Chapter 1 Reg. psych


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Chapter 1 Reg. psych

  1. 1. Chapter One: Intro/History <ul><li>Why Study Psychology? </li></ul><ul><li>Overview of Goals of Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>A Brief History of Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Psychology as a Profession </li></ul>
  2. 2. I. Why Study Psychology? <ul><li>Insight </li></ul><ul><li>Practical Information </li></ul>
  3. 3. Psychology <ul><li>The scientific study of behavior and mental processes . Such study can involve both animal and human behavior. When applied to humans, psychology covers everything that people think , feel , and do . </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Goals of Psychology <ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Explanation </li></ul><ul><li>Prediction </li></ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic Science </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applied Science </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. II. Goals Of Psychology <ul><li>Description </li></ul><ul><li>Explanation </li></ul><ul><li>Prediction </li></ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul>
  6. 6. Description <ul><li>Gather information </li></ul><ul><li>State the facts </li></ul><ul><li>(What it is) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Explanation <ul><li>Formulate hypotheses </li></ul><ul><li>Develop theories </li></ul><ul><li>(Why it is) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Hypothesis <ul><li>An educated guess about the relationship between two variables </li></ul>
  9. 9. Theory <ul><li>An integrated set of principles that organizes, explains, and predicts observations. </li></ul>Exploring Psychology , Myers, 1990
  10. 10. Prediction <ul><li>Study theories and descriptive accounts of past behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Predict subsequent behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>(What it will be) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Control <ul><li>Influence or manipulate behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic science </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applied science </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Basic Science <ul><li>The pursuit of knowledge about natural phenomena for its own sake (to gain knowledge simply for the sake of knowledge) </li></ul><ul><li>(acquire knowledge) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Applied Science <ul><li>Discovering ways to use scientific findings to accomplish practical goals </li></ul><ul><li>(use knowledge) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Hypothesis-building Studies done on Orphanage Children <ul><li>Dennis, W. “Causes of Retardation Among Institutional Children: Iran.” Journal of Genetic Psychology , 96 (1960):47-58 - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Applied or Basic? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>White, B.L. “Child Development Research: An Edifice Without a Foundation.” Merrill- Palmer Quarterly of Behavior and Development , 15 (1969): 49-79 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Applied or Basic? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shaffer (1993) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Applied or Basic? </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. The Scientific Method <ul><li>State the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct research </li></ul><ul><li>Organize and interpret data </li></ul><ul><li>Draw conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate the results </li></ul>Psychology: A Concise Introduction , Pettijohn, 1992
  16. 16. III. A Brief History of Psychology <ul><li>Psychology as a Discipline </li></ul>
  17. 17. A. Psychology as a Discipline - Early History <ul><li>Stone Age </li></ul><ul><li>BC: The Ancient Greeks </li></ul><ul><li>The Middle Ages </li></ul><ul><li>16th century: Copernicus and Galileo </li></ul><ul><li>17th century: Descartes and the pseudo-sciences </li></ul>
  18. 18. 1. The Stone Age <ul><li>Trephining </li></ul><ul><li>Evil spirits </li></ul><ul><li>Archeology </li></ul>
  19. 19. Trephining
  20. 20. Trephining Instruments
  21. 21. 2. The Ancient Greeks <ul><li>The will of the gods </li></ul><ul><li>Aristotle </li></ul><ul><li>Hippocrates </li></ul><ul><li>Galen </li></ul>
  22. 22. Aristotle <ul><li>Greek philosopher </li></ul><ul><li>People are rational, thinking organisms </li></ul>
  23. 23. Hippocrates <ul><li>The Father of Modern Medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Mental and emotional problems have natural causes </li></ul><ul><li>Some disorders are caused by head injury </li></ul><ul><li>Some mental and physical characteristics are inherited </li></ul>
  24. 24. Ancient Greeks <ul><li>Observation as a means of knowing the world </li></ul>
  25. 25. The Natural World: Four Basic Elements <ul><li>Fire </li></ul><ul><li>Air </li></ul><ul><li>Earth </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul>
