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How we remember and why we forget for a General Psychology class.

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  1. 3. Memory
  2. 4. What is Memory? <ul><li>The outcome of learning </li></ul><ul><li>2 basic categories of learning: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Non-associative </li></ul><ul><li>Results from an experience with a single type of event </li></ul><ul><li>2. Associative </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by the conjunction of 2 or more events </li></ul>
  3. 5. Information Processing Approach Sensory Storage Short-Term Memory Long-Term Memory
  4. 6. More on Information Processing <ul><li>Sensory Registry (Sensory Storage) </li></ul><ul><li>Data is stored in full detail in the sense organ for a fraction of a second. </li></ul><ul><li>Almost unlimited capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Registries: </li></ul><ul><li>Visual </li></ul><ul><li>Iconic storage </li></ul><ul><li>Eidetic imagery </li></ul><ul><li>Auditory </li></ul><ul><li>Echoic storage </li></ul><ul><li>Attention </li></ul><ul><li>The selective filtering of incoming information </li></ul><ul><li>The “cocktail-party” phenomenon </li></ul>
  5. 7. More on Information Processing <ul><li>Short-Term Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Also called “working memory” or “present conscious memory” </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity limited to 7 +/- 2 chunks of information at a time </li></ul><ul><li>Time limited to 1.5 to 2 seconds unless rehearsed </li></ul><ul><li>The serial-position effect </li></ul><ul><li>The primacy & recency effects </li></ul><ul><li>Encoding in STM </li></ul><ul><li>Phonological & visual coding </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining information in STM </li></ul><ul><li>Rote or Maintenance Rehearsal </li></ul>
  6. 8. More on Information Processing <ul><li>Long-Term Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Almost unlimited capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Encoding in LTM by imagery & meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Storing in LTM by a semantic tree or semantic network </li></ul><ul><li>Transferring from STM to LTM by Elaborative Rehearsal </li></ul><ul><li>Associative organization </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining in LTM through rote and elaborative rehearsal </li></ul>
  7. 9. Types of Long-Term Memory Long-Term Memory Explicit (Declarative) Memory Implicit (Non-Declarative) Memory Episodic Memory Semantic Memory Motor Skills Habits Simple Classically Conditioned Responses Procedural Memory
  8. 10. Associations the Brain Makes <ul><li>Everything we see, hear, touch, taste, smell, taste and think is interwoven with associations from past experiences. Basically, they give significance to the world around us. These associations contribute to our individual profile as a person. What we become conscious of depends on the number of associations triggered by a particular event. These associations are influenced by factors such as expectations, motivations, hunger, fatigue, temperature, & biochemistry. We don’t have to be conscious of the associations for them to affect us . </li></ul><ul><li>Boolean Operator Process Brain Association </li></ul><ul><li>AND More Specific Items Same as …. </li></ul><ul><li>NOT Excludes items Different than … </li></ul><ul><li>OR Alternative items Similar to … </li></ul><ul><li>NEAR Includes items Almost … </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Same as … Cougar & Puma </li></ul><ul><li>Different than … Tiger & Lion </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to … Leopard & Jaguar </li></ul><ul><li>Almost … Felines </li></ul><ul><li>In the 19 th Century, an English mathematician and logician, George Boole (1815-1864) devised a logical foundation for making sense or what appears to be illogical. This foundation became known as Boolean Operators or Boolean Logic. This is the same kind of logic used in computers, on the Internet, and in the brain as it makes associations. Boole described the four operators as: AND, OR, NOT, and NEAR. </li></ul>
  9. 11. Forgetting <ul><li>Amnesia </li></ul><ul><li>Retrograde Amnesia </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of memory for events preceding an accident, injury, or disease without loss of earlier memories. </li></ul><ul><li>Anterograde Amnesia </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of memory for events after an accident, injury, or disease but not necessarily for subsequent memories. </li></ul><ul><li>Diseases of Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Alzheimer’s Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Parkinson’s Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Korsakoff’s Syndrome </li></ul>
