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INTRODUCTION
•Following the war, the United States and the Soviet
Union vie for superiority, and both countries extend
their control over other nations.
•The opposing economic and political philosophies led
to global competition.
•The struggle is more commonly referred to as the
Cold War and lasts from 1945-1991
•Cold-war—struggle of U.S. and Soviet Union using
means just short of war
A POSTWAR PLAN
•Yalta and Potsdam conferences:
• As the war was closing in 1945, British, American, and Soviet leaders
meet at Yalta, Ukraine to discuss a postwar plan. A second meeting
would take place months later at Potsdam, Germany.
• The agree that Germany would be split into zones, and each zone would
be occupied by the soldiers of one of the main allied powers.
• They also agreed that Germany would have to repay the Soviet Union for
damage and loss of life.
• Many European countries would have to re-establish governments. The
major powers decide to split their influence. Western Europe adopting
democracy and Eastern Europe communism.
• Soviet leader Joseph Stalin promises “free elections” in Eastern Europe.
Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin at the Yalta Conference
Churchill, Truman, and Stalin at the Potsdam Conference
UNITED NATIONS CREATED
•Additionally, the conferences helped establish the United Nations.
•In June 1945, 50 nations form the United Nations—an international organization
•All members are represented in the general assembly; 11 nations are on the
security council
•Five permanent members have security council veto power
ALLIES BECOME ENEMIES
• Despite these peace conferences, the U.S. and Soviet goals are too different.
• The U.S. and Soviets split sharply after WWII ends.
• The US wanted a democratic world, sharing “American” values, and a community of nations committed to free trade.
• Soviets emphasize the best way for peace is to have “worldwide Communism”.
• Joseph Stalin makes a speech where he declares that, “Communism and Capitalism cannot
exist in the same world.”
• Now in control of Eastern Europe, Stalin refuses to allow “free elections”.
• U.S. is concerned that Communism will spread beyond Eastern Europe.
THE IRON CURTAIN
• In 1946, Winston Churchill delivers a speech:
• “From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended
across the continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of
central and eastern Europe. Warsaw, berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade,
Bucharest and Sofia, all these famous cities and the populations around them lie
in what I must call the soviet sphere, and all are subject in one form or another,
not only to soviet influence but to a very high and, in many cases, increasing
measure of control from Moscow.”
• The Iron Curtain divides eastern and western Europe
• Iron Curtain—Winston Churchill's name for the division of communist and
democratic Europe
• Germany is divided; east Germany is communist, west Germany democratic
UNITED STATES TRIES TO CONTAIN SOVIETS
•The United States fears communist expansion. The countries
of Greece and Turkey are threatened by communist
revolutions.
•President Truman asks congress to back his Truman doctrine—
a plan to provide support to countries that reject communism.
•Truman requests $400 million for aid to Greece and Turkey.
Congress approves, thus begins the U.S. policy of containment.
•Containment—U.S. plan to stop the spread of communism.
“I believe that it must be the
policy of the United States to
support free peoples who are
resisting subjugation by armed
minorities or by outside
pressures.”
--Harry S. Truman, 1947
UNITED STATES TRIES TO CONTAIN SOVIETS
•Much of western Europe lay in ruins after World War II.
•The United States is now the premiere economic
power in the world and had money to spare.
•Marshall plan—U.S. program of providing aid to assist
and strengthen democratic European countries.
•Congress approves the plan after Communists take
over Czechoslovakia.
GERMANY IS SPLIT
•Following WWII, Germany is split into two
different countries.
•East Germany is influenced by the USSR and
the government is communist.
•West Germany is influenced by the U.S.,
France and the UK; government is a
democracy.
DIVISIONS OF GERMANY
DIVISIONS OF BERLIN
•Not only is the country
split, the capital of Berlin
is split as well.
THE BLOCKADE OF BERLIN AND THE BERLIN AIRLIFT
•In 1948, U.S., Britain, and France withdraw forces from Germany
•Their former occupation zones now form one country, West Germany
•The Soviets oppose this and stop all land and water traffic into West
Berlin
•West Berlin, which is actually located in Soviet East Germany, faces
starvation
•U.S. And Britain fly in supplies for 11 months until the Soviets give in
and the blockade ends
ROUTES OF BERLIN AIRLIFT
THE BERLIN WALL
•In 1961, East Germany (Communist)
builds a wall in Berlin to maintain the
separation between the two.
•The wall keeps West Berlin citizens
confined within.
•Crossing over is strictly forbidden.
THE BERLIN WALL
THE COLD WAR DIVIDES THE WORLD
•Superpowers form rival alliances
•In 1949, U.S., Canada, and West European countries form
NATO
•NATO— North Atlantic Treaty Organization—is a defensive
military alliance
•In 1955, Soviets and eastern nations sign the Warsaw Pact
alliance
NATO
Warsaw Pact
and
Non-aligned nations
THE COLD WAR DIVIDES THE WORLD
•The threat of nuclear war makes any sort of peace uneasy
•The U.S. enjoyed a brief period of being the world’s lone superpower until
the Soviet Union explodes its first atomic bomb in 1949.
•U.S. and Soviet Union would then both develop the even more powerful
hydrogen bomb.
•Increasing tensions leads to military buildup and increasing nuclear
arsenals by U.S. and USSR in a practice called brinkmanship— a policy of
willingness to go to the very edge (brink) of war
MILITARY PARADES IN RED SQUARE
NUCLEAR ARMS RACE
•During the Cold War, both countries vie for nuclear superiority
and rapidly increase their nuclear weapon arsenals.
•The idea of brinkmanship was that by building more and more
bombs; eventually, one side would stand down.
•This, actually, will never happen... neither is willing to back off.
•While it is a little unclear about who was bigger or stronger, it is
speculated that the U.S. had many more bombs, while the Soviets
had more destructive ones such as the tsar (czar) bomba.
H BOMB TESTS
CASTLE BRAVO
• Castle Bravo was the code name given to the first United States
hydrogen bomb detonated in 1954, at Bikini Atoll, Marshall Islands.
• Castle Bravo was the most powerful nuclear device ever detonated
by the United States (15 megatons).
• It also led to the most significant accidental radioactive
contamination ever caused by the United States.
• The detonation was much bigger than expected, (66 miles wide!)
and left fallout on many unexpecting islands leading to the
radiation poisoning of many people.
TSAR BOMBA
• The Tsar Bomba is the nickname for the most powerful nuclear
weapon ever detonated. It’s 1961 test remains the most
powerful artificial explosion in human history.
• The bomb was designed to be 100 megatons but was scaled
back to 50 megatons for testing purposes.
• Still, the bomb was 1,500x greater than the atomic bombs used
on Hiroshima and Nagasaki and at least 10x greater than all the
explosives used in WWII combined!
• In comparison, Castle Bravo was less than 1/3 the strength of
the Tsar Bomba.
TSAR BOMBA (KING BOMB)
DON’T FORGET TO DUCK AND COVER!
• A civil defense film called “Duck and Cover” was created shortly after the
Soviet Union began nuclear testing.
• The film was designed to explain to citizens both the danger of atomic
bombs, and to give them some sort of training so that they would be
prepared to act in the event of a nuclear strike.
• Fallout shelters were built, drills were held in towns and schools, and the
film was shown to “millions of schoolchildren” from 1951-1991.
• The film is heavily criticized for the usefulness of it’s tactics. It has been
called propaganda and a political tool to frighten the public of the Soviet
Union and communism.
THE SPACE RACE
•Not only was the Cold War a race to increase
military power, it was also a race for
technological prowess.
