval Art 2012

3,949 views

Published on

Published in: Education
0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
3,949
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2,403
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
58
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Early Medieval Art 2012

  1. 1. Early  Medieval  Art  in  Europe  Art  108:    Ancient  to  Medieval  Westchester  Community  College  Fall  2012  
  2. 2. Early Medieval EuropeWestern Europe wasoverrun by hordes ofmigrating “barbarian”tribes
  3. 3. Early Medieval EuropeMiddle Ages/Medieval period:• Fall of Roman Empire (5th century)• Renaissance (15th century)
  4. 4. Early Medieval EuropeThis period of roughly 1,000 years is further divided into three phases 1.  Early Medieval (ending in the 10-11th century) 2.  Romanesque (11th-12th century) 3.  Gothic (12th-15th century)
  5. 5. Early Medieval EuropeIncessant warfareBarbarian warlords battle for power Helmet from the Sutton Hoo Ship Burial British Museum
  6. 6. Early Medieval EuropeMedieval castle:• Fortresses attest to incessantwarfare Caernarfon Castle, 13th century, Wales Image source: http://www.snowdoniaguide.com/caernarfon_castle.htm
  7. 7. Dark AgesCultural advances of Rome werelost Literacy and learning Architecture and monumental arts Government and trade economy
  8. 8. Barbarian warlords settled downand formed kingdoms
  9. 9. The BarbariansThe migrating barbarian tribesbrought with them pagan religiousbeliefs and native artistic traditions
  10. 10. They were all eventuallyChristianized
  11. 11. Migration ArtsThe art of these migrating tribes isreferred to as “migration arts”It consists of small portable objectsof adornment Brooch, first half of 5th century, Eastern Germanic Silver with gold sheet overlay, garnets Metropolitan Museum
  12. 12. Migration ArtsCommon objects include statussymbols such as decorative beltbuckles and fibulae (brooches)worn by chieftains as emblems ofpower Fibula, from a woman’s tomb. Merovingian, mid-6th cen. Silver, gold, garnet, glass, cloisonné, mid 6th century. Museé d’Archéolgie, Saint- Germiane-en-Laye
  13. 13. Migration Arts Pair of eagle fibulae, Visigothic, early 6thc., gold over bronze with gemstones, glass and meerschaum Walters Art Gallery
  14. 14. Migration ArtsIn 1939 the burial of an AngloSaxon warrior king was found atSutton Hoo, in Suffolk, England Excavation site, Sutton Hoo ship burial Image source: http://www.suttonhoo.org/gallery_detail.asp?fld_gallery_ID=3&offset=24
  15. 15. Migration ArtsThe warrior was buried in a shipwith great riches Illustration of the warrior buried in the Sutton Hoo ship burial British Museum
  16. 16. Migration ArtsIt included weapons and armor Helmet from the Sutton Hoo Ship Burial Anglo Saxon, early 7thc British Museum
  17. 17. Replica of helmet from Sutton Hoo ship burialBritish Museum
  18. 18. Migration ArtsAnd objects of adornment, such asthis belt buckle decorated withinterlaced snakes Belt buckle, from the Sutton Hoo ship burial Anglo Saxon, early 7thc British Museum
  19. 19. Belt buckle, from the Sutton Hoo ship burialAnglo Saxon, early 7thcBritish Museum
  20. 20. Belt buckle, from the Sutton Hoo ship burialAnglo Saxon, early 7thcBritish Museum
  21. 21. Migration ArtsThis purse lid exemplifies many ofthe characteristic features of themigration arts: Abstract interlace patterns Stylized animals Cloisonné technique Purse cover, from the Sutton Hoo ship burial Anglo Saxon, 7th century British Museum
  22. 22. Purse cover, from the Sutton Hoo ship burialAnglo Saxon, 7th centuryBritish Museum
  23. 23. Migration ArtsThe technique used to make thepurse is called cloissonnéColored glass is used to fillrecesses formed by intricate metaledges
  24. 24. Buckle with cloisonné decoration, from the Sutton Hoo ship burialBritish Museum
  25. 25. Shoulder clasp from the Sutton Hoo Ship BurialBritish Museum
  26. 26. Shoulder clasp from the Sutton Hoo Ship BurialBritish Museum
  27. 27. Migration ArtsMain characteristics of MigrationArts: Advanced metalworking techniques Zoomorphic imagery (animals) Interlace patterns (knots) Viking ship prow Viking ship Museum, Norway
