Information Processing Information processing enables memory. We rely on memory all the time, and not just for the details ofour daily lives. I need to remember who I am and what I standfor. Three steps of Information Processing:1. Encoding2. Storage3. Retrieval
ENCODING Encoding is the process in which you moveinformation—the raw material, the “stuff” that youwill remember—into your memory system. Good students are invariably good encoders ofinformation.
ENCODING-Automatic Processing and EffortfulProcessing Thanks to automatic processing, thisstudent may be able to rememberwhere in his textbook he found theinformation he needs to study withno effort. But he will have to payattention and use effortfulprocessing to encode theinformation he’s trying to learn fromthe book.
Automatic Processing and Effortful Processing HERMANN EBBINGHAUS (1850–1909) German philosopher who conductedpioneering memory studies.TWO TYPES OF ENCODING: effortful processing: Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort. automatic processing: The unconscious and effortless process of encodinginformation such as space, time, and frequency.
ENCODING Serial Position Effect Spacing of Rehearsal Encoding Meaning Encoding Imagery Mnemonic Devices Organizing Information
STORAGE Storage is the retention of information. Humans have three distinct storagesystems: sensory memory short-term/working memory long-term memory
STORAGESensory Memory Brief, initial coding of sensory information in the memory system. Consider how many objects are in view right now. - visual input. iconic store : visual information in sensory memory remains lessthan half a second. What can you hear right now? echoic store : auditory/sound, information in sensory memorystored for perhaps 3 or 4 seconds. Think of the word echo toremember that echoic is acoustic.Have you ever been spacing off in class and had a teacher ask, with an irritated tone, “What did I justsay?” Did you notice that you can generally retrieve that information, even though you truly weren’tpaying attention? Thank your echoic store for this ability.
STORAGE Short-Term/Working Memory: The part of your memory system that contains information you areconsciously aware of before it is stored more permanently or forgotten. As compare to Sensory memory, Short-term memory is far more limitedbecause our consciousness itself is limited—we can attend to only a fewthings at one time. How many things can we attend to according to George Miller? The capacity of short-term/working memory is a limited numberof chunks. What is an example of chunks from your everyday learning? How long can we retain information in this portion of our memory? What are the results of Peterson & Peterson experiment?
As this graph shows, when people are not allowed to rehearse, short-term memory decays rapidly.Within a few seconds, most people are unable to recall three consonants. By the time 20 secondshave passed, nearly everybody has lost their memory of the three consonants.Data fromPeterson & Peterson
STORAGE Long-Term Memory: The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. It can hold memories without conscious effort. Name of your 2nd Grade Teacher, your zip code (when was the last retrieval of thesepieces of information?) Individual differences in the capabilities of long-term memory. What type of memory loss patient H.M suffered ?
Retrieval Recall is the type of retrieval we usually think of as “memory”—searchingfor information that was previously stored. Recognition is a type of retrieval in which you must identify items youpreviously learned. Memories weave a web of neural pathways inside the brain. Have you ever noticed that the more you know about a subject, the easier itis to learn even more about it?
A Hare-Raising Experience If you show people a picture, you can activate certain associationsin their memory pathways—a process known as priming. When you later ask them to spell a word thatcan be spelled in two ways (hare or hair), their response may reflect the content of the picture. Thus, apicture of a rabbit is likely to activate the spelling h-a-r-e. A picture of a barber at work is likely toactivate the spelling h-a-i-r.
Context Context is the environment in which you encode or retrieve information. context effect: The enhanced ability to retrieve information when you are inan environment similar to the one in which you encoded the information. Godden & Baddeley Experiment- Learning Above and underwater.
State Dependency state-dependent memory: The enhanced ability to retrieve informationwhen you are in the same physical and emotional state you were in whenyou encoded the information. The retrieval of memories also depends on your mood. If you’re happy when you encode, you’ll retrieve better when you’rehappy. But if you’ve been somewhat depressed as you worked your waythrough a particular unit in a class, you’ll probably test better whendepressed.
Review for Exam What are the factors that allow us to effectively encode information intoour memory system? Describe sensory, short-term/working, and long-term memories? What factors influence what we can remember and what we forget?
FORGETTING Forgetting as Storage Failure -Ebbinghaus Forgetting CurvePermastore Memory
FORGETTING Forgetting as Retrieval FailureInterferenceproactive interference: When an oldermemory disrupts the recall of a newermemory.retroactive interference: When a morerecent memory disrupts the recall of anolder memory. Motivated Forgetting
MEMORY CONSTRUCTION How does memory construction contributeto inaccurate memories? Memory is less like a DVD or a computerhard drive than like a jigsaw puzzle withmissing pieces. Your brain “manufactures”new pieces to fill the holes and construct acomplete memory. misinformation effect: Incorporatingmisleading information into a memory of anevent.