Psychology

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Psychology

  1. 1. ESSENTIALS of PSYCHOLOGY
  2. 2. ESSENTIALS of PSYCHOLOGY Essentials of Psychology, Fourth Edition, offers an integrated pedagogical system designed to help students get the most out of their reading. Hallmark features include an outline, a preview statement, preview questions, instructional captions, In Review charts, and a marginal glossary. Each chapter ends with an Active Review that includes a Linkages diagram, a chapter summary, Learn by Doing and Step into 304440_ch03_084 134 Action sections, a review of key terms, and multiple-choice questions. Two optional chapters on Industrial/ Organizational Psychology and Neuropsychology can be packaged with the text upon request. Please consult your sales representative for further details. / 1 3 Introduction to the Science of Psychology Sensation and Perception The World of Psychology: An Overview 4 Subfields of Psychology 4 Linkages Within Psychology and Beyond 7 A Brief History of Psychology 10 Sensing and Perceiving the Sensory Systems 86 Approaches to the Science of Psychology 14 World 86 The Biological Approach 14 The Evolutionary Approach 15 You Feel That? 87 Coding Sensations: Did 87 Something Out There? Absolute Thresholds: Is The Psychodynamic Approach 16 The Behavioral Approach 16 The Cognitive Approach 16 Seeing 90 Light 90 Focusing Light 90 92 Converting Light into Images Seeing Color 94 94 Theories of Color Vision Colorblindness 96 The Humanistic Approach 17 Human Diversity and Psychology Five Questions for Critical Thinking 22 Critical Thinking and Scientific Research 24 Hearing 98 Sound 98 The Ear 99 Coding Sounds 101 The Chemical Senses: Taste Smell, Taste, and Flavor Our Sense of Smell 103 Our Sense of Taste 105 18 The Impact of Sociocultural Diversity on Psychology 19 Thinking Critically About Psychology (or Anything Else) 21 Research Methods in Psychology 26 Naturalistic Observation: Watching Behavior 26 Case Studies: Taking a Closer Look 26 and Smell 102 Surveys: Looking at the Big Picture 27 Correlational Studies: Looking for Relationships 29 Experiments: Exploring Cause and Effect 30 FOCUS ON RESEARCH: Studying EMDR 32 Selecting Human Participants for Research 35 102 Sensing Your Body 106 106 Touch and Temperature Pain 106 LINKAGES: Psychological Research and Behavioral Genetics Does Acupuncture THINKI NG CRITICA LLY: 37 Statistical Analysis of Research Results 39 Ethical Guidelines for Psychologists 40 ACTIVE REVIEW 42 Relieve Pain? 109 110 Sensing Body Position Perception 112 al World 113 Organizing the Perceptu Organization 113 Principles of Perceptual Distance 114 Perception of Depth and 117 Perception of Motion 117 Perceptual Constancy Size Illusions 119 al World 121 Recognizing the Perceptu 121 Bottom-Up Processing 122 Top-Down Processing 123 p Processing Together Top-Down and Bottom-U Perception 123 Culture, Experience, and ES: Perception and Human LINKAG Development 125 Attention 126 Directing Attention 127 Dividing Attention 128 Attention and FOCUS ON RESEAR CH: the Brain 128 ACTIVE REVIEW 129 16 15 Neuropsychology Industrial/ Organizational Psychology sychology 626 Foundations of Neurop Neuropsychology A Brief History of rks 628 Modules and Netwo 629 Lesion Analysis Testing 630 Neuropsychological sychology 631 Training for Neurop Mechanisms of Brain An Overview of Industrial/Organizational Psychology 591 Assessing People, Jobs, and Job Performance 592 Knowledge, Skills, Abilities, and Other Characteristics 592 Hemineglect 642 603 604 ERG Theory 605 Expectancy Theory 605 Goal-Setting Theory 606 Job Satisfaction 606 Measuring Job Satisfaction 606 Factors Affecting Job Satisfaction 607 THINKING CRITICALLY: Is Job Satisfaction Genetic? 609 Consequences of Job Satisfaction 610 LINKAGES: Aggression in the Workplace 612 Occupational Health Psychology 612 Physical Conditions Affecting Health Work Schedules, Health, and Safety Stress, Accidents, and Safety 614 Work Groups and Work Teams Autonomous Work Teams Group Leadership 613 613 615 615 616 FOCUS ON RESEARCH: Can People Learn to Be Charismatic Leaders? 618 ACTIVE REVIEW ii 619 the Brain 644 ent 646 Disorders of Movem Dementia 647 VIEW ACTIVE RE Assessing Training Needs 601 Designing Training Programs 602 Evaluating Training Programs Disorders 634 ge Disorders LINKA GES: Langua 600 601 Employee Motivation Neuropsychological FOCU S ON Recruiting and Selecting Employees 598 Training Employees Dysfunction 632 Stroke 632 Trauma 633 633 Neurodegeneration rs 634 Amnestic Disorde usness 636 Disorders of Conscio ne Be CALLY: Can Someo THINK ING CRITI 638 and Not Know It? Partially Paralyzed tion 640 Disorders of Percep g RESEA RCH: Studyin Job Analysis 592 Measuring Employee Characteristics 593 Measuring Job Performance 595 Methods of Performance Appraisal 596 Recruitment Processes 598 Selection Processes 600 Legal Issues in Recruitment and Selection 627 and 650
