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The Cold War

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The Cold War.
Based on Juan Carlos Ocaña's presentation about the Cold War.

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The Cold War

  1. 1. THE COLD WAR (1947-1991)
  2. 2. THE COLD WAR (1947-1991) Cold War (1947-1991) • Long period of rivalry between USA and USSR and their allies • Several wars, but no direct confrontation between both superpowers
  3. 3. THE COLD WAR (1947-1991) The end of the Alliance • USA, Britain and USSR defeated the Axis • However, their alliance started to crumble shortly, even before defeating Hitler, differences between them showed up • By 1947, the Cold War had started
  4. 4. THE COLD WAR (1947-1991)
  5. 5. THE COLD WAR (1947-1991)
  6. 6. THE COLD WAR (1947-1991) The Cold war was fought in different fronts • Political  Democracy/Soviet dictatorship (although Franco was supported by the USA) • Economic  Capitalism/Centralized Soviet economy • Propaganda Two ways of life
  7. 7. THE COLD WAR (1947-1991)
  8. 8. THE COLD WAR (1947-1991) The Cold war ended with the collapse of the USSR • Inefficient economic system • Lack of freedoms
  9. 9. THE COLD WAR (1947-1991)
  10. 10. THE COLD WAR (1947-1991)
  11. 11.  Countries that sided with the US:  France, Italy, Belgium, Denmark, Great Britain…  CalledWestern countries  Countries that sided with the USSR:  Soviet Germany, Poland, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria  Yugoslavia and Albania  Easter countries
  12. 12. BLOC IDEOLOGY ECONOMY ALLIANCES AMERICAN • Capitalism • Liberal democracies • Marshall Plan • OCDE • Rearmament • NATO • SOVIET • Socialism • Controlled by Communist Party • Planned economy (GOSPLAN). • COMECON • Rearmament. • Warsaw Pact.
  13. 13. THE COLD WAR (1947-1991)
  14. 14. THE COLD WAR (1947-1991)
  15. 15.  The definitive division was in 1947.  TheTruman Doctrine  Condemned the regimes in Soviet-occupied countries and proposed the intervention of the US to stop Soviet expansión.  Any other communist aggresion will be contained by the US  First interventions: Greece andTurkey.
  16. 16. THE COLD WAR (1947-1991)
  17. 17.  The US:  Created an economic plan (Marshall Plan) to support Western European countries in post-war reconstruction (except for Spain).  They increased the number of military bases in Western Europe.
  18. 18.  The world divided into two blocs  «Marshall Plan» 1947  Economic aid to Europe  Less poverty, less attraction on Communism  Recover European economy
  19. 19. THE COLD WAR (1947-1991) Spain was excluded because of Franco’s Dictatorship
  20. 20.  I couldnt resist …  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gZDqwX39w bg  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DuY93g2vJaY  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_RkQjCXu7U Y  And the end:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=34GNAEsClVI
  21. 21.  In 1949 The US and its allies formed a military alliance called the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO). Mr. Dean Acheson (US Minister of Foreign Affairs) signs the NATOTreaty
  22. 22.  The USSR:  Developed the Zhdanov Doctrine: denounced the control of Europe by US; offered to help countries that didn’t want to side US.
  23. 23.  The Soviet Union and its allies formed their own military alliance: theWarsaw Pact (1955).  Members:  USSR  Poland  Romania  Bulgaria  Czecoslovakia  Hungary  Albania  RDA (DRG)
  24. 24.  Germany and Berlin: four occupation zones (UK, US, Fr. & USSR).  Cold war caused the division of Germany and Berlin  FRG (Western Germany) DRG (Eastern Germany)  Western Berlin isolated within DRG
  25. 25. BERLÍN
  26. 26. BERLÍNBLOCKADE(24June1948–12May1949)  In 1948, the countries of the Western Bloc merged their sectors.  In response, the USSR closed off its sector of Berlín, closing its borders and isolating the population from the Western Berlin.  The USA organised the Berlin Airlift to bring supplies to West Berlin.
  27. 27.  In 1961, the Soviets built a thick wall to separate East andWest Berlín.  1951-1958: More than 2 million left GDR (Communist Germany), lots of them through Berlin  In 1961, the Soviets built a thick wall to separate East andWest Berlín.  West Berlin got completely isolated  Symbol of the ColdWar  http://educacion.practicopedia.lain formacion.com/geografia-e- historia/como-cayo-el-muro-de- berlin-12178
  28. 28.  En mi lista de películas se me ha olvidado la más divertida (¡Uno, dos, tres… BillyWilder!)  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FZCOyP mYWMc  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UpswUCi HYyk  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iIlRh6IH3 aU  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dlvisNl_I zE
  29. 29. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W7YE-N448fg https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IZvP5BxqZsw
  30. 30.  The rivalry between US and the USSR was a period of tension between the two superpowers, that NEVER led to war.  There were several armed conflicts, far from América and Soviet soil. The superpowers used their allies when there was cause for confrontation.