  28. 28. Migration Arts When the barbarian tribes converted to Christianity, their vernacular style was absorbed into the art of Medieval ChristianityBy the 11th century, Scandinavia hadbecome mostly Christian, but Vikingartistic traditions persisted, as seen inthe intertwinging animal-and-plantdecoration of the portal of thisNorwegian church.
  29. 29. Hiberno Saxon ArtIn 432 Saint Patrick broughtChristianity to the Celts in IrelandIn 563 St. Columba founded manymonasteries that became centers oflearning Image source: http://macdonnellofleinster.org/page_7c__saint_patrick.htm
  30. 30. MonasticismMonasteries were self-sufficientcommunities of Monks (and nuns)who devoted themselves to a life ofprayer, study, and work
  31. 31. Bible ProductionIrish monasteries became centersfor the production of liturgical books
  32. 32. Bible ProductionBooks were made in workshopscalled scriptoriaTexts and pictures were copied byhand Medieval Scriptorium Image source: http://guindo.pntic.mec.es/~jmag0042/palefont.html
  33. 33. Hiberno-SaxonManuscriptIlluminationThe illustrated pages of thesebibles represents a fusion ofChristian imagery and the animalinterlace patterns of the Europeanmigration arts Lindisfarne Gospels, c. 698-721 Tempera on vellum Image source: http://www.dclab.com/lindisfarne_gospels.asp
  34. 34. Hiberno-SaxonManuscriptIlluminationThe monastery ofLindisfarne wasestablished in 635 CEIt is one of the oldestCeltic Christianestablishments inEngland Monastery of Lindisfarne, Northumberland, England. Karmin Photography. Image source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/karen_cb/6258184421/
  35. 35. Monastery of Lindisfarne, Northumberland, England. Karmin Photography. Image source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/karen_cb/6258184421/
  36. 36. Hiberno-SaxonManuscriptIlluminationThe Lindisfarne Gospels containsthe Gospels of Matthew, Mark,Luke, and John Lindisfarne Gospels, cover Image source: http://www.bl.uk/onlinegallery/ttp/lindisfarne/accessible/introduction.html
  37. 37. Author PortraitsAuthor portraits introduced theGospels with a portrait of the author Lindisfarne Gospels,St. Matthew, f. 25v, c. 698-721 Tempera on vellum British Library
  38. 38. Author Portraits This one was based on a Roman model, but the forms have been flattened and simplifiedRoman fresco of the Greek dramatist Menander from Pompeii. Lindisfarne Gospels,St. Matthew, f. 25v, c. 698-721 Tempera on vellum British Library
  39. 39. Author PageThis page introduces the Gospel ofMatthewHe can be identified because of thelion symbol Page introducing the Gospel of Mark Lindisfarne Gospels, c. 698-721 British Library
  40. 40. Hiberno-SaxonManuscriptIlluminationThe Evangelists are commonlyrepresented by animalsMatthew = ManMark = LionLuke = OxJohn = Eagle Evangelist Symbols, Book of Armagh Image source: http://www.uni-due.de/DI/Manuscripts.htm
  41. 41. Hiberno-Saxon Manuscript Illumination The Evangelist symbols are based on the vision of the prophet EzekielRev 4:5-11 (NRSV)“the first living creature like a lion,the second living creature likean ox, the third living creature witha face like a human face, andthe fourth living creature like aflying eagle.”://catholic-resources.org/Art/Evangelists_Symbols.htm Engraved illustration of the "chariot vision" of the Biblical book of Ezekiel, chapter 1, after an earlier illustration by Matthaeus (Matthäus) Merian (1593-1650), for his "Icones Biblicae” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ezekiels_vision.jpg
  42. 42. Hiberno-SaxonManuscriptIlluminationThe animal symbols resemble theanimals of the Barbarian arts Evangelist Symbol, Book of Kells
  43. 43. Author page introducing the Gospel of Luke Author page introducing the Gospel of JohnLindisfarne Gospels, c. 698-721 Lindisfarne Gospels, c. 698-721British Library British Library
  44. 44. Carpet PageThe author page is followed by acarpet page – so called because ofits resemblance to a richlypatterned carpet Carpet Page, Lindisfarne Gospels, c. 698-721 Tempera on vellum
  45. 45. Carpet PageThe central motif takes the form ofa Celtic Cross, Carpet Page, Lindisfarne Gospels, c. 698-721 Tempera on vellum
  46. 46. Carpet PageThe interlace patterns reflect theinfluence of migration art traditions Carpet Page, Lindisfarne Gospels, c. 698-721 Tempera on vellum
