Chapter Ten Memory and Thought
Information Processing <ul><li>Input  - The information you receive from your senses </li></ul><ul><li>Central Processing ...
Taking In  Information <ul><li>Selective Attention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Picking and choosing from the sensory input avail...
Broadbent (1960) <ul><li>Theory of Selection </li></ul><ul><li>Dichotic Listening Task </li></ul>
Treisman (1964) <ul><li>Attenuation Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Filter doesn’t eliminate, merely suppresses… </li></ul></...
Criteria for Selective Attention <ul><li>Importance </li></ul><ul><li>Novelty </li></ul><ul><li>Interest </li></ul>
Taking In  Information Cont. <ul><li>Feature Extraction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyzing the information that selective att...
Feature Extraction <ul><li>Identify </li></ul><ul><li>Sort </li></ul><ul><li>Categorize </li></ul>
Separated at Birth?
Semantic Feature Theory <ul><li>Word meaning is a cluster of features that comprises our complete definition of a word </l...
Rosch (1973) <ul><li>Theory of Prototypes </li></ul><ul><li>Which one is the dog??? </li></ul>
Storing Information <ul><li>Sensory Storage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The memory system into which inputs from the senses are ...
Sperling (1960) <ul><li>Demonstrated the phenomenon of sensory storage </li></ul><ul><li>Duration: one second max </li></u...
Tachistoscope <ul><li>A device resembling a microscope, which allows control of visual input down to fractions of a second...
Storing Information cont. <ul><li>Short-Term Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Receives inputs from sensory storage </li></ul><...
Miller (1956) <ul><li>Chunking  - grouping similar inputs together to compact space </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The Magical Nu...
Storing Information cont. <ul><li>Transition to Long-Term Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rehearsal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
Storing Information  cont. <ul><li>Long-Term memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Input stored according to features </li></ul></u...
Other Models of Memory <ul><li>Tulving 1972 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Semantic Memory  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledg...
LR Squire (1972) <ul><li>Declarative memory </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AKA explicit memory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul>...
Memory and the Brain <ul><li>Learning - a relatively permanent change in behavior that results from experience </li></ul>
Theories of Change <ul><li>Theory #1  - physiological changes in the structure of neurons </li></ul><ul><li>Theory #2  - p...
Where Memory Takes Place <ul><li>Declarative memories are stored in the amygdala and the hippocampus </li></ul><ul><li>Pro...
Thompson (1987) <ul><li>Simple memories are stored in one specific location in the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Limits of plast...
Selective Memory Problems <ul><li>Prospagnosia  - inability to recognize familiar faces  (Larry from the video) </li></ul>...
Neuronal Activity Research <ul><li>Neuropsychologists </li></ul><ul><li>Memory and aging </li></ul><ul><li>Neurological ba...
Retrieving Information <ul><li>Retrieval </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The process of finding a stored memory </li></ul></ul><...
Retrieving Information Cont. <ul><li>Indexing </li></ul><ul><li>The process of identifying a stimulus in a variety of ways...
Retrieving Information Cont. <ul><li>Eyewitness Testimony </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses recognition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
Retrieving Information Cont. <ul><li>Loftus  (1974) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mistaken identity in courtroom and lineup identi...
 
Retrieving Information Cont. <ul><li>Recall </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The active reconstruction of information stored in memor...
Retrieving Information Cont. <ul><li>Inhelder (1969) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bottle drawing experiment </li></ul></ul>
Retrieving Information <ul><li>Variations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simplified </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enriched </li></ul><...
Eidetic Memory <ul><li>Memory storage as accurate as a picture </li></ul><ul><li>Requires no reconstruction </li></ul><ul>...
Relearning <ul><li>Learning something again </li></ul><ul><li>Function of procedural (implicit) memory </li></ul><ul><li>Q...
Forgetting <ul><li>Information which is stored in long-term memory, but cannot be retrieved </li></ul>
Inhibiting Memory Retrieval <ul><li>Decay </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fading away of sensory or short-term memory </li></ul>...
Improving Memory <ul><li>Mood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Braid - hypnosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sirhan Sirhan - state-depe...
Improving Memory Cont. <ul><li>Meaningfulness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More meaning means easier recall </li></ul></ul>
Improving Memory Cont. <ul><li>Association </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Known items </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong emotion </l...
Improving Memory Cont. <ul><li>Dissociation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opposite of association </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roth ...
Improving Memory <ul><li>Lack of Interference </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overlearning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divided studyi...
Central Processing of Information <ul><li>Thinking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Units of Thought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I...
Central Processing of Information
Kinds of Thinking Cont. <ul><li>Metacognition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinking about thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thi...
