Ch 6 brain body Reg. Psych2011

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Ch 6 brain body Reg. Psych2011

  1. 1. Chapter Six Body and Brain
  2. 2. The Nervous System
  3. 3. Nervous System Hierarchy
  4. 4. Central Nervous System <ul><li>Brain </li></ul><ul><li>Spinal Cord </li></ul>
  5. 5. Central Nervous System
  6. 6. Peripheral Nervous System <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enteric Nervous System </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Somatic & Autonomic Nervous Systems </li></ul>
  7. 7. Somatic Nervous System <ul><li>Motor nerves </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory nerves </li></ul><ul><li>Voluntary functions </li></ul>
  8. 8. Autonomic Nervous System <ul><li>Sympathetic Nervous System </li></ul><ul><li>Parasympathetic Nervous System </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Nervous System <ul><li>Neurons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrochemical impulses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Firing” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synapse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10-12 billion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Range from microscopic to 3 feet </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Three Kinds of Neurons <ul><li>Receptor (afferent) (sensory) </li></ul><ul><li>Interneurons (associative) </li></ul><ul><li>Effector (efferent) (motor) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Cell Structure <ul><li>Nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>Cell Membrane </li></ul>
  12. 12. Neuron Structure <ul><li>Dendrites (receptors) </li></ul><ul><li>Cell Body </li></ul><ul><li>Axon </li></ul><ul><li>Axon terminals (terminal buttons) </li></ul><ul><li>Neurotransmitter </li></ul><ul><li>Synapse </li></ul>
  13. 13. Neuron
  14. 14. Neurotransmitters <ul><li>Acetylcholine </li></ul><ul><li>Norepinephrine </li></ul><ul><li>Seratonin </li></ul><ul><li>Dopamine (L-Dopa) </li></ul><ul><li>Effect of amphetamines </li></ul>
  15. 15. Divisions of the Brain
  16. 16. Divisions of the Brain <ul><li>Subcortex (old brain) </li></ul><ul><li>Neocortex (new brain) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Subcortex <ul><li>Cerebellum </li></ul><ul><li>Pons </li></ul><ul><li>Medulla </li></ul><ul><li>Reticular formation </li></ul><ul><li>(continued on next slide) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Subcortex <ul><li>Diencephalon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thalamus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothalamus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Limbic system </li></ul><ul><li>Basal nuclei (basal ganglia) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Neocortex <ul><li>Cerebral cortex </li></ul><ul><li>Cerebrum </li></ul>
  20. 20. Neural Cortex
  21. 21. Lobes of the Brain <ul><li>Frontal lobes </li></ul><ul><li>Occipital lobes </li></ul><ul><li>Parietal lobes </li></ul><ul><li>Temporal lobes </li></ul>
  22. 22. Lobes of the Brain
  23. 23. Hemispheres of the Brain <ul><li>Right hemisphere </li></ul><ul><li>Left hemisphere </li></ul><ul><li>Corpus callosum </li></ul>
  24. 24. Hemispheres
  25. 25. Left Hemisphere of the Brain <ul><li>Language ability </li></ul><ul><li>Analytical thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Manages right side of body </li></ul>
  26. 26. Right Hemisphere of the Brain <ul><li>Spatial thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Intuitive thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional, artistic, creative functions </li></ul><ul><li>Manages left side of body </li></ul>
  27. 27. Corpus Callosum <ul><li>Split brain </li></ul><ul><li>Sperry studies </li></ul><ul><li>Tachistoscope </li></ul><ul><li>Visual fields </li></ul>
  28. 28. Visual Pathways
  29. 29. Which way do the eyes move? <ul><li>The direction of your eyes indicates which side of the brain you are using to answer a question. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make up a sentence using the words code and mathematics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Picture the last wreck you saw. Which direction were the cars moving? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What does the proverb “easy come, easy go” mean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Picture the last time you cried </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1& 3 verbal non-emotional (look right) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2&4 spatial-emotional (look left) </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Emergency Repair Service <ul><li>Plasticity </li></ul><ul><li>Redundancy </li></ul>
  31. 31. Recording <ul><li>EEG (electroencephalograph) </li></ul><ul><li>PET scan </li></ul>
  32. 32. EEG <ul><li>Electroencephalograph </li></ul><ul><li>Brain wave patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Seizure disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Hubel </li></ul><ul><li>Brain death </li></ul>
  33. 33. Pet Scan <ul><li>Positron emission tomography </li></ul><ul><li>Glucose </li></ul><ul><li>Brain tumors </li></ul><ul><li>Seizure disorders </li></ul>
  34. 34. Brain mapping <ul><li>Wilder Penfield </li></ul><ul><li>Probe the Brain! </li></ul><ul><li>Seizure disorder </li></ul><ul><li>James Olds </li></ul><ul><li>Pleasure center </li></ul>
  35. 35. Biochemical studies <ul><li>Tube implantation </li></ul><ul><li>Manipulate drive states </li></ul>
  36. 36. Limiting Damage from Strokes <ul><li>Magnesium </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-glutamate </li></ul><ul><li>Insulin </li></ul><ul><li>Lowered Body Temperature </li></ul>
  37. 37. Lesioning <ul><li>Sever nerve areas </li></ul><ul><li>Intentional destruction of brain tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Destruction of brain tissue as a result of disease or accident </li></ul><ul><li>Karl Lashley </li></ul>
  38. 38. Lobotomy <ul><li>Disconnection of frontal lobes </li></ul><ul><li>Prefrontal lobotomy </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Egaz Moniz </li></ul><ul><li>Nobel prize </li></ul>
