Memory and Thinking


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Memory and Thinking

  1. 1.  The retention of information over time throughencoding, storage, and retrieval.ENCODINGGETTINGINFORMATIONinto MEMORYSTORAGERetaininginformationover timeRETRIEVALTakinginformationout ofstorage
  2. 2.  Encoding- is the process in which informationgets into memory storage.
  3. 3.  Selective Attention Divided Attention
  4. 4.  Levels of Processing Theory States that memory is on a continuum fromshallow to deep, with deeper processingproducing better memory. Shallow Level- the sensory or physicalfeatures of stimuli are analyzed. Intermediate Level- the stimulus isrecognized and given a label. Deepest Level- we make associations.
  5. 5.  It is the extensiveness of processing at anygiven level of memory.
  6. 6.  Memory is encodedthrough IMAGES. DUAL CODE HYPOTHESIS(Allan Paivio)- states thatmemory for images isbetter than memory forwords because thememory for images isstored as an image codeand as a verbal code.
  7. 7. SENSORYMEMORYAttentionShort- TermMemoryRehearsalLong- TermMemoryRetrievalStorage encompasses how information is retained over timeand how it is represented in memory.Atkinson-Shiffrin Theory - the view that memory involves asequence of three stages:
  8. 8.  Holds information from the world in itsoriginal form only for an instant, not muchlonger than the brief time it is exposed tothe visual, auditory and other senses. Echoic Memory- auditory senses Iconic Memory- visual senses
  9. 9.  Is a limited capacity memory system in whichinformation is retained for only as long as 30seconds unless strategies are used toretained it longer.
  10. 10.  Chunking- involves grouping or packinginformation. A form of memory encoding:specifically, elaboration. It works by makinglarge amounts of information moremanageable. Rehearsals- the conscious repetition ofinformation. Information stored in short-term memory lasts half a minute or lesswithout rehearsal.
  11. 11.  A three- part system that temporarily holdsinformation. It is a kind of mental workbenchon which information is manipulated andassembled to perform other cognitive tasks. Three components of working memory: Phonological Loop Visuospatial Working Memory Central Executive
  12. 12. VisuospatialWorking MemoryCENTRALEXCUTIVEPhonological LoopInput viaSensoryMemoryLong- TermMemory
  13. 13.  A relatively permanent type of memory thatholds huge amounts of information for a longperiod of time. It is divided into substructures: Explicit Memory Implicit Memory
  14. 14.  Also called as DECLARATIVE MEMORY. The conscious recollection of information,such as specific facts, or events, and at leastin humans, information that can be verballycommunicated. Episodic Memory- the retention of informationabout the where and when of life’s happenings. Semantic Memory- a person’s knowledge aboutthe world.
  15. 15.  Retrospective Memory- remembering thepast. Prospective- remembering information aboutdoing something in the future; includesmemory for intentions. Time- based prospective memory- intention toengage in a given behavior after a specifiedamount of time has gone by. Event- based prospective memory- you engagein the intended behavior when it is elicited bysome external event or cue.
  16. 16.  Also called as NONDECLARATIVE MEMORY. Memory in which behavior is affected byprior experience without that experiencebeing consciously recollected. Procedural Memory- involves memory for skills. Priming- is the activation of information thatpeople already have in storage to help themremember new information better and faster. Classical Conditioning- involves the automaticlearning of associations between stimuli.
  17. 17.  It is using the knowledge that has beengathered and processed; mentallymanipulating concepts and images toperform such mental activities as reasoning,solving problems, producing andunderstanding language and makingdecisions. Cognition- the process of gathering andprocessing information, including sensing,perceiving, learning, remembering andthinking.
  18. 18.  The type of thinking needed when there isonly one correct answer or solution to aproblem. We select or converge on, a single correctanswer or solution from among severalalternatives.
  19. 19.  It is the opposite of convergent thinking. We generate as many different, ordivergent solutions as possible. It is the type of thinking most oftenassociated with creativity.
  20. 20.  Brain Storming Free Writing Journal Mind Mapping
  21. 21.  Papalia, D. et al (2004). Human Development9th edition. Mcgraw Hill Kalat James W. (2002). Introduction toPsychology 6th Edition