•This included the race to be the first country into
space (the Space Race).
•The Soviets were first to send the first man-made
satellite known as Sputnik into space (1957).
A replica of Sputnik 1
THE SPACE RACE
•The Soviets bested the United States
once again when they sent soviet
cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin as first
human in space on April 12, 1961.
HAM
•The U.S. would have been the first,
but instead sent a chimpanzee on
January 31, 1961.
THE U.S. LANDS A MAN ON THE MOON
•The Americans finally get the
upper hand in the Space Race
when they land a man on the
moon (Neil Armstrong)
during the Apollo 11 mission
on July 20th, 1969.
THE RED SCARE
•As the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the
United States intensified with the nuclear arms race
and space race in the 1940s and 1950s, hysteria
over the perceived threat posed by communists in
the U.S. became known as the Red Scare.
•The Red Scare had a profound effect on American
society.
THE RED SCARE
• Citizens analyzed and scrutinized one another for fear that their neighbor
may be a Communist sympathizer or even a secret, Soviet spy! (an idea
that wasn’t totally absurd as the USSR did have many spies).
• Thousands of alleged communist sympathizers saw their lives disrupted.
They were hounded by law enforcement, alienated from friends and family
and fired from their jobs.
• Eventually, the hysteria would ease in the late 1950’s, but it would continue
to have lingering effects for decades as people constantly fear attacks from
the Soviet Union.
• It proved how unfounded fears could impact daily life.
COMMUNISTS VS. NATIONALISTS
•Prior to World War II, China is involved in a bitter
Civil War. It is interrupted with the Japanese
invasion and takeover during the war.
•Mao Zedong—leads the Chinese communists
Jiang Jieshi —leads of Chinese Nationalists
•Nationalists and communists resume Chinese Civil
war after WWII ends
Mao Zedong
Jiang Jieshi
COMMUNISTS VS. NATIONALISTS
•The economic problems of China following WWII cause many people to follow the
communists
•Even Nationalist soldiers to desert to the communists
•Mao’s communist troops take control of many of China’s major cities and the
Nationalists are all but defeated
•In 1949, the communists establish the People’s Republic of China
• Mao Zedong is the founding father and Chairman of the Communist Party of China
•The Nationalists flee to Taiwan, the official name is the Republic of China
•Both claim to be the true China and the stalemate lasts even today.
COMMUNISTS VS. NATIONALISTS
THE COMMUNISTS TRANSFORM CHINA
• Communists claim a new “mandate of heaven”.
• Ancient China was once ruled by dynastic rulers. The belief was that when a
family/leader ruled poorly or unjustly, their rule would end according to God’s
will. God would then pass on or “mandate” a new family or leader. This was
known as the dynastic cycle. The communists feel that God ended the unjust
ruling of the Nationalists and mandated them as the new authority.
• The Chinese communists then organize national government and
communist party.
• Mao takes property from landowners and divides it among peasants.
• Government seizes private companies and plans production increase.
THE GREAT LEAP FORWARD
• The Great Leap Forward Program was an initiative
created by Mao after coming to power.
• Similar to Joseph Stalin’s “Five Year Plan, this
program established Communes—large collective
farms that often supported over 25,000 people.
• The program is ended after it’s inefficiency leads to
crop failures and famines. China’s food supply
almost completely runs out.
• It is estimated that upwards of 45 million people die
as a result of the failure of the Great Leap Forward.
THE CULTURAL REVOLUTION
• Mao suffered severe scrutiny, losing much respect and power after
the failure of his Great Leap Forward and many people speak out
against his leadership.
• Determined not to lose power, Mao initiates the “Cultural
Revolution”.
• This revolution’s goal was to preserve the “true” form of Communism.
• Mao purged the Chinese government and society to rid anyone with
traditional or capitalist ideology (most often time with deadly
consequences).
THE RED GUARDS AND THE CULTURAL REVOLUTION
• Mao sent his Red guards— groups of violent and radical
youth militia — to close schools and execute or imprison
many intellectuals and enforce his strict form of communism
in China.
• Between 1966 and 1976, students in China’s Red Guard
waged a cultural war on teachers and professionals that left
a million people dead and the country in chaos.
• They specifically targeted well educated people who might
speak out against Mao or the government’s failures.
Red Guards
holding Mao’s
“Little Red Book”
of his sayings
during the cultural
revolution.
THE KOREAS
• Just prior to WWII, Korea is taken over by the
Japanese.
• Towards the end of the war, the USSR invaded
Japanese held territory in China and Korea.
• Following the Japanese defeat, it is agreed that the
Korean peninsula will be divided into two separate
countries.
• North Korea is a communist and influenced by the
USSR.
• South Korea is a democracy and influenced by the
U.S.
THE 38TH PARALLEL
•A divided land
•38th parallel—line dividing
Korea into two separate
countries, North Korea and
South Korea
THE KOREAN WAR
•In 1950, North Korean troops invade South Korea,
supported by the USSR and the People’s Republic of China.
•This sets off the first military action of the Cold War.
•South Korea calls for help and is backed by the U.S. and the
United Nations (15 countries).
•Douglas MacArthur—because of his experience in Asia, he
is chosen to lead UN forces against North Koreans
THE KOREAN WAR
THE UN ADVANCES
•The North Koreans control most of the peninsula
when MacArthur attacks.
•He commands a brilliant invasion of Inchon which
allows UN forces to surround much of the enemy.
•Half of North Korea’s army surrenders and the rest
retreat.
•UN troops push the North Koreans back to all the
way to the Chinese border.
THE UN ADVANCES
THE CHINESE JOIN THE WAR
•The Chinese enter the war
in 1951 and send 300,000
troops against UN forces.
•They move south and
capture Seoul.
THE CHINESE ADVANCE
A CEASE FIRE
• MacArthur disagrees with Truman’s plan to try and end the war peacefully.
He is even openly critical of the president.
• MacArthur says, “there is no substitute for victory.” Anything short, is
giving in to the communists. He recommends the use of nuclear weapons.
• Not wanting to incite WWIII, MacArthur is fired for insubordination and removed from
command by President Truman. An embarrassing end to a long and illustrious career.
• In 1953, a cease fire is declared and ends the war.
• The war does not have a clear cut winner as not much territory is gained or
lost.
• Essentially, the border at the 38th parallel is restored.
THE FORGOTTEN WAR
• Many times the Korean War is referred to as
the “forgotten war” or “unknown war” in
the United States.
• This is likely because it was a smaller conflict
in between two much larger conflicts, WWII
and the Vietnam War.
• Regardless, the war is very bloody. Over 5
million people die in 3 years, including
40,000 Americans.
THE FORGOTTEN WAR
WAR IN KOREA
•Aftermath of the war
•North Korea builds collective farms, heavy industry,
nuclear weapons
•South Korea establishes democracy, growing economy
with U.S. Aid
•Tension is still high today between the two countries.
DID YOU KNOW?
•Even though they signed a cease fire in 1953,
the Korean war is technically still going on
today!
•While there is not full outbreak of war,
tensions remain high and 2 million soldiers are
readily available on each side of the border,
ready to go to war at a moments notice.
38TH PARALLEL – DE-MILITARIZED ZONE (DMZ)
FIGHTING FOR THE THIRD WORLD
•The U.S., Soviet Union, and China all
compete for influence over the third
world
•They back revolutions and give
economic , military and technical aid
•Third world—developing nations;
often newly independent, nonaligned
FIDEL CASTRO AND THE CUBAN REVOLUTION
• In the 1950’s, Cuba was under the control of President Fulgencio Batista.
