Human Memory - Psychology


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A Project on Human Memory for Psychology

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Human Memory - Psychology

  1. 1. Psychology
  2. 2. Memory <ul><li>Memory is an organism's ability to store, retain, and recall information and experiences </li></ul>
  3. 3. Theories of Memory <ul><li>Theory of General Memory Functions </li></ul><ul><li>Information Processing Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Theory by Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin </li></ul>
  4. 4. Theory of General Memory Functions <ul><li>3 Basic Memory functions </li></ul>Encoding Storage Recall
  5. 5. Information Processing Theories <ul><li>Memory works in three stages </li></ul><ul><li>Output or Information </li></ul><ul><li>Step by step process </li></ul><ul><li>Input from sensory organs </li></ul>
  6. 6. Theory by Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin <ul><li>Most widely used theory </li></ul>
  7. 7. Levels Of Processing Theories <ul><li>Craik & Lockhart (1972) </li></ul><ul><li>Incoming Information is analyzed in various levels of analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>Better the analysis, better the memory. </li></ul><ul><li>Processing will be automatic unless attention is focused on a particular level </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Concepts
  9. 9. Sensory Register <ul><li>Very Brief Storage of Information by Our Sensory Channels. Information Stored is lost very fast </li></ul><ul><li>Example:- </li></ul><ul><li>Visual Sensory Register holds information of 11 to 16 items for only one second. </li></ul><ul><li>Auditory Register holds in formation for 4 or 5 seconds </li></ul>
  10. 10. Short –Term Memory <ul><li>A memory which can hold information from sensory register for about 30 seconds and which has less storage capacity, depending upon :- </li></ul><ul><li>The state of the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Flow of information </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional State </li></ul>
  11. 11. Rehearsal <ul><li>The process of rehearsal consists of keeping items of information in The Center OF Attention , by repeating them silently or aloud or by writing. </li></ul><ul><li>The amount of rehearsal determines the time for which the Information is held in the memory. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Previously, continuous rehearsal also called “ Maintenance Rehearsal ” was responsible for retaining memory. </li></ul><ul><li>Modern theories suggest that “ Elaborative Rehearsal ” helps in retaining Memory. </li></ul><ul><li>Elaborative Rehearsal :- Giving the information a meaning, so to ease the process of retaining </li></ul>
  13. 13. Long Term Memory <ul><li>Memory which has no specific time limit for storing information. It can be weeks, months, or years or even lifetime. It has no limit in terms of storage capacity. </li></ul><ul><li>Semantic </li></ul><ul><li>Episodic </li></ul>
  14. 14. Semantic memory <ul><li>The brain stores information about words , what they look like and represent, and how they are used in an organized way </li></ul>
  15. 15. Episodic memory <ul><li>Episodic memory is a form of memory which allows someone to recall events of personal importance. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Tip of the tongue <ul><li>The tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) phenomenon refers to the experience of feeling confident that one knows an answer, yet is unable to produce the word. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Encoding & Storing Long Term Memories <ul><li>Encoding for long term storage requires Special attention </li></ul>
  18. 18. Role of imagery <ul><li>Imagery is simply the formation of any mental pictures </li></ul><ul><li>Example: trying to remember a phone number by repeating it in your head is a common method, but what might enhance your processing of the information might be to use imagery - maybe visualize the numbers being written on a chalk board. This allows you to create a mental picture of the numbers that may be processed more completely </li></ul>
  19. 19. Role of constructive process <ul><li>During encoding, to be remembered information epically if it is a complex life event or something which you have read . </li></ul><ul><li>“ The driver of the car was seen drinking before he was involved in an accident ” </li></ul>
  20. 20. Memory Retrieval <ul><li>Once information has been encoded and stored in memory, it must be retrieved in order to be used. There are four basic ways in which information can be pulled from long-term memory </li></ul><ul><li>Recall </li></ul><ul><li>Recollection </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Relearning </li></ul>
  21. 21. Recall & Recollection <ul><li>Recall: This type of memory retrieval involves being able to access the information without being cued </li></ul><ul><li>Recollection: This type of memory retrieval involves reconstructing memory, often utilizing logical structures, partial memories, narratives or clues </li></ul>
  22. 22. Recognition & Relearning <ul><li>Recognition: This type of memory retrieval involves identifying information after experiencing it again. </li></ul><ul><li>Relearning: This type of memory retrieval involves relearning information that has been previously learned </li></ul>
  23. 23. Amnesia <ul><li>Amnesia from the Greek word Ἀμνησία is a condition in which memory is disturbed or lost. A memory disorder which resulting in loss of what has been already stored or an In-ability to retrieve stored information . </li></ul>
  24. 24. Physiological Amnesia <ul><li>An Amnesia caused without any physical force, brain disorder or biological malfunctioning in the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Child hood Amnesia </li></ul><ul><li>Dream Amnesia </li></ul><ul><li>Defensive Amnesia </li></ul>
  25. 25. Biological Amnesia <ul><li>Concussions from blows to the head, other damage to the brain, temporary disturbances in the brains blood supply, certain drugs and brain diseases are causes of amnesia and fall under biological amnesia </li></ul><ul><li>Transient global amnesia </li></ul><ul><li>Drug induced amnesia </li></ul><ul><li>Brain diseases </li></ul>
  26. 27. Thank you