Ch08

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    thats a really bord face. and i am bord myself!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! just kidding!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!i am a reader!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! see you soon!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
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Ch08

  1. 1. LEARNING CHP. 8
  2. 2. Learning <ul><li>Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>experience (nurture) is the key to learning </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Association <ul><li>We learn by association </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Our minds naturally connect events that occur in sequence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aristotle 2000 years ago </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>John Locke and David Hume 200 yrs ago </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Associative Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>learning that two events occur together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>two stimuli </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a response and its consequences </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Association <ul><li>Learning to associate two events </li></ul>Event 1 Event 2 Sea snail associates splash with a tail shock Seal learns to expect a snack for its showy antics
  5. 5. Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning <ul><li>We learn to associate two stimuli </li></ul>Two related events: Lightning Stimulus 1 Thunder Stimulus 2 Result after repetition We see lightning Stimulus We wince anticipating thunder Response
  6. 6. Operant Conditioning <ul><li>We learn to associate a response and its consequence </li></ul>Response: Pushing vending machine button Consequence: Receiving a candy bar
  7. 7. Behaviorism <ul><li>John B. Watson </li></ul><ul><ul><li>viewed psychology as objective science </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>generally agreed-upon consensus today </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>recommended study of behavior without reference to unobservable mental processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>not universally accepted by all schools of thought today </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning <ul><li>Ivan Pavlov </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1849-1936 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Russian physician/ neurophysiologist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nobel Prize in 1904 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>studied digestive secretions </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Pavlov’s Classic Experiment Before Conditioning During Conditioning After Conditioning UCS (food in mouth) Neutral stimulus (tone) No salivation UCR (salivation) Neutral stimulus (tone) UCS (food in mouth) UCR (salivation) CS (tone) CR (salivation)
  10. 10. Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning <ul><li>Pavlov’s device for recording salivation </li></ul>
  11. 11. Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning <ul><li>Classical Conditioning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>organism comes to associate two stimuli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>lightning and thunder </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>tone and food </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>begins with a reflex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a neutral stimulus is paired with a stimulus that evokes the reflex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>neutral stimulus eventually comes to evoke the reflex </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning <ul><li>Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>effective stimulus that unconditionally-automatically and naturally- triggers a response </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unconditioned Response (UCR) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>unlearned, naturally occurring automatic response to the unconditioned stimulus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>salivation when food is in the mouth </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning <ul><li>Conditioned Stimulus (CS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>previously neutral stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conditioned Response (CR) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>learned response to a previously neutral conditioned stimulus </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Conditioning <ul><li>Acquisition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the initial stage of learning, during which a response is established and gradually strengthened </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in classical conditioning, the phase in which a stimulus comes to evoke a conditioned response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Conditioning <ul><li>Extinction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>diminishing of a CR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in classical conditioning, when a UCS does not follow a CS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in operant conditioning, when a response is no longer reinforced </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning Strength of CR Pause Acquisition (CS+UCS) Extinction (CS alone) Extinction (CS alone) Spontaneous recovery of CR
  17. 17. Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning <ul><li>Spontaneous Recovery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reappearance, after a rest period, of an extinguished CR </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Generalization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tendency for a stimuli similar to CS to evoke similar responses </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning <ul><li>Discrimination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in classical conditioning, the ability to distinguish between a CS and other stimuli that do not signal and UCS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in operant conditioning, responding differently to stimuli that signal a behavior will be reinforced or will not be reinforced </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Generalization Drops of saliva in 30 seconds 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Hind paw Pelvis Shoulder Front paw Thigh Trunk Foreleg Part of body stimulated
  20. 20. Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning UCS (passionate kiss) UCR (sexual arousal) CS (onion breath) CS (onion breath) CR (sexual arousal) UCS (passionate Kiss) UCR (sexual arousal)
  21. 21. Nausea Conditioning in Cancer Patients UCS (drug) UCR (nausea) CS (waiting room) CS (waiting room) CR (nausea) UCS (drug) UCR (nausea)
  22. 22. Operant Conditioning <ul><li>Operant Conditioning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcement or diminished if followed by punishment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Law of Effect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thorndike’s principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely and behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Operant Conditioning <ul><li>Operant Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>complex or voluntary behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>push button, perform complex task </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>operates (acts) on environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>produces consequences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Respondent Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>occurs as an automatic response to stimulus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>behavior learned through classical conditioning </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Operant Conditioning <ul><li>B.F. Skinner (1904-1990) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>elaborated Thorndike’s Law of Effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>developed behavioral technology </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Operant Chamber <ul><li>Skinner Box </li></ul><ul><ul><li>soundproof chamber with a bar or key that an animal presses or pecks to release a food or water reward </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>contains a device to record responses </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Was Deborah a lab rat?