• Batista had been a corrupt and repressive dictator, but he was considered to
be pro-American.
• Many U.S. corporations or wealthy individuals owned a majority of Cuba’s
sugar plantations, cattle ranches, mines and utilities. Batista did little to
restrict their operations.
• In 1959, a young Cuban revolutionary named Fidel Castro, led a guerilla
army and overthrew President Batista.
• With Castro in power, he nationalizes the economy and seizes U.S. property.
Fidel Castro
Fidel Castro Che Guevara
THE EMBARGO OF CUBA
• Many Cubans welcomed Fidel Castro's communist rule, yet
having a communist nation just about 100 miles from the
United States made Americans nervous.
• Shortly thereafter, the Cubans entered into relations with the
Soviet Union.
• The U.S. responded by enacting an embargo on Cuba.
• That was not all, the U.S. was planning additional action…
Fidel Castro with Soviet Premiere Nikita Khrushchev
BAY OF PIGS INVASION
• In April 1961, the CIA planned an invasion of Cuba using 1,400 American-
trained Cubans who had fled their homes when Castro took over.
• The U.S. wanted to avoid a direct intervention for fear the Soviets might
retaliate.
• However, the invasion did not go well: they were badly outnumbered by
Castro’s troops, and they surrendered after less than 24 hours of fighting.
• The incident was an incredibly embarrassing political catastrophe for
President Kennedy and America. Many people lose faith in the
government and the U.S. is looked down upon for its failed coup.
THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS
•Things go from bad to worse,
when in October of 1962, it is
discovered that the Soviets
were building nuclear missile
silos on the island of Cuba.
•Through secret, U2 spy plane
photographs, the U.S. was
made aware of the missiles.
KENNEDY ADDRESSES THE NATION
•In a television broadcast on October 22, 1962, President
Kennedy notified Americans about the presence of the
missiles in Cuba.
•He explained that the U.S. was prepared to use military force
if necessary to neutralize this threat to national security.
•Following this public declaration, people around the globe
nervously waited for the Soviets to respond.
•The next 13 days would be an intense showdown.
THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS
•The U.S. demanded the Soviets withdraw from Cuba.
•The Soviets refused and it seemed a conflict was imminent.
•Both sides believed that only armed combat could resolve the issue.
•President Kennedy orders American warships to set up a blockade
that would not allow any ships in or out of Cuba.
• He was even meeting with military advisors to plan an invasion of Cuba
and remove the missiles by force.
•Just when it looked as if nuclear war was going to occur, the two sides
came to an agreement. The Soviets would remove their missiles from
Cuba as long as the Americans removed their own from Turkey.
BLOCKADE OF CUBA
JUST HOW CLOSE DID WE COME TO WWIII?
WHAT IF THE CRISIS ESCALATED TO WAR?
POSTWAR SOUTHEAST ASIA
•The American “domino theory” stated that if South Vietnam
fell, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, Burma, India and Pakistan would
also fall. The Pacific Islands and even Australia could be at risk.
•However, following the Vietnam War, the only countries to fall
to communism were Laos and Cambodia (countries that
directly border Vietnam).
•In Cambodia, communists known as the Khmer Rouge (literally
the Red Khmers) forcibly took power.
Pol Pot
Leader of the Khmer Rouge
KHMER ROUGE
• The Khmer Rouge is most remembered for their radical
social reform process as well as orchestrating
the Cambodian genocide.
• The goal of the Khmer Rouge was to reconstruct
Cambodia, turning it into a classless, agriculture society.
• They forced many people out of their homes and
ignored many basic human freedoms; they controlled
how Cambodians acted, what they wore, to whom they
could talk, and many other aspects of their lives.
• Books, money and religion were completely eliminated
from the society!
THE GENOCIDE
• In the four years that the Khmer Rouge ruled Cambodia, it was responsible for one of the worst mass killings
of the 20th century.
• The Khmer Rouge killed many people who resisted them or their policies, as well as intellectuals, minorities,
and many of their own party members who were suspected of being traitors.
• Anyone thought to be an intellectual of any sort was killed.
• Often people were condemned just for wearing glasses or knowing a foreign language. City-dwellers who had no
knowledge of farming were targeted. People were even killed just for praying!
• Millions of the educated middle-classes were tortured and executed in special “prison centers”. By the end of
their reign (1975-1979), they murdered, overworked and starved the population.
• Over 2 million people were killed or died (Cambodia’s population was just 7 million at the time).
• They were finally overthrown during a war with neighboring Vietnam in 1979.
THE GENOCIDE
•Tuol Sleng (aka S-21) was the main
torture and killing center.
THE GENOCIDE
• The Khmer Rouge soldiers
took photos of their
victims. It was used as
evidence to prove they
followed their orders and
carried out the execution.
THE KILLING FIELDS
•The Killing Fields are a number of sites in
Cambodia where large numbers of people
were killed and buried by the Khmer Rouge
regime, during its rule of the country from
1975 to 1979.
•There are over 20,000 mass graves spread
throughout the country.
•The largest is Cheung Ek, which has nearly
9,000 bodies.
THE KILLING FIELDS
A commemorative stupa filled
with the skulls of the victims.
A mass grave discovered in 1980. A collection of skulls and bones in
Tuol Sleng
POL POT
•Often regarded as the “Hitler of Cambodia”,
Pol Pot and the remnants of the Khmer
Rouge fled to Thailand after their defeat.
•He died in 1998 at aged 72, never having
been brought to justice for his crimes…
IRAN AND THE COLD WAR
• Following WWII, Iran sided with the United States and Western countries
during the Cold War.
• Iran was a great ally for it not only provided oil to Western countries, but
also worked against the spread of communism into the region.
• The king (shah) of Iran, Reza Pahlavi, embraced Western culture so
much, that U.S. President Jimmy Carter even flew to Tehran to spend
New Year’s Eve with the Shah in 1977.
• Using their immense oil wealth and aid from the U.S., Iran became a very
advanced economy and sophisticated westernized culture.
WESTERNIZED IRAN
•As Shah, Pahlavi modernized the country of Iran.
• He pushed through major reforms that gave more rights
to women, improved education and health care, and
gave peasants land-ownership rights.
•The U.S. and other allies saw this as a possible way to
modernize and maybe even introduce democracy into
the Middle East.
•The growing Western influence, however, also brought
some decadence such as drinking and gambling,
revealing women's clothing, and provocative films.Shah Reza Pahlavi
WESTERNIZED IRAN
TRADITIONAL ISLAMIC VIEWS
• While it sounds as though the country was making great
strides, beneath the surface Iran was smoldering.
• In a nation that is 90% Shiite Muslim (typically more
conservative than Sunnis), the ayatollahs or religious
leaders, were furious at the nation's liberalization.
• While many Iranians welcomed the progress, some saw it
as a threat to their way of life and conservative values.
• They saw American influence everywhere and felt it was
going to replace their ancient, Persian and Muslim culture.
THE IRANIAN REVOLUTION
•The Shah had also brought some of the ill will on himself.
Iran's economic boom had bred rampant corruption, even
within the royal family.
•With American assistance, the Shah created his secret police,
which imprisoned, tortured, or killed thousands of the
opponents.
•The Shah banned all protests and when they did occur, they
typically ended with violent confrontations with police forces.
THE IRANIAN REVOLUTION
•The conservative Shiites organized opposition led by Ayatollah
Ruholla Khomeini, an Iranian Muslim leader living in exile.
•The movement swells from thousands into millions. They wanted
the shah to abdicate his power.