  47. 47. Hiberno-SaxonManuscriptIlluminationCeltic Knots: intricate patterns thatrecall the mathematical complexityof Islamic geometric patterns Carpet Page, Lindisfarne Gospels, c. 698-721 Tempera on vellum
  48. 48. “The cross-carpet page at the beginning of St Matthews Gospel is probably the best known decorated page inthe manuscript . . . On the opposite page the Gospel opens with the Latin words: Liber generationis iesu christi,The book of the generation of Jesus Christ, presented in elaborate initials and display capitals.”British Library
  49. 49. Calligraphy was an important artform in both Islamic and Christiantraditions Lindisfarne Gospels, Gospel of St Matthew the Evangelist, initial page, c. 698-721 Tempera on vellum Image source: http://www.bl.uk/onlinegallery/sacredtexts/lindisfarne.html
  50. 50. Hiberno-Saxon Manuscript Illumination“So when the Word was shown to menthrough the lawgiver and the prophets, itwas not shown them without suitablevesture. There it is covered by the veil offlesh, here of the letter. The letterappears as flesh; but the spiritual sensewithin is known as divinity... Blessed arethe eyes which see divine spirit throughthe letters veil.”Claudius of Turin, 9thc Bishop Lindisfarne Gospels, Gospel of St Matthew the Evangelist, initial page, c. 698-721 Tempera on vellum Image source: http://www.bl.uk/onlinegallery/sacredtexts/lindisfarne.html
  51. 51. The act of copying and reading aBible or Qur’an was a form ofreligious devotion -- since the textrepresents the “word of god” Illuminated Manuscript Koran, Illuminated incipit page with headpiece inscribed with the chapter heading for Sūrat Maryam, Walters Art Museum Ms. 568, fol. 1b Image source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/39699193@N03/3834992550/
  52. 52. St Matthews Gospel includes asecond major initial page, markingthe beginning of the ChristmasstoryThe first three lines contain thewords: Christi autem generatio sicerat, Now the birth of Jesus Christwas of this kind. Lindisfarne Gospels, Gospel of St Matthew the Evangelist, Second initial page, c. 698-721 Tempera on vellum Image source: http://www.bl.uk/onlinegallery/ttp/lindisfarne/accessible/pages11and12.html#content
  53. 53. Book of KellsOne of the most famous examplesof Hiberno Saxon manuscriptillumination is the Book of Kells Facsimile reproduction of the Book of Kells Image source: http://www.library.arizona.edu/exhibits/illuman/pre9_07.html
  54. 54. Book of KellsThe book opens with a pagerepresenting all four of theEvangelists: Matthew, Mark, Luke,and John Book of Kells, late 8th or early 9th century Trinity College Library, Dublin
  55. 55. Hiberno-SaxonManuscriptIlluminationMatthew is represented as a manor an angel Book of Kells, late 8th or early 9th century Trinity College Library, Dublin
  56. 56. Hiberno-SaxonManuscriptIlluminationMark is represented by a lion Book of Kells, late 8th or early 9th century Trinity College Library, Dublin
  57. 57. Hiberno-SaxonManuscriptIlluminationLuke is represented by an ox Book of Kells, late 8th or early 9th century Trinity College Library, Dublin
  58. 58. Hiberno-SaxonManuscriptIlluminationAnd John is represented by aneagle Book of Kells, late 8th or early 9th century Trinity College Library, Dublin
  59. 59. Author PageA separate author page introducesthe Gospels of Matthew in the Bookof Kells Page introducing the Gospel of Matthew, Book of Kells http://employees.oneonta.edu/farberas/arth/arth212/book_of_kells.html
  60. 60. Author PageThe incipit page begins with thesame words we saw in theLindisfarne Gospels: Libergenerationis iesu christi’ Incipit Page, Gospel of Matthew, Book of Kells http://employees.oneonta.edu/farberas/arth/arth212/book_of_kells.html
  61. 61. Book of KellsLike the Linidsfarne Gospels, thereis a second incipit page, with thetext: "XPI autem generatio....”Now the generation of Christ was inthis wise” Chi-rho-iota page, from the Book of Kells, 8th-9th c., Trinity College Library, London
  62. 62. Book of KellsThe chi-rho-iota (XPI) representingthe first three letters of the word“Christos” fills the entire page Chi-rho-iota page, from the Book of Kells, 8th-9th c., Trinity College Library, London
  63. 63. Book of KellsViewed closely, the page is filledwith zoomorphic imagery andintricate interlace patterns Chi-rho-iota page, from the Book of Kells, 8th-9th c., Trinity College Library, London

×