Problem-Solving <ul><li>Strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Segments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Backward </li></...
Rigidity <ul><li>Functional fixedness </li></ul><ul><li>Fallacious assumption </li></ul><ul><li>Inability to segment </li>...
Creativity <ul><li>The ability to take what you already know, and use it in a way that is new or original </li></ul><ul><u...
Wolfgang Kohler <ul><li>German psychologist </li></ul><ul><li>Contemporary of Max Wertheimer and Kurt Koffka </li></ul><ul...
Kohler (1925) <ul><li>Demonstrates the existence of insight in animals (chimps) </li></ul>
Alpert (1928) <ul><li>Demonstrates the existence of insight in young children (playpen) </li></ul>
<ul><li>The End </li></ul>
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Chapter 10 memory new Reg. Psych 2011 no video

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Chapter 10 memory new Reg. Psych 2011 no video

  1. 1. Chapter Ten Memory and Thought
  2. 2. Information Processing <ul><li>Input - The information you receive from your senses </li></ul><ul><li>Central Processing - The storing (in memory) and sorting (by thought) of input in the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Output - The ideas and actions that result from processing </li></ul>
  3. 3. Taking In Information <ul><li>Selective Attention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Picking and choosing from the sensory input available to you </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Broadbent (1960) <ul><li>Theory of Selection </li></ul><ul><li>Dichotic Listening Task </li></ul>
  5. 5. Treisman (1964) <ul><li>Attenuation Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Filter doesn’t eliminate, merely suppresses… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Like Picture in Picture </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Criteria for Selective Attention <ul><li>Importance </li></ul><ul><li>Novelty </li></ul><ul><li>Interest </li></ul>
  7. 7. Taking In Information Cont. <ul><li>Feature Extraction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyzing the information that selective attention sends to us </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Feature Extraction <ul><li>Identify </li></ul><ul><li>Sort </li></ul><ul><li>Categorize </li></ul>
  9. 9. Separated at Birth?
  10. 10. Semantic Feature Theory <ul><li>Word meaning is a cluster of features that comprises our complete definition of a word </li></ul>
  11. 11. Rosch (1973) <ul><li>Theory of Prototypes </li></ul><ul><li>Which one is the dog??? </li></ul>
  12. 12. Storing Information <ul><li>Sensory Storage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The memory system into which inputs from the senses are received </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Sperling (1960) <ul><li>Demonstrated the phenomenon of sensory storage </li></ul><ul><li>Duration: one second max </li></ul><ul><li>Storage Limit: 7-9 items </li></ul>
  14. 14. Tachistoscope <ul><li>A device resembling a microscope, which allows control of visual input down to fractions of a second </li></ul>
  15. 15. Storing Information cont. <ul><li>Short-Term Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Receives inputs from sensory storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Input is analyzed and identified for later storage in long-term memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Duration: rarely longer than 20 seconds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rehearsal - input must be repeated if you want it to stay in short-term memory </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Miller (1956) <ul><li>Chunking - grouping similar inputs together to compact space </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two” </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Storing Information cont. <ul><li>Transition to Long-Term Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rehearsal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intent to learn </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Storing Information cont. <ul><li>Long-Term memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Input stored according to features </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reconstructed or reassembled when needed </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Other Models of Memory <ul><li>Tulving 1972 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Semantic Memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge of language and how it works </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Includes grammar, syntax, diction, denotation and connotation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Episodic Memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Events and experiences which are completely unique to you </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Includes flashbulb memories </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. LR Squire (1972) <ul><li>Declarative memory </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AKA explicit memory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Combination of semantic and episodic memory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Descriptive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Procedural memory </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AKA implicit memory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge of how to perform the steps of a task </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Priming </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conditioning - Takes place without conscious awareness of the subject </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Memory and the Brain <ul><li>Learning - a relatively permanent change in behavior that results from experience </li></ul>
  22. 22. Theories of Change <ul><li>Theory #1 - physiological changes in the structure of neurons </li></ul><ul><li>Theory #2 - physiological changes in either the molecular structure or the chemical structure of the brain </li></ul>
  23. 23. Where Memory Takes Place <ul><li>Declarative memories are stored in the amygdala and the hippocampus </li></ul><ul><li>Procedural memories are stored in the striatum, in the frontal lobes </li></ul>
  24. 24. Thompson (1987) <ul><li>Simple memories are stored in one specific location in the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Limits of plasticity </li></ul>
  25. 25. Selective Memory Problems <ul><li>Prospagnosia - inability to recognize familiar faces (Larry from the video) </li></ul><ul><li>Visual agnosia - inability to recognize faces, words, or other visual cues (John from the video) </li></ul>
  26. 26. Neuronal Activity Research <ul><li>Neuropsychologists </li></ul><ul><li>Memory and aging </li></ul><ul><li>Neurological basis of ADHD </li></ul>
  27. 27. Retrieving Information <ul><li>Retrieval </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The process of finding a stored memory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The ability to say whether something is familiar </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Function of declarative, or explicit, memory </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Retrieving Information Cont. <ul><li>Indexing </li></ul><ul><li>The process of identifying a stimulus in a variety of ways </li></ul>