•In 1978, Khomeini sparks riots in Iran and the shah flees to the U.S.
• At this time, the Shah was also suffering from cancer and claimed he was in
the U.S. for treatment.
•Khomeini claims a jihad (holy war) on all western influences. He
called the U.S. “the great Satan” and “an enemy of Islam”.
THE IRANIAN REVOLUTION
•Khomeini's Muslim radicals take control
in Iran.
•He declared the establishment of "God's
government": an Islamic theocracy, ruled
by religious leaders acting in accordance
with Sharia, or Islamic law.
•The new constitution provided for an
elected legislature and President, but the
real power lay with a small and secretive
group of religious leaders called the
Council of Guardians, headed by
Khomeini, the Supreme Leader.
THE U.S. EMBASSY ATTACKED
• On November 4, 1979, Islamic revolutionaries swarmed and
attacked the U.S. embassy in Tehran, seizing the 66 Americans
inside and holding them hostage.
• They demand that the U.S. hand over the Shah in exchange for
the hostages, but President Carter refused.
• The hostage crisis riveted the nation for more than a year.
Americans were unaccustomed to, and embarrassed by, feeling
so powerless.
• The Shah, died in 1980 but the hostages still would not be
released.
THE EFFECT OF THE REVOLUTION
• The hostage crisis would like 444 days between 1979-1981 and hostages wouldn’t
be released until January 20, 1981, when Ronald Reagan took over the presidency.
• The hostage crisis helped the revolution to solidify its hold on Iran.
• The efforts of Westernization were reversed.
• Women were ordered to wear head coverings and full body cloaks called chadors
• Gangs of religious zealots roamed the streets enforcing religious and moral edicts
• Political opponents were imprisoned and tortured as ruthlessly as under the Shah
• Khomeini's death in 1989 did nothing to ease the tensions between Iran and the U.S.
• Today, Iran is accused of secretly developing nuclear weapons and supporting
terrorist organizations.
IRAQ-IRAN WAR (THE GULF WAR)
• The Iranian revolution put much strain on relations between Iraq (Sunnis) and
Iran (Shiites) and in 1980, Iraq invades Iran to start the “Gulf War”.
• With the oustering of the Shah in Iran, the U.S. supported the forces in Iraq and
their leader, Saddam Hussein, by supplying them with weapons, money and
intelligence.
• Iran, on the other hand, was supported by the USSR who sold weapons to the
Iranians.
• Despite heavy losses on each side, neither seemed to be victorious and a peace
agreement is signed in 1988. No territory is gained or lost by either side.
• The conflict can be compared to WWI in terms of tactics as there was large scale
trench warfare, barbed wire and extensive use of chemical weapons like
mustard gas.
SUPERPOWERS FACE OFF IN AFGHANISTAN
• In 1979, the Soviets invade Afghanistan to help the communist government against rebels.
• The Muslim rebels; the Mujahideen, fight a guerilla war against the Soviets
• The U.S. secretly supports the Mujahideen by supplying them with weapons to try and overthrow the
communist government and prevent the spread of communism
• The Soviet Army would battle with the rebels, however, many of the Soviet soldiers were untested in
battle and their gear was not designed for the harsh environment of Afghanistan.
• Also, the Mujahideen soldiers were fighting for their homeland and their religion. They were fierce
fighters and had many good places to hide in the mountains.
• Soviets eventually withdraw in 1989. The war was an embarrassment for the USSR (much like Vietnam
was for the U.S.) and their advanced army was no longer seen as invincible.
DID YOU KNOW?
• Some of the more extreme members of the Mujahideen would go on
to form the group known as the Taliban.
• They took power in Afghanistan in 1996; however, their enforcement
of strict Sharia law, treatment of women and support of terrorists like
al-Qaeda led them to be ostracized from the world community.
• The Taliban was ousted from power in 2001 by the U.S. military and
Afghani opposition forces in response to the September 11, 2001,
terrorist attack on the U.S.
THE COLD WAR THAWS
• In the late 1960’s and early 1970’s the Cold War started to thaw.
• The policy of brinkmanship under Kennedy and Khrushchev had
caused repeated crises and nuclear war was always a threat.
• Some leaders thought that East and West could compete peacefully.
• This was far different than when Stalin stated communism and capitalism
could not coexist.
• Communism was also becoming less and less popular in many East
European countries leading to better relations.
FROM BRINKMANSHIP TO DÉTENTE
•The Vietnam-era turmoil fuels desire
for less confrontational policy
•Détente—a policy of reducing cold
war tensions to avoid conflict
•Détente grows out of philosophy
known as realpolitik— “realistic
politics”—which recognizes the need
to be practical and flexible
FROM BRINKMANSHIP TO DÉTENTE
•Nixon visits communist China
and Soviet Union to try improve
relations with these countries
•They sign the SALT I Treaty—
strategic arms limitation talks—
puts limits on nuclear weapons
•Later, SALT II is signed even
further reducing military tension
THE END OF DÉTENTE
• In 1981, Ronald Reagan becomes the U.S. president
• Reagan is extremely anti-communist
• Reagan, once again, increases military spending
and proposes a missile defense program called
“Star Wars”
• Actual name is Strategic Defense Initiative or SDI
• This program was designed to defend the U.S.
(rather than launch offensive weapons) by using
ground and space based missile systems to
neutralize a Soviet attack
THE COLLAPSE OF THE USSR
• Leading up to the 1980’s, the Soviet Union had been
dealing with a number of uprisings in communist
satellite countries.
• Realizing he inherited a political, social and economic
mess, Soviet Premiere Mikhail Gorbachev introduces
two programs to dramatically take his country on a new
course:
• Glasnost (openness) – allows for more social freedom like
freedom of speech and press
• Perestroika (restructuring) – allows more economic,
political freedom like owning a private businesses
THE FALL OF THE BERLIN WALL
•After much protest in the 1980’s and
urges from other political leaders, such
as President Reagan in 1987, East
Germany agrees to bring down the
Berlin Wall.
•On November 9th, 1989 demolition of
the wall commenced.
“Mr. Gorbechev, tear down this wall!”
THE FALL OF THE BERLIN WALL
THE COLLAPSE OF THE USSR
• The freedom of Glasnost, Perestroika and the fall of the Berlin Wall
causes a domino effect and the people protest and demand
independence in the USSR (especially those in the smaller republics).
• First in Poland, then Czechoslovakia followed by Romania…
movements even sprang up in Georgia, Ukraine, Moldova, Belarus,
and the Central Asian Republics
• This leads to the collapse of Soviet Union, end of Cold War in 1991
• The region divides into 15 independent republics.
• Russia becomes a democratic nation and remains that today.
WHY DID THE SOVIET UNION COLLAPSE?
• While there can be several reasons that caused the fall
of the USSR, the biggest is likely economic inefficiency
and the nuclear arms/space race which, essentially,
bankrupted the country.
• During WWII, the Soviet economy saw a boost due to
the fact that their factories were producing so much war
material. This ultimately may have led to their decline
as Soviet leaders were blinded by this miracle success.
WHY DID THE SOVIET UNION COLLAPSE?
• The nuclear arms race and space race were actually counter
productive, causing economic stagnation in the USSR.
• All the best scientists, engineers, materials and machinery were
delegated to the military sector.
• While they had advanced weaponry, it caused a technological lag
when it came to simple items like TV's, audio equipment, calculators,
computers, etc.
• Even health care was effected as they could not deliver services due
to deficiencies in medical supplies or equipment.
WHY DID THE SOVIET UNION COLLAPSE?