  27. 27. Operant Conditioning <ul><li>Reinforcer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>any event that strengthens the behavior it follows </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shaping </li></ul><ul><ul><li>conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer approximations of a desired goal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Successive Approximations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reward behaviors that increasingly resemble desired behavior </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Principles of Reinforcement <ul><li>Primary Reinforcer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>innately reinforcing stimulus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>satisfies a biological need </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secondary Reinforcer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>conditioned reinforcer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>learned through association with primary reinforcer </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Schedules of Reinforcement <ul><li>Continuous Reinforcement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reinforcing the desired response each time it occurs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>learning occurs rapidly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>extinction occurs rapidly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Partial Reinforcement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reinforcing a response only part of the time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>results in slower acquisition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>greater resistance to extinction </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Schedules of Reinforcement <ul><li>Fixed Ratio (FR) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>faster you respond the more rewards you get </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>different ratios </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>very high rate of responding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>like piecework pay </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Schedules of Reinforcement <ul><li>Variable Ratio (VR) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>average ratios </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>like gambling, fishing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>very hard to extinguish because of unpredictability </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Schedules of Reinforcement <ul><li>Fixed Interval (FI) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>response occurs more frequently as the anticipated time for reward draws near </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Schedules of Reinforcement <ul><li>Variable Interval (VI) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>produces slow steady responding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>like pop quiz </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Schedules of Reinforcement Variable Interval Number of responses 1000 750 500 250 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Time (minutes) Fixed Ratio Variable Ratio Fixed Interval Steady responding Rapid responding near time for reinforcement 80
  35. 35. Punishment <ul><li>Punishment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>aversive event that decreases the behavior that it follows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>powerful controller of unwanted behavior </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Problems with Punishment <ul><li>Punished behavior is not forgotten , it's suppressed- behavior returns when punishment is no longer eminent </li></ul><ul><li>Causes increased aggression - shows that aggression is a way to cope with problems- Explains why aggressive delinquents and abusive parents come from abusive homes </li></ul>
  37. 37. Problems with Punishment <ul><li>Creates fear that can generalize to desirable behaviors, e.g. fear of school, learned helplessness, depression </li></ul><ul><li>Does not necessarily guide toward desired behavior - reinforcement tells you what to do--punishment tells you what not to do- Combination of punishment and reward can be more effective than punishment alone </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment teaches how to avoid it </li></ul>
  38. 38. Neg. Reinforcement vs Punishment Positive Reinforcement Time Out Punishment Negative Reinforce ment
  39. 39. Operant vs Classical Conditioning <ul><li>Extinction CR decreases when CS is Responding decreases when </li></ul><ul><li>repeatedly presented alone. reinforcement stops. </li></ul>Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning The Response Involuntary, automatic “Voluntary,” operates on environment Acquisition Associating events; Associating response with a CS announces UCS. Consequence (reinforcer or punisher). Cognitive Subjects develop expectation Subjects develop expectation that processes that CS signals the arrival of a response will be reinforced or UCS. Punished; they also exhibit latent learning, without reinforcement Biological Natural predispositions Organisms best learn behaviors predispositions contain what stimuli and similar to their natural behaviors; responses can easily be unnatural behaviors instinctively associated. drift back toward natural ones.
  40. 40. Cognition and Operant Conditioning <ul><li>Cognitive Map </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mental representation of the layout of one’s environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>example- after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Latent Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>learning that occurs, but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Cognition and Operant Conditioning <ul><li>Overjustification Effect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the effect of promising a reward for doing what one already likes to do </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the person may now see the reward, rather than intrinsic interest, as the motivation for performing the task </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Mindful Learning <ul><li>Importance of cognitive process** </li></ul><ul><li>Mindfulness - actively engaged in the present, sensitive to new things </li></ul><ul><li>**increased competence, improved memory, fewer accidents </li></ul><ul><li>Mindlessness - programmed to act </li></ul><ul><li>according to the sense our behavior </li></ul><ul><li> made in the past </li></ul>
  43. 43. 3 myths on ability to learn <ul><li>Basics should be learned so well they become second nature </li></ul><ul><li>To pay attention to something we should hold it still and focus on it </li></ul><ul><li>It is important to learn how to delay gratification </li></ul>
  44. 44. Observational Learning <ul><li>Observational Learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>learning by observing and imitating others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Modeling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>process of observing and imitating behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prosocial Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>positive, constructive, helpful behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>opposite of antisocial behavior </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Albert Bandura <ul><li>Influenced by Watson, Pavlov, & Skinner </li></ul><ul><li>Theories blend of environmental influences with information processing(brain) & being shaped by the social situation </li></ul><ul><li>Bobo doll experiment </li></ul><ul><li>Overcoming phobias </li></ul>
  46. 47. The Adaptive Brain <ul><li>Discuss behavior using 3 components: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biological (DNA/Hormones) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological (mind & how we process information) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental (factors outside of ourselves) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No simple answer for what makes us “tick” </li></ul>
  47. 48. Can you explain the supermarket tantrum? <ul><li>What behaviors maintain those tantrums? </li></ul><ul><li>What behavioral principals would work best in extinguishing tantrum behaviors? </li></ul>
  48. 49. Group Assignment/Review “Treatment Plan” <ul><li>A smoking cessation module for heavy smokers </li></ul><ul><li>A procrastination-prevention module for high school AP students </li></ul><ul><li>A treatment module for aviatophobics (fear of flying) </li></ul><ul><li>An anxiety-reducing module for young children who fear going to dentist (dentophobia); or </li></ul><ul><li>A treatment module for compulsive shoppers who are mired in credit-card debts </li></ul><ul><li>Include as many of the following terms/concepts as possible: </li></ul><ul><li>habituation, classical conditioning, acquisition, extinction, </li></ul><ul><li>stimulus generalization, discrimination, operant conditioning, reinforcement, punishment, reward, response cost, delay of gratification, shaping, token economy, modeling </li></ul>

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