Levels of Processing Theory States that memory is on a continuum fromshallow to deep, with deeper processingproducing better memory. Shallow Level- the sensory or physicalfeatures of stimuli are analyzed. Intermediate Level- the stimulus isrecognized and given a label. Deepest Level- we make associations.
It is the extensiveness of processing at anygiven level of memory.
Memory is encodedthrough IMAGES. DUAL CODE HYPOTHESIS(Allan Paivio)- states thatmemory for images isbetter than memory forwords because thememory for images isstored as an image codeand as a verbal code.
SENSORYMEMORYAttentionShort- TermMemoryRehearsalLong- TermMemoryRetrievalStorage encompasses how information is retained over timeand how it is represented in memory.Atkinson-Shiffrin Theory - the view that memory involves asequence of three stages:
Holds information from the world in itsoriginal form only for an instant, not muchlonger than the brief time it is exposed tothe visual, auditory and other senses. Echoic Memory- auditory senses Iconic Memory- visual senses
Is a limited capacity memory system in whichinformation is retained for only as long as 30seconds unless strategies are used toretained it longer.
Chunking- involves grouping or packinginformation. A form of memory encoding:specifically, elaboration. It works by makinglarge amounts of information moremanageable. Rehearsals- the conscious repetition ofinformation. Information stored in short-term memory lasts half a minute or lesswithout rehearsal.
A three- part system that temporarily holdsinformation. It is a kind of mental workbenchon which information is manipulated andassembled to perform other cognitive tasks. Three components of working memory: Phonological Loop Visuospatial Working Memory Central Executive
A relatively permanent type of memory thatholds huge amounts of information for a longperiod of time. It is divided into substructures: Explicit Memory Implicit Memory
Also called as DECLARATIVE MEMORY. The conscious recollection of information,such as specific facts, or events, and at leastin humans, information that can be verballycommunicated. Episodic Memory- the retention of informationabout the where and when of life’s happenings. Semantic Memory- a person’s knowledge aboutthe world.
Retrospective Memory- remembering thepast. Prospective- remembering information aboutdoing something in the future; includesmemory for intentions. Time- based prospective memory- intention toengage in a given behavior after a specifiedamount of time has gone by. Event- based prospective memory- you engagein the intended behavior when it is elicited bysome external event or cue.
Also called as NONDECLARATIVE MEMORY. Memory in which behavior is affected byprior experience without that experiencebeing consciously recollected. Procedural Memory- involves memory for skills. Priming- is the activation of information thatpeople already have in storage to help themremember new information better and faster. Classical Conditioning- involves the automaticlearning of associations between stimuli.
It is using the knowledge that has beengathered and processed; mentallymanipulating concepts and images toperform such mental activities as reasoning,solving problems, producing andunderstanding language and makingdecisions. Cognition- the process of gathering andprocessing information, including sensing,perceiving, learning, remembering andthinking.
The type of thinking needed when there isonly one correct answer or solution to aproblem. We select or converge on, a single correctanswer or solution from among severalalternatives.
It is the opposite of convergent thinking. We generate as many different, ordivergent solutions as possible. It is the type of thinking most oftenassociated with creativity.
Brain Storming Free Writing Journal Mind Mapping
Papalia, D. et al (2004). Human Development9th edition. Mcgraw Hill Kalat James W. (2002). Introduction toPsychology 6th Edition