• From Atom Bomb to Star Wars, the Cold War cost both countries trillions upon
trillions of dollars.
• Both the US and the USSR were devastated by the effects of overzealous
military spending.
• However, it was the Soviet Union who fell, not the United States.
• In the end, the economic output was just not enough to keep up with it’s
massive commitment to spending.
• On top of the inefficiency of communism, there was corruption, bad policies,
poor planning, and a totalitarian system that restricted its people socially.

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The Cold War

  • 1.
  • 2. INTRODUCTION •Following the war, the United States and the Soviet Union vie for superiority, and both countries extend their control over other nations. •The opposing economic and political philosophies led to global competition. •The struggle is more commonly referred to as the Cold War and lasts from 1945-1991 •Cold-war—struggle of U.S. and Soviet Union using means just short of war
  • 3.
  • 4. A POSTWAR PLAN •Yalta and Potsdam conferences: • As the war was closing in 1945, British, American, and Soviet leaders meet at Yalta, Ukraine to discuss a postwar plan. A second meeting would take place months later at Potsdam, Germany. • The agree that Germany would be split into zones, and each zone would be occupied by the soldiers of one of the main allied powers. • They also agreed that Germany would have to repay the Soviet Union for damage and loss of life. • Many European countries would have to re-establish governments. The major powers decide to split their influence. Western Europe adopting democracy and Eastern Europe communism. • Soviet leader Joseph Stalin promises “free elections” in Eastern Europe.
  • 5. Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin at the Yalta Conference
  • 6. Churchill, Truman, and Stalin at the Potsdam Conference
  • 7. UNITED NATIONS CREATED •Additionally, the conferences helped establish the United Nations. •In June 1945, 50 nations form the United Nations—an international organization •All members are represented in the general assembly; 11 nations are on the security council •Five permanent members have security council veto power
  • 8. ALLIES BECOME ENEMIES • Despite these peace conferences, the U.S. and Soviet goals are too different. • The U.S. and Soviets split sharply after WWII ends. • The US wanted a democratic world, sharing “American” values, and a community of nations committed to free trade. • Soviets emphasize the best way for peace is to have “worldwide Communism”. • Joseph Stalin makes a speech where he declares that, “Communism and Capitalism cannot exist in the same world.” • Now in control of Eastern Europe, Stalin refuses to allow “free elections”. • U.S. is concerned that Communism will spread beyond Eastern Europe.
  • 9. THE IRON CURTAIN • In 1946, Winston Churchill delivers a speech: • “From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of central and eastern Europe. Warsaw, berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia, all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the soviet sphere, and all are subject in one form or another, not only to soviet influence but to a very high and, in many cases, increasing measure of control from Moscow.” • The Iron Curtain divides eastern and western Europe • Iron Curtain—Winston Churchill's name for the division of communist and democratic Europe • Germany is divided; east Germany is communist, west Germany democratic
  • 10.
  • 11.
  • 12. UNITED STATES TRIES TO CONTAIN SOVIETS •The United States fears communist expansion. The countries of Greece and Turkey are threatened by communist revolutions. •President Truman asks congress to back his Truman doctrine— a plan to provide support to countries that reject communism. •Truman requests $400 million for aid to Greece and Turkey. Congress approves, thus begins the U.S. policy of containment. •Containment—U.S. plan to stop the spread of communism. “I believe that it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures.” --Harry S. Truman, 1947
  • 13. UNITED STATES TRIES TO CONTAIN SOVIETS •Much of western Europe lay in ruins after World War II. •The United States is now the premiere economic power in the world and had money to spare. •Marshall plan—U.S. program of providing aid to assist and strengthen democratic European countries. •Congress approves the plan after Communists take over Czechoslovakia.
  • 14.
  • 15. GERMANY IS SPLIT •Following WWII, Germany is split into two different countries. •East Germany is influenced by the USSR and the government is communist. •West Germany is influenced by the U.S., France and the UK; government is a democracy.
  • 17. DIVISIONS OF BERLIN •Not only is the country split, the capital of Berlin is split as well.
  • 18.
  • 19. THE BLOCKADE OF BERLIN AND THE BERLIN AIRLIFT •In 1948, U.S., Britain, and France withdraw forces from Germany •Their former occupation zones now form one country, West Germany •The Soviets oppose this and stop all land and water traffic into West Berlin •West Berlin, which is actually located in Soviet East Germany, faces starvation •U.S. And Britain fly in supplies for 11 months until the Soviets give in and the blockade ends
  • 20. ROUTES OF BERLIN AIRLIFT
  • 21.
  • 22. THE BERLIN WALL •In 1961, East Germany (Communist) builds a wall in Berlin to maintain the separation between the two. •The wall keeps West Berlin citizens confined within. •Crossing over is strictly forbidden.
  • 24. THE COLD WAR DIVIDES THE WORLD •Superpowers form rival alliances •In 1949, U.S., Canada, and West European countries form NATO •NATO— North Atlantic Treaty Organization—is a defensive military alliance •In 1955, Soviets and eastern nations sign the Warsaw Pact alliance
  • 26. THE COLD WAR DIVIDES THE WORLD •The threat of nuclear war makes any sort of peace uneasy •The U.S. enjoyed a brief period of being the world’s lone superpower until the Soviet Union explodes its first atomic bomb in 1949. •U.S. and Soviet Union would then both develop the even more powerful hydrogen bomb. •Increasing tensions leads to military buildup and increasing nuclear arsenals by U.S. and USSR in a practice called brinkmanship— a policy of willingness to go to the very edge (brink) of war
  • 27. MILITARY PARADES IN RED SQUARE
  • 28. NUCLEAR ARMS RACE •During the Cold War, both countries vie for nuclear superiority and rapidly increase their nuclear weapon arsenals. •The idea of brinkmanship was that by building more and more bombs; eventually, one side would stand down. •This, actually, will never happen... neither is willing to back off. •While it is a little unclear about who was bigger or stronger, it is speculated that the U.S. had many more bombs, while the Soviets had more destructive ones such as the tsar (czar) bomba.
  • 30. CASTLE BRAVO • Castle Bravo was the code name given to the first United States hydrogen bomb detonated in 1954, at Bikini Atoll, Marshall Islands. • Castle Bravo was the most powerful nuclear device ever detonated by the United States (15 megatons). • It also led to the most significant accidental radioactive contamination ever caused by the United States. • The detonation was much bigger than expected, (66 miles wide!) and left fallout on many unexpecting islands leading to the radiation poisoning of many people.
  • 31. TSAR BOMBA • The Tsar Bomba is the nickname for the most powerful nuclear weapon ever detonated. It’s 1961 test remains the most powerful artificial explosion in human history. • The bomb was designed to be 100 megatons but was scaled back to 50 megatons for testing purposes. • Still, the bomb was 1,500x greater than the atomic bombs used on Hiroshima and Nagasaki and at least 10x greater than all the explosives used in WWII combined! • In comparison, Castle Bravo was less than 1/3 the strength of the Tsar Bomba.
  • 33.
  • 34. DON’T FORGET TO DUCK AND COVER! • A civil defense film called “Duck and Cover” was created shortly after the Soviet Union began nuclear testing. • The film was designed to explain to citizens both the danger of atomic bombs, and to give them some sort of training so that they would be prepared to act in the event of a nuclear strike. • Fallout shelters were built, drills were held in towns and schools, and the film was shown to “millions of schoolchildren” from 1951-1991. • The film is heavily criticized for the usefulness of it’s tactics. It has been called propaganda and a political tool to frighten the public of the Soviet Union and communism.