  29. 29. Retrieving Information Cont. <ul><li>Eyewitness Testimony </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses recognition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unreliable </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Retrieving Information Cont. <ul><li>Loftus (1974) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mistaken identity in courtroom and lineup identification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distortion of eyewitness testimony (auto accident video) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stress impacts the ability to create a strong, clear memory of an event (1979) </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. Retrieving Information Cont. <ul><li>Recall </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The active reconstruction of information stored in memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Influenced by: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attitudes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Experiences </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Passage of Time </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 33. Retrieving Information Cont. <ul><li>Inhelder (1969) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bottle drawing experiment </li></ul></ul>
  33. 34. Retrieving Information <ul><li>Variations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simplified </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enriched </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distorted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confabulation </li></ul></ul>
  34. 35. Eidetic Memory <ul><li>Memory storage as accurate as a picture </li></ul><ul><li>Requires no reconstruction </li></ul><ul><li>Possessed by less than 5% of the population </li></ul>
  35. 36. Relearning <ul><li>Learning something again </li></ul><ul><li>Function of procedural (implicit) memory </li></ul><ul><li>Quicker than original learning </li></ul>
  36. 37. Forgetting <ul><li>Information which is stored in long-term memory, but cannot be retrieved </li></ul>
  37. 38. Inhibiting Memory Retrieval <ul><li>Decay </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fading away of sensory or short-term memory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Interference </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proactive Interference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Old learning inhibits the acquisition of new learning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retroactive Interference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New learning inhibits the recall of old learning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Repression </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Freudian concept of the pushing down by consciousness of a traumatic memory into the subconscious </li></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 39. Improving Memory <ul><li>Mood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Braid - hypnosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sirhan Sirhan - state-dependent memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bower - validates state-dependent memory </li></ul></ul>
  39. 40. Improving Memory Cont. <ul><li>Meaningfulness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More meaning means easier recall </li></ul></ul>
  40. 41. Improving Memory Cont. <ul><li>Association </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Known items </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong emotion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fragrance experiment </li></ul></ul>
  41. 42. Improving Memory Cont. <ul><li>Dissociation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opposite of association </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roth (1990) </li></ul></ul>
  42. 43. Improving Memory <ul><li>Lack of Interference </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overlearning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divided studying </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mnemonic Devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aid to memorizing lists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Word play </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HOMES </li></ul></ul></ul>
  43. 44. Central Processing of Information <ul><li>Thinking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Units of Thought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Image - A mental picture of a specific object or event </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Symbol - A sound, design or word that represents an object or a quality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Concept - A symbol for a whole class or category of objects that we have decided to group together (Rosch/Prototypes) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rule - A statement about how concepts are related to each other </li></ul></ul></ul>
  44. 45. Central Processing of Information
  45. 46. Kinds of Thinking Cont. <ul><li>Metacognition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinking about thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinking about thought processes </li></ul></ul>
  46. 47. Problem-Solving <ul><li>Strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Segments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Backward </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brainstorming </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Experience </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Set </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A response that has become habitual because it works </li></ul></ul></ul>
  47. 48. Rigidity <ul><li>Functional fixedness </li></ul><ul><li>Fallacious assumption </li></ul><ul><li>Inability to segment </li></ul>
  48. 49. Creativity <ul><li>The ability to take what you already know, and use it in a way that is new or original </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flexibility The degree to which you are able to overcome rigidity in thinking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recombination The ability to take information you already have, and rearrange it to make something new </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insight </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The sudden emergence of a solution to a problem through recombining </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The “A-HA” experience </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  49. 50. Wolfgang Kohler <ul><li>German psychologist </li></ul><ul><li>Contemporary of Max Wertheimer and Kurt Koffka </li></ul><ul><li>These three founded what became Gestalt psychology </li></ul>
  50. 51. Kohler (1925) <ul><li>Demonstrates the existence of insight in animals (chimps) </li></ul>
  51. 52. Alpert (1928) <ul><li>Demonstrates the existence of insight in young children (playpen) </li></ul>
  52. 53. <ul><li>The End </li></ul>

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