  26. 26. The Natural World: Four Basic Elements <ul><li>Fire Warm </li></ul><ul><li>Air Cool </li></ul><ul><li>Earth Dry </li></ul><ul><li>Water Moist </li></ul>
  27. 27. The Four Humors <ul><li>Blood (warm and moist) </li></ul><ul><li>Black bile (cold and dry) </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow bile (warm and dry) </li></ul><ul><li>Phlegm (cold and moist) </li></ul>
  28. 28. Galen <ul><li>Greek physician </li></ul><ul><li>Personality types </li></ul>
  29. 29. Galen: Personality Types <ul><li>An excess of… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>blood = sanguine personality (cheerful, warm-hearted) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>black bile = melancholic personality (sad) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>yellow bile = choleric personality (hot-tempered) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>phlegm = phlegmatic personality (apathetic) </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. 3. The Middle Ages <ul><li>Witchcraft </li></ul><ul><li>Demon possession </li></ul>
  31. 31. 4. The 16th Century <ul><li>Nicolaus Copernicus </li></ul><ul><li>Galileo Galilei </li></ul>
  32. 32. Nicolaus Copernicus <ul><li>Polish astronomer </li></ul><ul><li>The sun is the center of the universe </li></ul><ul><li>Observations on the movements of planets in the solar system </li></ul>
  33. 33. Galileo Galilei <ul><li>Italian astronomer and physicist </li></ul><ul><li>Telescope confirms star positions and movements </li></ul>
  34. 34. The 16th Century <ul><li>Introduced the concept of observation as an element of scientific study (Copernicus) </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced the concept of experimentation as an element of scientific study (Galileo) </li></ul>
  35. 35. 5. The 17th Century <ul><li>Dualism </li></ul><ul><li>Rene Descartes </li></ul><ul><li>Pseudo-sciences </li></ul>
  36. 36. Dualism <ul><li>Philosophy which teaches that the mind and body are separate and distinct from each other. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Rene Descartes <ul><li>French philosopher </li></ul><ul><li>Extended dualism </li></ul><ul><li>The mind and body work together to create a person’s experiences </li></ul>
  38. 38. The Pseudo-sciences <ul><li>Phrenology </li></ul><ul><li>Physiognomy </li></ul><ul><li>Typology </li></ul>
  39. 39. Phrenology <ul><li>The study of personality based on the ‘bumps’ of the skull </li></ul>
  40. 40.
  41. 41. Modern Science <ul><li>A combination of… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Philosophy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Math </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observation </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Psychology as a Discipline - Basic Theories <ul><li>Structuralism </li></ul><ul><li>Functionalism </li></ul>
  43. 43. Structuralism <ul><li>Thoughts have structure, just as a molecule does </li></ul>
  44. 44. Structuralism <ul><li>Wilhelm Wundt </li></ul><ul><li>German physiologist </li></ul><ul><li>Laboratory of Psychology,1879 </li></ul><ul><li>University of Leipzig, Germany </li></ul>
  45. 45. Structuralism <ul><li>The mind must be studied as scientifically as other ‘natural laws’ </li></ul><ul><li>Wundt, Wilhelm, Principles of Physiological Psychology , 1878 </li></ul>
  46. 46. Introspection <ul><li>A detailed examination of one’s own thinking </li></ul><ul><li>A controlled situation with trained subjects reporting their thoughts so that the basic structure of thought processes can be mapped </li></ul>
  47. 47. Functionalism <ul><li>The functions of the human mind -- thinking, feeling, learning, remembering -- exist to help man survive as a species </li></ul>
  48. 48. William James <ul><li>founded the Functionalist branch of psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Established the first American psychology laboratory, at Harvard College </li></ul><ul><li>Principles of Psychology (1890) </li></ul>
  49. 49. A Brief History of Psychology <ul><li>B. Psychology as the Study of... </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unconscious Processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual Differences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observable Behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive Processes </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. 1.) Unconscious Processes <ul><li>Psychoanalysis </li></ul><ul><li>Study of the unconscious mind </li></ul><ul><li>Sigmund Freud </li></ul>
  51. 51. Sigmund Freud <ul><li>Viennese doctor </li></ul><ul><li>Unconscious, or subconscious, mind </li></ul><ul><li>Biological/sociological conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Free association (talking cure) </li></ul><ul><li>Dream analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Case studies </li></ul>
  52. 52. 2.) Individual Differences <ul><li>Sir Francis Galton </li></ul>
  53. 53. Sir Francis Galton <ul><li>English mathematician </li></ul><ul><li>Heredity/genius </li></ul><ul><li>Nature vs. Nurture </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary research </li></ul><ul><li>Personality/IQ tests </li></ul><ul><li>Inquiries into Human Faculty and Its Development (1883) </li></ul>