  • 35. THE SPACE RACE •Not only was the Cold War a race to increase military power, it was also a race for technological prowess. •This included the race to be the first country into space (the Space Race). •The Soviets were first to send the first man-made satellite known as Sputnik into space (1957).
  • 36. A replica of Sputnik 1
  • 37.
  • 38. THE SPACE RACE •The Soviets bested the United States once again when they sent soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin as first human in space on April 12, 1961.
  • 39. HAM •The U.S. would have been the first, but instead sent a chimpanzee on January 31, 1961.
  • 40. THE U.S. LANDS A MAN ON THE MOON •The Americans finally get the upper hand in the Space Race when they land a man on the moon (Neil Armstrong) during the Apollo 11 mission on July 20th, 1969.
  • 41. THE RED SCARE •As the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States intensified with the nuclear arms race and space race in the 1940s and 1950s, hysteria over the perceived threat posed by communists in the U.S. became known as the Red Scare. •The Red Scare had a profound effect on American society.
  • 42. THE RED SCARE • Citizens analyzed and scrutinized one another for fear that their neighbor may be a Communist sympathizer or even a secret, Soviet spy! (an idea that wasn’t totally absurd as the USSR did have many spies). • Thousands of alleged communist sympathizers saw their lives disrupted. They were hounded by law enforcement, alienated from friends and family and fired from their jobs. • Eventually, the hysteria would ease in the late 1950’s, but it would continue to have lingering effects for decades as people constantly fear attacks from the Soviet Union. • It proved how unfounded fears could impact daily life.
  • 43.
  • 44. COMMUNISTS VS. NATIONALISTS •Prior to World War II, China is involved in a bitter Civil War. It is interrupted with the Japanese invasion and takeover during the war. •Mao Zedong—leads the Chinese communists Jiang Jieshi —leads of Chinese Nationalists •Nationalists and communists resume Chinese Civil war after WWII ends Mao Zedong Jiang Jieshi
  • 45.
  • 46. COMMUNISTS VS. NATIONALISTS •The economic problems of China following WWII cause many people to follow the communists •Even Nationalist soldiers to desert to the communists •Mao’s communist troops take control of many of China’s major cities and the Nationalists are all but defeated •In 1949, the communists establish the People’s Republic of China • Mao Zedong is the founding father and Chairman of the Communist Party of China •The Nationalists flee to Taiwan, the official name is the Republic of China •Both claim to be the true China and the stalemate lasts even today.
  • 48. THE COMMUNISTS TRANSFORM CHINA • Communists claim a new “mandate of heaven”. • Ancient China was once ruled by dynastic rulers. The belief was that when a family/leader ruled poorly or unjustly, their rule would end according to God’s will. God would then pass on or “mandate” a new family or leader. This was known as the dynastic cycle. The communists feel that God ended the unjust ruling of the Nationalists and mandated them as the new authority. • The Chinese communists then organize national government and communist party. • Mao takes property from landowners and divides it among peasants. • Government seizes private companies and plans production increase.
  • 49. THE GREAT LEAP FORWARD • The Great Leap Forward Program was an initiative created by Mao after coming to power. • Similar to Joseph Stalin’s “Five Year Plan, this program established Communes—large collective farms that often supported over 25,000 people. • The program is ended after it’s inefficiency leads to crop failures and famines. China’s food supply almost completely runs out. • It is estimated that upwards of 45 million people die as a result of the failure of the Great Leap Forward.
  • 50. THE CULTURAL REVOLUTION • Mao suffered severe scrutiny, losing much respect and power after the failure of his Great Leap Forward and many people speak out against his leadership. • Determined not to lose power, Mao initiates the “Cultural Revolution”. • This revolution’s goal was to preserve the “true” form of Communism. • Mao purged the Chinese government and society to rid anyone with traditional or capitalist ideology (most often time with deadly consequences).
  • 51. THE RED GUARDS AND THE CULTURAL REVOLUTION • Mao sent his Red guards— groups of violent and radical youth militia — to close schools and execute or imprison many intellectuals and enforce his strict form of communism in China. • Between 1966 and 1976, students in China’s Red Guard waged a cultural war on teachers and professionals that left a million people dead and the country in chaos. • They specifically targeted well educated people who might speak out against Mao or the government’s failures.
  • 52. Red Guards holding Mao’s “Little Red Book” of his sayings during the cultural revolution.
  • 53.
  • 54.
  • 55. THE KOREAS • Just prior to WWII, Korea is taken over by the Japanese. • Towards the end of the war, the USSR invaded Japanese held territory in China and Korea. • Following the Japanese defeat, it is agreed that the Korean peninsula will be divided into two separate countries. • North Korea is a communist and influenced by the USSR. • South Korea is a democracy and influenced by the U.S.
  • 56. THE 38TH PARALLEL •A divided land •38th parallel—line dividing Korea into two separate countries, North Korea and South Korea
  • 57. THE KOREAN WAR •In 1950, North Korean troops invade South Korea, supported by the USSR and the People’s Republic of China. •This sets off the first military action of the Cold War. •South Korea calls for help and is backed by the U.S. and the United Nations (15 countries). •Douglas MacArthur—because of his experience in Asia, he is chosen to lead UN forces against North Koreans
  • 59. THE UN ADVANCES •The North Koreans control most of the peninsula when MacArthur attacks. •He commands a brilliant invasion of Inchon which allows UN forces to surround much of the enemy. •Half of North Korea’s army surrenders and the rest retreat. •UN troops push the North Koreans back to all the way to the Chinese border.
  • 61. THE CHINESE JOIN THE WAR •The Chinese enter the war in 1951 and send 300,000 troops against UN forces. •They move south and capture Seoul.
  • 63. A CEASE FIRE • MacArthur disagrees with Truman’s plan to try and end the war peacefully. He is even openly critical of the president. • MacArthur says, “there is no substitute for victory.” Anything short, is giving in to the communists. He recommends the use of nuclear weapons. • Not wanting to incite WWIII, MacArthur is fired for insubordination and removed from command by President Truman. An embarrassing end to a long and illustrious career. • In 1953, a cease fire is declared and ends the war. • The war does not have a clear cut winner as not much territory is gained or lost. • Essentially, the border at the 38th parallel is restored.
  • 64. THE FORGOTTEN WAR • Many times the Korean War is referred to as the “forgotten war” or “unknown war” in the United States. • This is likely because it was a smaller conflict in between two much larger conflicts, WWII and the Vietnam War. • Regardless, the war is very bloody. Over 5 million people die in 3 years, including 40,000 Americans.
  • 66.
  • 67. WAR IN KOREA •Aftermath of the war •North Korea builds collective farms, heavy industry, nuclear weapons •South Korea establishes democracy, growing economy with U.S. Aid •Tension is still high today between the two countries.
  • 68. DID YOU KNOW? •Even though they signed a cease fire in 1953, the Korean war is technically still going on today! •While there is not full outbreak of war, tensions remain high and 2 million soldiers are readily available on each side of the border, ready to go to war at a moments notice.
  • 69. 38TH PARALLEL – DE-MILITARIZED ZONE (DMZ)
  • 70.