  31. 31. THE KOREAN WAR  After theWWII, Korea got divided into two countries (1949), divided by the parallel 38º N.  In 1950, North Korea invaded South Korea.  North Korea was supported by USSR and China.  The US (backed by the UN) defended South Korea.  The KoreanWar lasted 3 years.
  32. 32.  It finished in 1953, the Korean Armistice was signed.  Korea continued divided into two countries: North and South Korea.
  33. 33.  In 1954, the communist coalition Viet Minh declared Vietnam independent from French Indochina.  A war began between the communist guerrilla force (backed by the Soviets) and the French (backed by the US).  Vietnam was divided into 2 territories:  NorthVietnam, communist  South Vietnam, US and anti- communist allies. Ho Chi Minh, communist president of North Vietnam
  34. 34.  A la guerra contra la invasión francesa sucedió la guerra contra la invasión de los Estados Unidos.  Murieron más de cinco millones de vietnamitas y tres millones de personas padecieron los efectos del napalm agente naranja, un potente defoliante que tenía como objetivo arrasar por completo la jungla del país para aislar a los guerrilleros vietnamitas. Durante la guerra Estados Unidos lanzó más de siete millones de toneladas de bombas y 100.000 toneladas de sustancias químicas tóxicas, más bombas que las arrojadas durante toda laSegunda Guerra Mundial.
  35. 35.  A second war (The Vietnam War) began.  The United States provided military support to South Vietnam to avoid reunification under communist rule.  The war began in 1964 and finished in 1973, when the United States, withdrew its troops.TheWar continued.  In 1975, the North Vietnamese Army occupied South Vietnam and the newly unified country came under communist control. Indochina, from 1954-56
  36. 36.  SouthVietnam was backed by United States.  NorthVietnam army, was supported by the Viet Cong (communist guerrilla led by Ho Chi Ming), China and above all the Soviet Union.
  37. 37.  Between 1 million and 5 millionVietnamese people died.  More than 3 million people suffered the effects of napalm.  The United States had almost 60.000 dead soldiers and more than 1700 disappears. Mujer vendada con una etiqueta pegada a su brazo que dice "VNC Female" que significa civil vietnamita
  38. 38. ¿Por qué perdió la guerra EE. UU.?  El presidente Johnson arrastró a Vietnam del Sur (partidarios de la reunificación) a la guerra para evitar el comunismo.  Estados Unidos no comprendió del todo el tipo de guerra y el tipo de pueblo contra quien luchaba.  Así aquel atacaba donde su enemigo podía encajar mejor los golpes, en las bajas humanas, mientras se desgastaba un poco más cada vez.  Los militares estadounidenses se comportaban como en cualquier guerra convencional, donde lo importante son los datos del potencial enemigo, en lugar de una guerra de guerrillas, donde lo vital es separar a los guerrilleros del apoyo popular.
  39. 39.  La zona desmilitarizada que establecieron fue un foco de infiltración comunista y de apoyo a la guerrilla.  El Triángulo de Hierro, una zona a 50 km de Saigón repleta de túneles llenos de guerrilleros y soldados del EVN, nunca fue conocida del todo ni desmantelada.  La jungla fue mortal para los soldados estadounidenses.  La opinión pública estadounidense se posicionó contra la guerra.  Laboriosidad sin desesperanza lo dieron los habitantes de Vietnam del Norte tras los bombardeos de napalm, fósforo blanco, minas antipersona…
  40. 40. En los túneles grandes contingentes vietnamitas podían vivir y pelear. Muchos de ellos, como este de Cu Chi transformado en museo y fotografiado en 1997, forman parte de la industria turística vietnamita
  41. 41.  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TqtehtS B0LI http://www.taringa.net/posts/imagenes/18030279/50-anos-de-la-guerra-de-Vietnam- Imagenes.html
  42. 42. THE COLD WAR (1947-1991)
  43. 43.  In 1959, Castro’s revolution succeded , they expelled Fulgencio Batista (dictator supported by US) and a communist regime began in Cuba.
  44. 44.  Castro's government began a program of nationalization and political consolidation that transformed Cuba's economy and civil society (75% of Cuba's best arable land was owned by foreign individuals or foreign, mostly American, companies at the time of the revolution).  US began an embargo of Cuba, freezing all the commercial relationships (up to this year!!!).  Cuba accepted USSR economic support.
  45. 45. ASSAULT ON THE BAY OF PIGS (BAHÍA COCHINOS)  In 1961, the U.S. government backed an armed assault on the Bay of Pigs with the aim of ousting Castro. Fail attempt of invading Cuba.  They counterrevolutionaries were defeated by the Cuban military forces.
  46. 46. MISSILE CRISIS  In 1962, in response to the failed Bay of Pigs invasion, and the presence of Amerian missiles in Italy andTurkey against the USSR.  The Soviets placed nuclear missiles in Cuba, threatening North American cities.  After a tense 13-day stand-off , the Soviets dismantled their missile bases  the US ended the military blockade.  Nikita Khrushchev was the Soviet president.  John F. Kennedy was the US president.