  39. 39. Lobotomy <ul><li>Tranquilizers </li></ul><ul><li>50 procedures a day </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately 50,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Inability to enact future planning </li></ul><ul><li>Inability to perform complex tasks </li></ul>
  40. 40. Exocrine System <ul><li>Duct glands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sweat gland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tear glands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salivary glands </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Endocrine System <ul><li>Ductless glands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Release hormones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>’ activator’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I excite” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>30 different kinds </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Endocrine System <ul><li>Ductless glands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thyroid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pituitary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Islets of Langerhans (pancreas) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adrenal glands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Testes/ovaries </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Thyroid Gland <ul><li>regulate metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>thyroxin </li></ul>
  44. 44. Overactive Thyroid <ul><li>produces too much thyroxin </li></ul><ul><li>symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>? </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Thyroid Gland <ul><li>Enlarged thyroid </li></ul><ul><li>Goiter </li></ul>
  46. 46. Underactive Thyroid <ul><li>produces too little thyroxin </li></ul><ul><li>symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>? </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Thyroid Gland <ul><li>Cretinism </li></ul><ul><li>Underactive thyroid in infancy </li></ul>
  48. 48. Pituitary Gland <ul><li>Located in the center of the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled by hypothalamus </li></ul>
  49. 49. Pituitary Gland <ul><li>Located in the center of the brain </li></ul><ul><li>HGH </li></ul><ul><li>Human Growth Hormone </li></ul>
  50. 50. Dwarfism <ul><li>Too little HGH </li></ul>
  51. 51. Giantism <ul><li>Too much HGH </li></ul>
  52. 52. Pituitary Gland <ul><li>Master gland </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled by the hypothalamus </li></ul>
  53. 53. Islets of Langerhans
  54. 54. Islets of Langerhans <ul><li>Part of the pancreas </li></ul><ul><li>Insulin </li></ul><ul><li>Diabetes </li></ul><ul><li>Cataracts and/or arteriosclerosis </li></ul>
  55. 55. Adrenal Glands <ul><li>On top of kidneys </li></ul><ul><li>Receive signals from Sympathetic Nervous System </li></ul>
  56. 56. Adrenal Glands <ul><li>Kidneys </li></ul><ul><li>Adrenaline </li></ul><ul><li>Steroids </li></ul><ul><li>Cortisone </li></ul>
  57. 57. Adrenal Glands <ul><li>Too little </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slow blood circulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual development lessens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weakness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Death </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Too much </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased sexual development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Masculine characteristics in females </li></ul></ul>
  58. 58. Reproductive Glands <ul><li>Testes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>produce sperm cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Testosterone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Male sex characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulates skeletal growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle mass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Larger internal organs </li></ul></ul>
  59. 59. Reproductive Glands <ul><li>Ovaries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>produce egg cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estrogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Progesterone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elasticity of the uterus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Menstruation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Menopause </li></ul></ul>
  60. 60. The Evolution of Behavior <ul><li>Darwin’s Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Compare anatomy, physiology, and behavior between species </li></ul>
  61. 61. Ethology <ul><li>Defined: </li></ul><ul><li>Extensions of Darwinian theory </li></ul>
  62. 62. Sociobiology <ul><li>Biological bases of behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior genetic </li></ul>
  63. 63. Edward O Wilson <ul><li>Sociobiology </li></ul><ul><li>Zoologist </li></ul><ul><li>Sociobiology: A New Synthesis </li></ul>
  64. 64. Altruism <ul><li>Unselfish interest in or care the the welfare of others </li></ul>
  65. 65. Altruistic behavior <ul><li>Survival of the fittest </li></ul><ul><li>Genes, not individuals </li></ul>
  66. 66. Galton and Watson <ul><li>Sir Francis Galton </li></ul><ul><li>Hereditary Genius (1869) </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary research </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligence is inherited </li></ul>
  67. 67. Galton and Watson <ul><li>Dr John B Watson </li></ul><ul><li>Environment determines intelligence </li></ul>
  68. 68. Nature vs Nurture Controversy <ul><li>Cognitive abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Mental illness </li></ul><ul><li>Personality </li></ul>
  69. 69. Twin Studies <ul><li>Monozygotic </li></ul><ul><li>Dizygotic </li></ul>
  70. 70. Schizophrenia (inheritability of mental illness <ul><li>Most common </li></ul><ul><li>chance of occurrence in general population? </li></ul><ul><li>Twin ___ times more likely to develop schizophrenia is twin 1 has it </li></ul>
  71. 71. PKU <ul><li>Phenylketonuria </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic defect </li></ul><ul><li>Severe mental retardation </li></ul>

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