  3. 3. An Integrated Pedagogical System Each chapter opens with a full outline, a brief preview statement, and a list of preview questions related to each main section of the chapter. These preview questions are repeated at the start of each section and within the chapter summary. PREVIEW Have you ever forgotten where you parked your car? Have you ever had a name on the tip of your tongue, but couldn’t quite recall it? Researchers in the field of memory explore these common experiences. Memory is a complex process of storing and retrieving information. You use different kinds of memory for different types of information, such as personal experiences, specific skills, and abstract concepts. Once information is stored in your memory, recalling it can sometimes be difficult. In this chapter, you will learn about some techniques Preview Statement that can help you to retrieve memories. What psychologists have learned about memory has been used to create study techniques that really work! Reading this chapter will help you to answer the following questions: ᭤ How does information turn into memories? ᭤ What am I most likely to remember? ᭤ How do I retrieve stored memories? ᭤ How accurate are my memories? 208 213 218 222 ᭤ What causes me to forget things? Preview Questions 227 ᭤ How does my brain change when I store a memory? ᭤ How can I remember more information? 234 237 “I ’ll make him an offer he can’t refuse.” “I’ll be back.” “Trust no one.” “Life is like a box of chocolates.” “I see dead people.” “Show me the money.” “Is that your final answer?” Do you remember where you heard these words? They are memorable lines from The Godfather, The Terminator, The X-Files, Forrest Gump, The Sixth Sense, Jerry Maguire, and Who Wants to Be a Millionaire. Can you say who Private Ryan was and why he needed to be saved? And do you know which classic film character said “Play it again, Sam”? (If you don’t, ask a friend who knows about ᭤ What causes me to forget things? old movies.) The most common answer to the latter question is Rick, the café owner played by Humphrey Bogart in Casablanca. Bogart never actually said this often-quoted The frustrations of forgetting—where you left your line, though many people areasure they “remember” it. keys, the answer to test question, useful and an anniversary—are apparent to most people nearly Your memory stores vast amounts ofhelp you understand the nature of memory— every day (Neisser, 2000b). Let’s not-so-useful information from all of your experiences. This chapter will how causes it. look more closely at the nature of forgetting and what you form memories, how memory errors happen, and how you forget. Forgetting Preview Question The Nature of Memory ᭤ How does information turn into memories? Memory is a funny thing. You might be able to remember the name of your first-grade teacher, but not the name of someone you met five minutes ago. Mathematician John Griffith estimated that in an average lifetime, a person stores roughly five hundred 208 Summary THE NATURE OF MEMORY Preview Question ᭤ How does information turn into memories? Human memory depends on a complex mental system. There are three basic memory processes. Encoding transforms stimulus information into some type of mental representation. Material can be encoded by acoustic (sound), visual (appearance), or semantic (meaning) codes. Storage maintains information in the memory system over time. Retrieval is the process of gaining access to previously stored information. Most psychologists agree that there are at least three types of capacity of long-term memory to store new information is extremely large and perhaps unlimited. The appearance of a primacy effect and a recency effect suggests that short-term and long-term memory may be distinct systems. RETRIEVING MEMORIES ᭤ How do I retrieve stored memories? Retrieval cues help people remember things that they would otherwise not be able to recall. The effectiveness of retrieval cues follows the encoding specificity principle: Cues help retrieval only if they iii
