Thinking and Language


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Thinking and Language

  1. 1. Thinking & Language Chapter 10
  2. 2. Thinking
  3. 3. Thinking <ul><li>Cognition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mental activity associated with processing, understanding, and communicating information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Psychology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the study of these mental activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>concept formation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>problem solving </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>decision making </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>judgement formation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>study of both logical and illogical thinking </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Thinking <ul><li>Concept </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mental grouping of similar objects, events, or people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>address </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>country, city, street, house </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>zip codes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Prototype </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the best example of a category </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>matching new items to the prototype provides a quick and easy method for including items in a category (as when comparing feathered creatures to a prototypical bird, such as a robin.) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Thinking <ul><li>Algorithm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>contrasts with the usually speedier but also more error-prone use of heuristics </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Thinking <ul><li>Heuristic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rule-of-thumb strategy that often allows us to make judgements and solve problems efficiently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>usually speedier than algorithms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>more error-prone than algorithms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sometimes we’re unaware of using heuristics </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Thinking <ul><li>Unscramble </li></ul><ul><li>S P L O Y O C H Y G </li></ul><ul><li>Algorithm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>all 907,208 combinations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heuristic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>throw out all YY combinations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>other heuristics? </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Thinking <ul><li>Insight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sudden and often novel realization of the solution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to a problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>contrasts with strategy-based solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Confirmation Bias </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tendency to search for information that confirms one’s preconceptions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fixation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>inability to see a problem from a new perspective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>impediment to problem solving </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Thinking- Insight <ul><li>Wolfgang Kohler’s experiment on insight by a chimpanzee </li></ul>
  10. 10. Thinking <ul><li>Mental Set </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tendency to approach a problem in a particular way </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>especially a way that has been successful in the past but may or may not be helpful in solving a new problem </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Thinking <ul><li>Functional Fixedness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>impediment to problem solving </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Heuristics <ul><li>Representativeness Heuristic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rule of thumb for judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>may lead one to ignore other relevant information </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Heuristics <ul><li>Availability Heuristic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: airplane crash </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Thinking <ul><li>Overconfidence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tendency to be more confident than correct </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tendency to overestimate the accuracy of one’s beliefs and judgements </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Thinking <ul><li>Framing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the way an issue is posed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: What is the best way to market ground beef- As 25% fat or 75% lean? </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Thinking <ul><li>Belief Bias </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the tendency for one’s preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sometimes by making invalid conclusions seem valid, or valid conclusions seem invalid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Belief Perseverance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>clinging to one’s initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Artificial Intelligence <ul><li>Artificial Intelligence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>designing and programming computer systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to do intelligent things </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to simulate human thought processes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>intuitive reasoning </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>learning </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>understanding language </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Artificial Intelligence <ul><li>Artificial Intelligence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>includes practical applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>chess playing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>industrial robots </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>expert systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>efforts to model human thinking inspired by our current understanding of how the brain works </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Artificial Intelligence <ul><li>Computer Neural Networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>computer circuits that mimic the brain’s interconnected neural cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>performing tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>learning to recognize visual patterns </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>learning to recognize smells </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Language
  21. 21. Language <ul><li>Language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>our spoken, written, or gestured works and the way we combine them to communicate meaning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phoneme </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in a spoken language, the smallest distinctive sound unit </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Language <ul><li>Morpheme </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Grammar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a system of rules in a language that enables us to communicate with and understand others </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Language <ul><li>Semantics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>also, the study of meaning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Syntax </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Language We are all born to recognize speech sounds from all the world’s languages 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Percentage able to discriminate Hindi t’s Hindi- speaking adults 6-8 months 8-10 months 10-12 months English- speaking adults Infants from English-speaking homes
  25. 25. Understanding/Producing Language <ul><li>Bottom-up processing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pure uninterrupted data sent from peripheral nervous system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Top-down processing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain making meaning of information; interprets data factoring in experience and expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Broca’s Area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In charge of producing /speaking language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B – front of alphabet (frontal lobe) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wernicke’s area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In charge of comprehending language spoken to us </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>W- rear of alphabet (rear temporal lobe) </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Language Development <ul><li>Prelinguistic Vocalization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crying, cooing, babbling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>overextension </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Applying one word to other things that seem similar, but for which the child has not developed a vocabulary </li></ul></ul><ul><li>overregularization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning set of rules, but then wrongly applying them beyond what they are meant for </li></ul></ul><ul><li>holophrase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single words used by young children to express complex meaning </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Language <ul><li>Babbling Stage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>beginning at 3 to 4 months </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language </li></ul></ul><ul><li>One-Word Stage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>from about age 1 to 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly in single words </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Language <ul><li>Two-Word Stage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>beginning about age 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly two-word statements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Telegraphic Speech </li></ul><ul><ul><li>early speech stage in which the child speaks like a telegram – “go car” – using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting “auxiliary” words </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Language Summary of Language Development Month (approximate) Stage 4 10 12 24 24+ Babbles many speech sounds. Babbling reveals households language. One-word stage. Two-world, telegraphic speech. Language develops rapidly into Complete sentences.
  30. 30. Theories of Language Development <ul><li>Social Cognitive Perspective (Behavioral) </li></ul><ul><li>Nativist Views of Language Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Dr. Noam CHOMSKY (MIT professor) Pre-Linguistic Theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Language Acquisition Device </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Dr. Lenneberg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sensitive Periods </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Dr. Benjamin WHORF - Linguistic-Relativity Hypothesis </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Bilingualism <ul><li>Majority of people around the world speak at least 2 languages </li></ul>
  32. 32. Language Genes Environment spoken language heard Brain Mechanisms for understanding and producing language Behavior Mastery of native language provides input to design