  • 71. FIGHTING FOR THE THIRD WORLD •The U.S., Soviet Union, and China all compete for influence over the third world •They back revolutions and give economic , military and technical aid •Third world—developing nations; often newly independent, nonaligned
  • 72. FIDEL CASTRO AND THE CUBAN REVOLUTION • In the 1950’s, Cuba was under the control of President Fulgencio Batista. • Batista had been a corrupt and repressive dictator, but he was considered to be pro-American. • Many U.S. corporations or wealthy individuals owned a majority of Cuba’s sugar plantations, cattle ranches, mines and utilities. Batista did little to restrict their operations. • In 1959, a young Cuban revolutionary named Fidel Castro, led a guerilla army and overthrew President Batista. • With Castro in power, he nationalizes the economy and seizes U.S. property. Fidel Castro
  • 73. Fidel Castro Che Guevara
  • 74. THE EMBARGO OF CUBA • Many Cubans welcomed Fidel Castro's communist rule, yet having a communist nation just about 100 miles from the United States made Americans nervous. • Shortly thereafter, the Cubans entered into relations with the Soviet Union. • The U.S. responded by enacting an embargo on Cuba. • That was not all, the U.S. was planning additional action… Fidel Castro with Soviet Premiere Nikita Khrushchev
  • 75. BAY OF PIGS INVASION • In April 1961, the CIA planned an invasion of Cuba using 1,400 American- trained Cubans who had fled their homes when Castro took over. • The U.S. wanted to avoid a direct intervention for fear the Soviets might retaliate. • However, the invasion did not go well: they were badly outnumbered by Castro’s troops, and they surrendered after less than 24 hours of fighting. • The incident was an incredibly embarrassing political catastrophe for President Kennedy and America. Many people lose faith in the government and the U.S. is looked down upon for its failed coup.
  • 76. THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS •Things go from bad to worse, when in October of 1962, it is discovered that the Soviets were building nuclear missile silos on the island of Cuba. •Through secret, U2 spy plane photographs, the U.S. was made aware of the missiles.
  • 77.
  • 78. KENNEDY ADDRESSES THE NATION •In a television broadcast on October 22, 1962, President Kennedy notified Americans about the presence of the missiles in Cuba. •He explained that the U.S. was prepared to use military force if necessary to neutralize this threat to national security. •Following this public declaration, people around the globe nervously waited for the Soviets to respond. •The next 13 days would be an intense showdown.
  • 79. THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS •The U.S. demanded the Soviets withdraw from Cuba. •The Soviets refused and it seemed a conflict was imminent. •Both sides believed that only armed combat could resolve the issue. •President Kennedy orders American warships to set up a blockade that would not allow any ships in or out of Cuba. • He was even meeting with military advisors to plan an invasion of Cuba and remove the missiles by force. •Just when it looked as if nuclear war was going to occur, the two sides came to an agreement. The Soviets would remove their missiles from Cuba as long as the Americans removed their own from Turkey.
  • 81. JUST HOW CLOSE DID WE COME TO WWIII?
  • 82. WHAT IF THE CRISIS ESCALATED TO WAR?
  • 83.
  • 84.
  • 85. POSTWAR SOUTHEAST ASIA •The American “domino theory” stated that if South Vietnam fell, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, Burma, India and Pakistan would also fall. The Pacific Islands and even Australia could be at risk. •However, following the Vietnam War, the only countries to fall to communism were Laos and Cambodia (countries that directly border Vietnam). •In Cambodia, communists known as the Khmer Rouge (literally the Red Khmers) forcibly took power. Pol Pot Leader of the Khmer Rouge
  • 86. KHMER ROUGE • The Khmer Rouge is most remembered for their radical social reform process as well as orchestrating the Cambodian genocide. • The goal of the Khmer Rouge was to reconstruct Cambodia, turning it into a classless, agriculture society. • They forced many people out of their homes and ignored many basic human freedoms; they controlled how Cambodians acted, what they wore, to whom they could talk, and many other aspects of their lives. • Books, money and religion were completely eliminated from the society!
  • 87. THE GENOCIDE • In the four years that the Khmer Rouge ruled Cambodia, it was responsible for one of the worst mass killings of the 20th century. • The Khmer Rouge killed many people who resisted them or their policies, as well as intellectuals, minorities, and many of their own party members who were suspected of being traitors. • Anyone thought to be an intellectual of any sort was killed. • Often people were condemned just for wearing glasses or knowing a foreign language. City-dwellers who had no knowledge of farming were targeted. People were even killed just for praying! • Millions of the educated middle-classes were tortured and executed in special “prison centers”. By the end of their reign (1975-1979), they murdered, overworked and starved the population. • Over 2 million people were killed or died (Cambodia’s population was just 7 million at the time). • They were finally overthrown during a war with neighboring Vietnam in 1979.
  • 88. THE GENOCIDE •Tuol Sleng (aka S-21) was the main torture and killing center.
  • 89. THE GENOCIDE • The Khmer Rouge soldiers took photos of their victims. It was used as evidence to prove they followed their orders and carried out the execution.
  • 90. THE KILLING FIELDS •The Killing Fields are a number of sites in Cambodia where large numbers of people were killed and buried by the Khmer Rouge regime, during its rule of the country from 1975 to 1979. •There are over 20,000 mass graves spread throughout the country. •The largest is Cheung Ek, which has nearly 9,000 bodies.
  • 91. THE KILLING FIELDS A commemorative stupa filled with the skulls of the victims. A mass grave discovered in 1980. A collection of skulls and bones in Tuol Sleng
  • 92. POL POT •Often regarded as the “Hitler of Cambodia”, Pol Pot and the remnants of the Khmer Rouge fled to Thailand after their defeat. •He died in 1998 at aged 72, never having been brought to justice for his crimes…
  • 93.
  • 94. IRAN AND THE COLD WAR • Following WWII, Iran sided with the United States and Western countries during the Cold War. • Iran was a great ally for it not only provided oil to Western countries, but also worked against the spread of communism into the region. • The king (shah) of Iran, Reza Pahlavi, embraced Western culture so much, that U.S. President Jimmy Carter even flew to Tehran to spend New Year’s Eve with the Shah in 1977. • Using their immense oil wealth and aid from the U.S., Iran became a very advanced economy and sophisticated westernized culture.
  • 95. WESTERNIZED IRAN •As Shah, Pahlavi modernized the country of Iran. • He pushed through major reforms that gave more rights to women, improved education and health care, and gave peasants land-ownership rights. •The U.S. and other allies saw this as a possible way to modernize and maybe even introduce democracy into the Middle East. •The growing Western influence, however, also brought some decadence such as drinking and gambling, revealing women's clothing, and provocative films.Shah Reza Pahlavi
  • 97. TRADITIONAL ISLAMIC VIEWS • While it sounds as though the country was making great strides, beneath the surface Iran was smoldering. • In a nation that is 90% Shiite Muslim (typically more conservative than Sunnis), the ayatollahs or religious leaders, were furious at the nation's liberalization. • While many Iranians welcomed the progress, some saw it as a threat to their way of life and conservative values. • They saw American influence everywhere and felt it was going to replace their ancient, Persian and Muslim culture.
  • 98. THE IRANIAN REVOLUTION •The Shah had also brought some of the ill will on himself. Iran's economic boom had bred rampant corruption, even within the royal family. •With American assistance, the Shah created his secret police, which imprisoned, tortured, or killed thousands of the opponents. •The Shah banned all protests and when they did occur, they typically ended with violent confrontations with police forces.
  • 99. THE IRANIAN REVOLUTION •The conservative Shiites organized opposition led by Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini, an Iranian Muslim leader living in exile. •The movement swells from thousands into millions. They wanted the shah to abdicate his power. •In 1978, Khomeini sparks riots in Iran and the shah flees to the U.S. • At this time, the Shah was also suffering from cancer and claimed he was in the U.S. for treatment. •Khomeini claims a jihad (holy war) on all western influences. He called the U.S. “the great Satan” and “an enemy of Islam”.