  4. 4. An Integrated Pedagogical System in review 190 Chapter 5 Learning REINFORCEMENT AND PUNISHMENT Concept Description Example or Comment Positive reinforcement Increasing the frequency of a behavior by following it with the presentation of a positive reinforcer— a pleasant, positive stimulus or experience You say “Good job!” after someone works hard to perform a task. Negative reinforcement Increasing the frequency of a behavior by following it with the removal of an unpleasant stimulus or experience You learn to use the “mute” button on the TV remote control to remove the sound of an obnoxious commercial. Escape conditioning Learning to make a response that removes an unpleasant stimulus A little boy learns that crying will cut short the time that he must stay in his room. Avoidance conditioning Learning to make a response that avoids an unpleasant stimulus You slow your car to the speed limit when you spot a police car, thus avoiding being stopped and reducing the fear of a fine; very resistant to extinction. Punishment Decreasing the frequency of a behavior by either presenting an unpleasant stimulus (punishment 1) or removing a pleasant one (punishment 2, or penalty) You swat the dog after it steals food from the table, or you take a favorite toy away from a child who misbehaves. A number of cautions should be kept in mind before using punishment. In Review Charts summarize information in a convenient format and offer three new fill-in-the -blank self-testing items to further aid student learning and review of the chapter material. ? 1. Taking an aspirin can relieve headache pain, so people learn to do so through the process of reinforcement. 2. The “walk” sign that tells people it is safe to cross the street is an example of a stimulus. 3. Response rates tend to be higher under schedules of reinforcement than under schedules. Online Study Center Improve Your Grade Tutorial: Reinforcement and Punishment Instructional captions for all figures, tables, photographs, and cartoons reiterate core concepts and help to interpret visual material. more productive lives (e.g., Alberto, Troutman, & Feagin, 2002; Pear & Martin, 2002). These programs include establishing goal behaviors, choosing reinforcers and punishers, and developing a systematic plan for applying them to achieve desired changes. Many self-help books also incorporate principles of positive reinforcement, recommending self-reward following each small victory in people’s efforts to lose weight, stop smoking, avoid procrastination, or reach other goals (e.g., Grant & Kim, 2002; Rachlin, 2000). When people cannot do anything to alter the consequences of a behavior, discriminative stimuli may hold the key to changing that behavior. For example, people often find it easier to quit smoking if, at first, they stay away from bars and other places where there are discriminative stimuli for smoking. Old cues can trigger old behavior, so they Cells of the Nervous System should avoid the old cues until new behavior can be established. Stimulus control can also help alleviate insomnia. Insomniacs tend to use their beds for activities such as watching television, writing letters, reading magazines, worrying, and so F I G U Rthe 2 . 3 on. Soon E bedroom becomes a discriminative stimulus for so many activities that relaxation and Communication Between Neurons sleep become less and less likely. Stimulus control therapy encourages insomniacs to use their beds only for sleeping, and perhaps sex, making it more likely that When will sleep of a neuron reaches a they stimulation better when in bed (Edinger et al., 2001). certain level, the neuron fires, sending an A action potential shooting to the end of its axon and triggering the release of a neurotransmitter into the synapse. This LINKAGES process stimulates neighboring neurons and may cause them to fire their own Networks of Learning potentials. action ssociations between conditioned stimuli and reflexes or between responses and their consequences play an important role in learning, but how are they actually stored in the brain? No one yet knows for sure, but associative network models provide a good way of thinking about the process. As suggested in the 51 Cell body 1. An action potential shoots down the axon, away from the cell body. Axon 1 Neurotransmitters 2. A neurotransmitter is released into the synapse, where the dendrites of neighboring neurons detect it. See enlarged area. Synapse 2 3. If there is a receptor for this neurotransmitter on the dendrites, the neurotransmitter and receptor bind, creating an electrochemical signal. Marginal Callouts in the text show students the online Tutorials available, which help to illustrate key topics. 