Chp,7 Statesof Cons


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Myers States of Consciousness
Chapter 7

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Chp,7 Statesof Cons

  1. 1. Chapter 7 States of Consciousness
  2. 2. States of Consciousness <ul><li>Consciousness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>our awareness of ourselves and our environments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fantasy Prone Personality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>imagines and recalls experiences with lifelike vividness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>spends considerable time fantasizing </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Sleep and Dreams <ul><li>Biological Rhythms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>periodic physiological fluctuations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Circadian Rhythm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the biological clock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>regular bodily rhythms that occur on a 24 hour cycle wakefulness body temperature </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Sleep and Dreams <ul><li>REM ( R apid E ye M ovement) Sleep </li></ul><ul><ul><li>recurring sleep stage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vivid dreams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ paradoxical sleep” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>muscles are generally relaxed, but other body systems are active </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Sleep </li></ul><ul><ul><li>periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Brain Waves and Sleep Stages <ul><li>Alpha Waves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>slow waves of a relaxed, awake brain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Delta Waves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>large, slow waves of deep sleep </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hallucinations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>false sensory experiences </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Typical Nightly Sleep Stages 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 4 3 2 1 Sleep stages Awake Hours of sleep REM
  7. 7. Sleep Deprivation <ul><li>Effects of Sleep Loss </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fatigue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>impaired concentration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>immune suppression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>irritability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>slowed performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>accidents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>planes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>autos and trucks </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Sleep Disorders <ul><li>Insomnia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>persistent problems in falling or staying asleep </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Narcolepsy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>uncontrollable sleep attacks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sleep Apnea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cessation of breathing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>often associated with snoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>repeatedly awakes sufferer </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Night Terrors and Nightmares <ul><li>Night Terrors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>occur within 2 or 3 hours of falling asleep, usually during Stage 4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>high arousal- appearance of being terrified </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nightmares </li></ul><ul><ul><li>occur towards morning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>during REM sleep </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Dreams- Freud <ul><li>Sigmund Freud- The Interpretation of Dreams (1900) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>wish fulfillment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>discharge otherwise unacceptable feelings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Manifest Content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>remembered story line </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Latent Content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>underlying, uncensored meaning </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Dreams <ul><li>As Information Processing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>helps consolidate day’s memories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stimulates neural development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>REM Rebound </li></ul><ul><ul><li>REM sleep increases following REM sleep deprivation </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Hypnosis <ul><li>Hypnosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts or behaviors will spontaneously occur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a relaxed state </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Hypnosis <ul><li>Posthypnotic Amnesia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>supposed inability to recall what one experienced during hypnosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>induced by the hypnotist’s suggestion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hypnotic Suggestibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>related to subject’s openness to suggestion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ability to focus attention inwardly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ability to become imaginatively absorbed </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Hypnosis <ul><li>Orne & Evans (1965) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>control group instructed to “pretend” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>unhypnotized subjects performed the same acts as the hypnotized ones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Posthypnotic Suggestion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>suggestion to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>used by some clinicians to control undesired symptoms and behaviors </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Hypnosis and Pain <ul><li>Dissociation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a split in consciousness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hidden Observer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hilgard’s term describing a hypnotized subject’s awareness of experiences, such as pain, that go unreported during hypnosis </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Drugs and Consciousness <ul><li>Psychoactive Drug </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a chemical substance that alters perceptions and alters mood </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physical Dependence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>physiological need for a drug </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Psychological Dependence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a psychological need to use a drug </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>for example, to relieve negative emotions </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Dependence <ul><li>Tolerance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>need for progressively larger doses to achieve same effect </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Withdrawal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>discomfort and distress with discontinued use </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Psychoactive Drugs <ul><li>Depressants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>drugs that reduce neural activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>slow body function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>alcohol, barbiturates, opiates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Stimulants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>drugs that excite neural activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>speed up body function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Psychoactive Drugs <ul><li>Hallucinogens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>psychedelic (mind-manifesting) drugs that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LSD </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Psychoactive Drugs <ul><li>Barbiturates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgement </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Psychoactive Drugs <ul><li>Opiates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>opium and its derivatives (morphine and heroin) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>opiates depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Psychoactive Drugs <ul><li>Amphetamines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing accelerated body functions and associated energy and mood changes </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Psychoactive Drugs <ul><li>LSD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lysergic acid diethylamide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a powerful hallucinogenic drug </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>also known as acid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>THC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the major active ingredient in marijuana </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Psychoactive Drugs Drug Type Pleasurable Effects Adverse Effects Alcohol Depressant Initial high followed by Depression, memory loss, organ relaxation and disinhibition damage, impaired reactions Heroin Depressant Rush of euphoria, relief from Depressed physiology, pain agonizing withdrawal Caffeine Stimulant Increased alertness and Anxiety, restlessness, and wakefulness insomnia in high doses; uncomfortable withdrawal Metham- Stimulant Euphoria, alertness, energy Irritability, insomnia, phetamine hypertension, seizures Cocaine Stimulant Rush of euphoria, confidence, Cardiovascular stress, energy suspiciousness, depressive crash Nicotine Stimulant Arousal and relaxation, sense Heart disease, cancer (from tars) of well-being Marijuana Mild Enhanced sensation, pain relief Lowered sex hormones, disrupted hallucinogen distortion of time, relaxation memory, lung damage from smoke
  25. 25. Near Death Experiences <ul><li>Near Death Experience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>an altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>often similar to drug-induced hallucinations </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Near Death Experiences <ul><li>Dualism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the presumption that mind and body are two distinct entities that interact </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Monism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the presumption that mind and body are different aspects of the same thing </li></ul></ul>