Psych Levels Of Processing Model Of Memory

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  • I think your slides are great! They sum up the model, compare it to the more conventional (multistore model) and also discuss weaknesses - Very well done!
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Psych Levels Of Processing Model Of Memory

  1. 2. <ul><li>Basic Idea- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory happens because of processing information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The memorization of things are dependent on how deep the info was processed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Deep”: Associating meaningfulness to stimulus rather than associating things such as numbers. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>There isn’t any real structure to it </li></ul><ul><li>No distinct difference between LTM and STM </li></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>SHALLOW/PERCEPTUAL </li></ul><ul><li>Structural Processing: processing how it looks/appears </li></ul><ul><li>Phonemic Processing: processing how something sounds </li></ul><ul><li>Graphemic: Letters that make up the word </li></ul><ul><li>Orthographic: the shape </li></ul><ul><li>DEEP/SEMANTIC </li></ul><ul><li>When we relate something to something else </li></ul><ul><li>When we think of the meaning </li></ul><ul><li>The importance of it </li></ul>
  3. 4. http://www.psypress.com/pip/resources/slp/topic.asp?chapter=ch09&topic=ch09-sc-03
  4. 7. <ul><li>Repeating the information </li></ul>Involves deeper, more semantic analysis of the information Being able to distinguish the items “ According to the levels of processing theory, only elaborative rehearsal improves long term memory” - Eysenck
  5. 8. <ul><li>Focuses on processes which make up memory </li></ul><ul><li>Non-structured </li></ul><ul><li>No real distinction between LTM and STM </li></ul><ul><li>Memory is a byproduct of processing </li></ul><ul><li>Only elaborative rehearsal can improve LTM </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses on LTM and STM </li></ul><ul><li>Is structured (LTM and STM) </li></ul><ul><li>Rehearsal always improves LTM </li></ul>
  6. 9. <ul><li>Showed that encoding was much more complex </li></ul><ul><li>The work helped show that “deeper” processing does in fact improve memorization. </li></ul><ul><li>Shows why some things are better remembered </li></ul><ul><li>Work is backed up by further case studies, there is evidence </li></ul>
  7. 10. <ul><li>It is more descriptive than explanatory. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Deep” and “Shallow” are very vague </li></ul><ul><li>Neuropsychological studies show that there are structures/defined storage systems in memory </li></ul><ul><li>Provides a better account of explicit memory than it does for implicit memory </li></ul><ul><li>Over simplified. </li></ul><ul><li>Suggested that shallow processing led to fast forgetting </li></ul><ul><li>Doesn’t apply to patients with memory diseases such as amnesia </li></ul>
  8. 11. <ul><li>Hyde & Jenkins (1973): Deeper processing led to better recall of info </li></ul><ul><li>Glenberg et. al. (1977): Found that maintenance is actually beneficial but doesn’t improve LTM as much as elaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Morris et. al. (1977) found that deep processing does not always help long term memory and thus proposed a transfer-appropriate processing theory. </li></ul><ul><li>Nyberg (2002): Brain Imaging studies that support the notion that in memory testing the brain areas used to perceive are reactivated </li></ul><ul><li>Craik and Tulving (1975): People recall words memorized semantically better than phonemically or structurally. </li></ul>
  9. 12. <ul><li>Craik and Lockhart's levels of processing memory theory neglect the unconscious mind </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, it doesn't explain behavior from a psychodynamic perspective </li></ul><ul><li>For example, levels of processing memory doesn't explain how we remember our dreams, which belongs to the unconscious mind </li></ul><ul><li>Shows that the stimulus-response theory is wrong, as there are memory processes </li></ul><ul><li>Stimuli that are processed is the basic start of memory </li></ul>
  10. 13. <ul><li>Bibliography </li></ul><ul><li>Baddley, A. D. (1976). The Psycholgy of Memory. Basic Books. </li></ul><ul><li>Craik, F. I. (1979, September 7). Levels of Processing: A Framework for memory research. This Week's Citation Classic , 92. </li></ul><ul><li>Eysenck, M. W. (n.d.). Chapter 9: Human Memory . (Psychology Press) Retrieved April 4, 2009, from Psychology: An International Perspective: http://www.psypress.com/pip/resources/slp/topic.asp?chapter=ch09&topic=ch09-sc-03 </li></ul><ul><li>Eysenck, M. W. (2001). Principles of Cognitive Psychology (2nd Edition ed.). Psychology Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Kendler, T. S. (1995). Levels of Cognitive Development. Lawrence Erbaum Associates. </li></ul><ul><li>Michael W. Eysenck, M. T. (2005, April). Chapter 6: Learning and Memory . (Psychology Press) Retrieved April 4, 2009, from Cognitive Psychology: A Student's Handbook: http://www.psypress.com/ek5/resources/demo_ch06-sc-03.asp </li></ul><ul><li>Psychology, S. (n.d.). Craik and Lockhart 1972 Model of Memory in Psychology . Retrieved from Simply Psychology: http://www.simplypsychology.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/levelsofprocessing.html </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>

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