  10. 12. The Interference Theory of Forgetting <ul><li>Retroactive Interference </li></ul><ul><li>New memories block the retrieval of old memories ; new learning interferes or inhibits your ability to remember something you had learned. </li></ul><ul><li>Proactive Interference </li></ul><ul><li>Old memories block the retrieval of newer memories : old learning interferes or inhibits your ability to learn something now. </li></ul>
  11. 13. Summary of Forgetfulness <ul><li>Concept Description Example </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Decay Theory Gradual fading of memory as a Facts you learned in school gradually </li></ul><ul><li>function of time fade out of memory over time. </li></ul><ul><li>Interference Theory Disruption of memory caused by After sifting through your psychology </li></ul><ul><li>interference of previously learned lecture, you forget what you learned in </li></ul><ul><li>material or newly learned material chemistry class the hour before. </li></ul><ul><li>Retrieval Theory Failure to access material stored in You have difficulty remembering </li></ul><ul><li>memory because of encoding failure something you know is stored in </li></ul><ul><li>or lack of retrieval cues memory. </li></ul><ul><li>Motivated Forgetting Repression of anxiety-provoking You cannot remember a traumatic </li></ul><ul><li>material childhood experience. </li></ul><ul><li>Retrograde Amnesia Loss of memory of past events After suffering a blow to the head in a </li></ul><ul><li> car accident, you are unable to remem- </li></ul><ul><li> ber details of the accident itself. </li></ul><ul><li>Anterograde Amnesia Loss of impairment of the ability to Due to a brain disorder, you find it </li></ul><ul><li>form or store new memories difficult to retain new information </li></ul>
  12. 14. The Fallibility of Memory <ul><li>Improper storage cues </li></ul><ul><li>The memories weren’t given the appropriate cues to encode them properly </li></ul><ul><li>Memory changes over time </li></ul><ul><li>Neuronal and biochemical changes reconstruct & deconstruct memories </li></ul><ul><li>Memory’s Fallacies </li></ul><ul><li>1. Transience : The forgetting that occurs with the passing of time. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Absent-mindedness : Often attributed to 4 things, 1) divided attention, 2) insufficient attention at the time of encoding, 3) “operating on automatic,” and 4) encoding at an extremely shallow level. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Blocking : Retrieval cues are unavailable even though a word or name has been encoded and stored. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Misattribution : Recalling events that never happened or recalling them incorrectly or at the wrong time or place. This occurs in the absence of suggestion. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Suggestibility : The tendency to use misleading information from external cues into personal recollections. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Bias : Memories of the past are rescripted to fit your present views and needs (past events are filtered by current knowledge, memories are shaped to your present interpretation of the world, the past is constructed as similar or different than the present). </li></ul><ul><li>7. Persistence : Remembering things you wish to forget (failures, traumas, sadness, disappointments, etc.). </li></ul>
  13. 15. Situational Factors in Memory <ul><li>State Dependent Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is best when you are in a particular state of mind and best remembered when in that same state. </li></ul><ul><li>Context Dependent Memory </li></ul><ul><li>It’s easier to remember something when you’re in the same context in which you learned it. </li></ul>
  14. 16. Why Do We Forget? <ul><li>The lower brain checks out emotional possibilities & alerts the cortex </li></ul><ul><li>Translation from STM to LTM involves processing the meaning of the stimulus & categorizes it. </li></ul><ul><li>SIS is clear but each new impression destroys the one before. </li></ul><ul><li>The primacy & recency effects </li></ul>
  15. 17. Retrieving Information <ul><li>Styles of Retrieval </li></ul><ul><li>1. Sequential Search </li></ul><ul><li>Going through each piece of information until the appropriate information is found. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Using Retrieval Cues </li></ul><ul><li>Retrieval is through a semantic network of associations. </li></ul><ul><li>Improving Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Rehearsal & Repetition </li></ul><ul><li>Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Imagery </li></ul><ul><li>Method of Loci </li></ul><ul><li>Mnemonics </li></ul><ul><li>Overlearning </li></ul><ul><li>Meaningfulness </li></ul>