  54. 54. 3.) Observable Behavior <ul><li>Behaviorism </li></ul><ul><li>Humanistic Psychology </li></ul>
  55. 55. Behaviorism <ul><li>Ivan Pavlov </li></ul><ul><li>John B. Watson </li></ul><ul><li>B. F. Skinner </li></ul>
  56. 56. Ivan Pavlov <ul><li>Russian physiologist </li></ul><ul><li>Nobel Prize (1904) </li></ul><ul><li>The mechanics of digestion </li></ul><ul><li>Classical conditioning </li></ul>
  57. 57. Classical Conditioning <ul><li>UCS = unconditioned stimulus </li></ul><ul><li>UCR = unconditioned response </li></ul><ul><li>NS = neutral stimulus </li></ul><ul><li>CS = conditioned stimulus </li></ul><ul><li>CR = conditioned response </li></ul>
  58. 58. Pavlov’s Experiment
  59. 59. Classical Conditioning Paradigm <ul><li>Before Conditioning : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UCS ----> UCR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NS ----> No response </li></ul></ul><ul><li>During Conditioning : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UCS + CS ----> UCR </li></ul></ul><ul><li>After Conditioning : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CS ----> CR </li></ul></ul>
  60. 60. Classical Conditioning Paradigm <ul><li>Before Conditioning : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UCS (meat) ----> UCR (salivation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NS (tone) ----> No response </li></ul></ul><ul><li>During Conditioning : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UCS (meat) + CS (Tone) ----> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UCR (salivation) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>After Conditioning : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CS (tone) ----> CR (salivation) </li></ul></ul>
  61. 61. Behaviorism <ul><li>Behavior occurs as a result of learning </li></ul>
  62. 62. John B. Watson <ul><li>Father of Behaviorism </li></ul><ul><li>Prior learning </li></ul><ul><li>Observable behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Little Albert Experiment </li></ul>
  63. 63. B. F. Skinner <ul><li>Stimulus-Response (S-R) psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Walden II (1949) </li></ul><ul><li>Beyond Freedom and Dignity (1971) </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching machine </li></ul>
  64. 64. Humanistic Psychology <ul><li>The third force </li></ul><ul><li>Backlash to behaviorism </li></ul><ul><li>Study of the individual as a whole person </li></ul><ul><li>Self-actualization </li></ul>
  65. 65. Carl Rogers <ul><li>Believed behaviorism was de-humanizing </li></ul><ul><li>Human nature is naturally active, not reactive. </li></ul>
  66. 66. Abraham Maslow <ul><li>Self-Actualization </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchy of Needs </li></ul>
  67. 67. Humanism <ul><li>Behaviorism is de-humanizing </li></ul><ul><li>Deprives man of free will </li></ul><ul><li>Human nature is active, not reactive </li></ul>
  68. 68. 4.) Cognitive Psychology <ul><li>Study of cognitive processes </li></ul><ul><li>Internal knowledge </li></ul>
  69. 69. Jean Piaget <ul><li>Theory of Psycho-Social Development </li></ul>
  70. 70. Cognitive Psychology <ul><li>Behavior is affected by… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perception </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpretation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem-solving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment of knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of language </li></ul></ul>
  71. 71. IV. Psychology as a Profession <ul><li>What is a Psychologist? </li></ul><ul><li>Specialty Fields in Psychology </li></ul>
  72. 72. A. Psychiatry vs.. Psychology <ul><li>A psychiatrist’s training ... </li></ul><ul><ul><li>medical doctor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>specialty in psychiatric medicine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hospital or private practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>freely prescribe medicines </li></ul></ul>
  73. 73. Psychiatry vs.. Psychology <ul><li>A psychologist’s training … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>observe and analyze patterns of behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>develop theories of behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>apply knowledge to influence behavior </li></ul></ul>
  74. 74. B. Specialty Fields <ul><li>Clinical psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Counseling psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Personality psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Social psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Developmental psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Educational psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Community psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial/Organizational psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental psychology </li></ul>