  47. 47. Fidel Castro embracing Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev, 1961
  48. 48. President Kennedy and Secretary of Defense McNamara https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:John_F_ Kennedy_Address_on_the_Buildup_of_Ar ms_in_Cuba.ogg
  49. 49. THE COLD WAR (1947-1991)
  50. 50.  Period of relative peace  At the end of the 51950s.  Khrushchev and Kennery were more tolerant and willing to negotiate.  Although conflicts continued.  Both governments could communicate via the “red telephone”, a hotline that connected theWhite House to the Kremlin. Kennedy and Khrushchev inVienna. 1961
  51. 51. At the first glimpse we see the clear contrast between the looks of the First Ladies. Jackie is fashionable and sophisticated and Nina is provincial and shapeless. But mindful view understands that the visible differences in appearance of two ladies are just that… appearances.
  52. 52. Measures during peaceful coexistence  StrategicArms LimitationTalks  end to the arms race.  The United States opened dialogue with communist China.  The two Germanis recognised each other officially.
  53. 53. THE COLD WAR (1947-1991) The end of the Chinese-Soviet Alliance, 1962 • Both communist powers broke relations • A long enemity started • Ideological and strategic differences • Great news for the US and the western bloc
  54. 54. THE COLD WAR (1947-1991) Mao and Khruschev, the end of the friendship
  55. 55. THE COLD WAR (1947-1991) The Détente, 1962-1975 • After being on the brink of starting a war in Cuba, both superpowers looked for a détente • Nuclear Non Proliferation Treaty, 1968 • SALT I (Strategic Arms Limitation Agreement), 1972
  56. 56. THE COLD WAR (1947-1991) Nixon and Brezhnev after singing SALT I
  57. 57. THE COLD WAR (1947-1991) The Détente, 1962-1975 • However, local wars continued in which the USA and the USSR intervened • Middle East conflict (Israel with USA support, Arab countries with USSR’s) • Vietnam war (Military intervention of the USA)
  58. 58. THE COLD WAR (1947-1991) Middle East conflict • 1948, creation of Israel • «Six DaysWar» 1967 • «Yom KippurWar» 1973 • Israel, backed up by USA, became the most important country in the area • Israel occupied Palestinian territories and a section of Syria
  59. 59. THE COLD WAR (1947-1991)
  60. 60. THE COLD WAR (1947-1991)
  61. 61. THE COLD WAR (1947-1991)
  62. 62. THE COLD WAR (1947-1991)
  63. 63. THE COLD WAR (1947-1991)
  64. 64. THE COLD WAR (1947-1991)
  65. 65. THE COLD WAR (1947-1991)
  66. 66. THE COLD WAR (1947-1991) Six Days War
  67. 67.  Process in which the old colonies became independent after theWWII.  Some signed agreements (i.e.Tunisia).  Some after revolutions or wars (i.e. Algeria)
  68. 68. CAUSES  Desire for independence and get rid of tyrannical governments.  Nationalist movements.  Decreased prestige of colonisers afterWWII.  The UN defends the rights of people and groups to have their own territory.  Soviet and American support of decolonisation  to weaken the old European powers.
  69. 69. THE DECOLONISATION PROCESS  First phase  the Near East and Asia.  Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, India and Indonesia.  Second phase (1951-1962) North Africa  Libia, Morocco,Tunisia and Algeria.  South Africa (1961).  Third phase  Sub-Saharan Africa: Kenya, Nigeria, Guinea, Mauritania, Congo.  Fourth phase  Southern Africa: Angola, Mozambique and Namibia.
  70. 70.  Neo-colonialism  economic dependence, but political independence.  Conference of Bandung ==>  1955. Former colonies met.  They wanted to promote economic independence and end poverty.  All countries  sovereign and equal.  Rejected international intervention in internal affairs.
  71. 71.  Creation of a new group  the Non-Aligned Movement  Those countries who didn’t want to be an US or an USSR satellite.
  72. 72.  The USSR was the second most powerful country in the world. However:  It had serious economic problems  Its technology was antiquated.  Very low living standards.  Some revolutionary movements in Eastern European countries.
  73. 73. GORBACHEV’S REFORMS  Gorbachov began in 1985 the perestroika.  Perestroika  Several reforms to revive the economy and increase the production of consumer good. Including some increase of freedoms.  He promoted glasnost (transparency)  stopped censorship and allowed more political parties.  Dialogue with US.
  74. 74.  In 1990, BorisYeltsin was elected in the first free elections.  The USSR got dissolved in 1991.  AndYeltsin suppressed the communist regime, dissolving the CPSU (PCUS).  They recognised the independence of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Ukraine and Belarus.  The USSR was divided into 15 independent republics.
  75. 75.  The communist regimes in the world disappeared.  The communist only maintained power in Cuba, North Korea,Vietnam and China.
  76. 76. Uno de los más famosos besos de la Historia es el que tuvo lugar entre los líderes comunistas ErichHonec ker, de la RDA, y Leónidas Breznev, de la URSS, en 1979. Pese a la polémica y el ridículo que desató en Occidente, era realmente un signo común de solidaridad socialista, muy usado desde tiempos de Jruschov.

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