3 Dendrite Receptors for neurotransmitters 4 4. If that signal is strong enough, it spreads down the dendrites and across the cell body of the next neuron, and begins another action potential. Cell body affair: The cell either fires its action potential at full strength or it does not fire at all. Once a cell has fired, a very short recovery time called the refractory period follows, during which the cell cannot fire again. Even so, neurons are able to fire as often as 1,000 times per second. The speed of an action potential ranges from about 5 to about 260 miles per hour and depends on the thickness or diameter of the axon—larger ones are faster—and on the presence of myelin (pronounced “MY-a-lin”). Myelin is a fatty substance that wraps around some axons like a stocking and speeds up action potentials. When a neuron fires, dendrites in the next cell detect the message and send the signal to their cell body. Synapses and Communication Between Neurons refractory period A short recovery The marginal glossary found throughout the text defines key terms on the appropriate pages. iv time after cell firing, during which the cell cannot fire again. neurotransmitter A chemical that transfers messages across synapses. synapse The tiny gap between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites of another. How do the dendrites detect a signal from another neuron? As shown in Figure 2.3, it works a little like the game of tag you played as a child. In this neural communication tag game, however, one neuron “sends” a tag without actually touching the next neuron. When an action potential reaches the ends of an axon’s branches, it stimulates the release of a chemical that is stored there in little “bags,” called vesicles (pronounced “VESS-ickels”). This chemical is called a neurotransmitter because it acts as a kind of messenger between neurons. Neurotransmitters flow across a tiny gap, less than a millionth of an inch wide, which separates the axon of one neuron and the dendrites of another. This is the synaptic gap, often referred to simply as the synapse (see Figure 2.4) When they reach the dendrite of the next cell, neurotransmitters chemically fit, or bind, to proteins
  5. 5. Active Review Chapter 7 Thought, Lang g 290 ACTIVE REVIEW The Active Review at the end of each chapter acts as a built-in study guide, helping students to … lligence Thought, Language, and Inte Linkages LINKAGES As noted in the introductory chapter, all of psychology’s subfields are related to one group problem another. Our discussion of way in which solving illustrates just one t, lanthe topic of this chapter, though intelligence, is linked to the guage, and which is subfield of social psychology, that name. described in the chapter by ties to two The Linkages diagram shows are many other subfields, and there book. Looking more ties throughout the s will help you for linkages among subfield r and help you see how they all fit togethe picture that is better appreciate the big psychology. Where are the brain’s language centers? (ans. on p. 69) CHAPTER 2 BIOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR See Connections A Linkages Diagram illustrates how material in the chapter is connected to other chapters. Practice, Review, and Apply A Chapter Summary, a Review of Key Terms, and a Multiple-Choice Self-Test all help students master the chapter material successfully. Learn by Doing activities encourage students to get hands-on with the concepts covered. • CHAPTER 8 CHAPTER 7 THOUGHT, LANGUAGE, AND INTELLIGENCE How does motivation affect IQ scores? (ans. on p. 281) MOTIVATION AND EMOTION CHAPTER 14 Do groups solve problems more effectively than individuals? (ans. on p. 268) SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY • Summary THOU GHT BASIC FUNC TION S OF anyway? ᭤ What good is thinking, are to describe, elaborate, decide, The five core functions of thought ents psychologists think of the compon plan, and guide action. Many an information-processing circle of thought as constituting of this acts on incoming , represents, transforms, and system that receives repas the manipulation of mental stimuli. Thinking, then, is defined resentations by this system. NS: MENTAL REPR ESEN TATIO GHT INGR EDIEN TS OF THOU or familiar sequences of events them. Scripts are schemas about models accurate or inaccurate mental activities. Experience creates of, and interaction