  • 100. THE IRANIAN REVOLUTION •Khomeini's Muslim radicals take control in Iran. •He declared the establishment of "God's government": an Islamic theocracy, ruled by religious leaders acting in accordance with Sharia, or Islamic law. •The new constitution provided for an elected legislature and President, but the real power lay with a small and secretive group of religious leaders called the Council of Guardians, headed by Khomeini, the Supreme Leader.
  • 101. THE U.S. EMBASSY ATTACKED • On November 4, 1979, Islamic revolutionaries swarmed and attacked the U.S. embassy in Tehran, seizing the 66 Americans inside and holding them hostage. • They demand that the U.S. hand over the Shah in exchange for the hostages, but President Carter refused. • The hostage crisis riveted the nation for more than a year. Americans were unaccustomed to, and embarrassed by, feeling so powerless. • The Shah, died in 1980 but the hostages still would not be released.
  • 102.
  • 103. THE EFFECT OF THE REVOLUTION • The hostage crisis would like 444 days between 1979-1981 and hostages wouldn’t be released until January 20, 1981, when Ronald Reagan took over the presidency. • The hostage crisis helped the revolution to solidify its hold on Iran. • The efforts of Westernization were reversed. • Women were ordered to wear head coverings and full body cloaks called chadors • Gangs of religious zealots roamed the streets enforcing religious and moral edicts • Political opponents were imprisoned and tortured as ruthlessly as under the Shah • Khomeini's death in 1989 did nothing to ease the tensions between Iran and the U.S. • Today, Iran is accused of secretly developing nuclear weapons and supporting terrorist organizations.
  • 104. IRAQ-IRAN WAR (THE GULF WAR) • The Iranian revolution put much strain on relations between Iraq (Sunnis) and Iran (Shiites) and in 1980, Iraq invades Iran to start the “Gulf War”. • With the oustering of the Shah in Iran, the U.S. supported the forces in Iraq and their leader, Saddam Hussein, by supplying them with weapons, money and intelligence. • Iran, on the other hand, was supported by the USSR who sold weapons to the Iranians. • Despite heavy losses on each side, neither seemed to be victorious and a peace agreement is signed in 1988. No territory is gained or lost by either side. • The conflict can be compared to WWI in terms of tactics as there was large scale trench warfare, barbed wire and extensive use of chemical weapons like mustard gas.
  • 105. SUPERPOWERS FACE OFF IN AFGHANISTAN • In 1979, the Soviets invade Afghanistan to help the communist government against rebels. • The Muslim rebels; the Mujahideen, fight a guerilla war against the Soviets • The U.S. secretly supports the Mujahideen by supplying them with weapons to try and overthrow the communist government and prevent the spread of communism • The Soviet Army would battle with the rebels, however, many of the Soviet soldiers were untested in battle and their gear was not designed for the harsh environment of Afghanistan. • Also, the Mujahideen soldiers were fighting for their homeland and their religion. They were fierce fighters and had many good places to hide in the mountains. • Soviets eventually withdraw in 1989. The war was an embarrassment for the USSR (much like Vietnam was for the U.S.) and their advanced army was no longer seen as invincible.
  • 106.
  • 107. DID YOU KNOW? • Some of the more extreme members of the Mujahideen would go on to form the group known as the Taliban. • They took power in Afghanistan in 1996; however, their enforcement of strict Sharia law, treatment of women and support of terrorists like al-Qaeda led them to be ostracized from the world community. • The Taliban was ousted from power in 2001 by the U.S. military and Afghani opposition forces in response to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attack on the U.S.
  • 108.
  • 109. THE COLD WAR THAWS • In the late 1960’s and early 1970’s the Cold War started to thaw. • The policy of brinkmanship under Kennedy and Khrushchev had caused repeated crises and nuclear war was always a threat. • Some leaders thought that East and West could compete peacefully. • This was far different than when Stalin stated communism and capitalism could not coexist. • Communism was also becoming less and less popular in many East European countries leading to better relations.
  • 110. FROM BRINKMANSHIP TO DÉTENTE •The Vietnam-era turmoil fuels desire for less confrontational policy •Détente—a policy of reducing cold war tensions to avoid conflict •Détente grows out of philosophy known as realpolitik— “realistic politics”—which recognizes the need to be practical and flexible
  • 111. FROM BRINKMANSHIP TO DÉTENTE •Nixon visits communist China and Soviet Union to try improve relations with these countries •They sign the SALT I Treaty— strategic arms limitation talks— puts limits on nuclear weapons •Later, SALT II is signed even further reducing military tension
  • 112. THE END OF DÉTENTE • In 1981, Ronald Reagan becomes the U.S. president • Reagan is extremely anti-communist • Reagan, once again, increases military spending and proposes a missile defense program called “Star Wars” • Actual name is Strategic Defense Initiative or SDI • This program was designed to defend the U.S. (rather than launch offensive weapons) by using ground and space based missile systems to neutralize a Soviet attack
  • 113. THE COLLAPSE OF THE USSR • Leading up to the 1980’s, the Soviet Union had been dealing with a number of uprisings in communist satellite countries. • Realizing he inherited a political, social and economic mess, Soviet Premiere Mikhail Gorbachev introduces two programs to dramatically take his country on a new course: • Glasnost (openness) – allows for more social freedom like freedom of speech and press • Perestroika (restructuring) – allows more economic, political freedom like owning a private businesses
  • 114. THE FALL OF THE BERLIN WALL •After much protest in the 1980’s and urges from other political leaders, such as President Reagan in 1987, East Germany agrees to bring down the Berlin Wall. •On November 9th, 1989 demolition of the wall commenced. “Mr. Gorbechev, tear down this wall!”
  • 115. THE FALL OF THE BERLIN WALL
  • 116. THE COLLAPSE OF THE USSR • The freedom of Glasnost, Perestroika and the fall of the Berlin Wall causes a domino effect and the people protest and demand independence in the USSR (especially those in the smaller republics). • First in Poland, then Czechoslovakia followed by Romania… movements even sprang up in Georgia, Ukraine, Moldova, Belarus, and the Central Asian Republics • This leads to the collapse of Soviet Union, end of Cold War in 1991 • The region divides into 15 independent republics. • Russia becomes a democratic nation and remains that today.
  • 117.
  • 118. WHY DID THE SOVIET UNION COLLAPSE? • While there can be several reasons that caused the fall of the USSR, the biggest is likely economic inefficiency and the nuclear arms/space race which, essentially, bankrupted the country. • During WWII, the Soviet economy saw a boost due to the fact that their factories were producing so much war material. This ultimately may have led to their decline as Soviet leaders were blinded by this miracle success.
  • 119. WHY DID THE SOVIET UNION COLLAPSE? • The nuclear arms race and space race were actually counter productive, causing economic stagnation in the USSR. • All the best scientists, engineers, materials and machinery were delegated to the military sector. • While they had advanced weaponry, it caused a technological lag when it came to simple items like TV's, audio equipment, calculators, computers, etc. • Even health care was effected as they could not deliver services due to deficiencies in medical supplies or equipment.
  • 120. WHY DID THE SOVIET UNION COLLAPSE? • From Atom Bomb to Star Wars, the Cold War cost both countries trillions upon trillions of dollars. • Both the US and the USSR were devastated by the effects of overzealous military spending. • However, it was the Soviet Union who fell, not the United States. • In the end, the economic output was just not enough to keep up with it’s massive commitment to spending. • On top of the inefficiency of communism, there was corruption, bad policies, poor planning, and a totalitarian system that restricted its people socially.