with, the help to guide our understanding that think. be manipulated when people world. Mental images may also tations of familiar parts of one’s Cognitive maps are mental represen world. THE of? ᭤ What are thoughts made tions, the form of concepts, proposi Mental representations take images, and cognitive maps. schemas, scripts, mental models, or ideas with common are categories of objects, events, Concepts preor natural. Formal concepts are properties. They may be formal Natural or absence of certain features. cisely defined by the presence nes set of defining properties determi concepts are fuzzy; no fixed r of a natural concept . A membe membership in a natural concept is the concept’s characteristic features that displays all or most of called a prototype. concepts are related. are assertions that state how Propositions menSchemas serve as generalized Propositions can be true or false. about s and also generate expectations tal representations of concept • THINK ING STRATEGIE S logically? ᭤ Do people always think mental representations, our inforBy combining and transforming for us to engage in reaprocessing system makes it possible mations. Formal reasoning problems, and to make decision soning, to solve the application of rigorous proceseeks valid conclusions through systematic methods that always ms, dures. It is guided by algorith ion, is one. To reach a sound conclus reach a correct result, if there assumpthe truth and falsity of their people should consider both the rules of logic. Unfortuand whether the argument follows tions errors. nately, people are prone to logical to assess the validity of a concluPeople use informal reasoning ing it. Errors in informal reasonsion based on the evidence support shortof heuristics, which are mental ing often stem from the use ng important heuristics are the anchori cuts or rules of thumb. Three startlity of an event by adjusting a heuristic (estimating the probabi c (basing conclusions the representativeness heuristi ing value), in a certain class on how similar about whether something belongs Chapter 7 Thought, Languag e, and Intelligence 293 Active Review Nicholas Lemann, The Big Test: The Secret History of American Meritocracy (Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1999). History of testing in the United States. Hans Eysenck, with Darrin Evans, Test Your IQ (Penguin, 1995). Self-testing. Steven Fatsis, Word Freak (Houghton Mifflin, 2002). Inside the high-stakes world of professional Scrabble. Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Bell Curve (Free Press, 1994). Controversial book about group differences in intelligence. Daniel Seligman, A Question of Intelligence: The IQ Debate in America (Citadel Press, 1994). Nature, nurture, and IQ. Steven Fraser (Ed.), The Bell Curve Wars (Basic Books, 1995). Essays critical of The Bell Curve. 292 o The Web The World Wide Web is a good source of additional information about the science of psychology, provided you use it carefully and think critically about the information you find. The Online Study Center that accompanies this text offers many resources relevant to this chapter. These resources include interactive tutorials; Thinking Critically and Evaluating Research exercises; ACE chapter quizzes; recommended web links; and articles on current events, books, and movies. Please visit the Online Study Center at college.hmco.com/pic/bernsteinessentials4e. Different socioeconomic and ethnic groups have somewhat different average IQ scores. These differences appear to be due in part to noncognitive factors, such as differences in motivation, family support, educational opportunity, and other environmental conditio ns. An enriched environment sometim es raises preschool children’s IQ scores. Despite their limitations, intelligence tests can help educator s to identify a student’s strength s and weaknesses and to offer the curriculum that will best serve that student. DIVER SITY IN INTEL LIGEN CE ᭤ Is there more than one type of intelligence? Sternberg sees three types of intelligen ce: analytic, practical, and creative. He says that scores on tests of practical intelligence predict job success as well as traditional intelligen ce test scores do. According to Lear 2 n by Doing Put It in Writing Review of Key Terms Can you define each of the key terms in the chapter? Check your definitions against those on the pages shown in parentheses in the following list or in the Glossary/Index at the end of the text. algorithms (p. 254) anchoring heuristic (p. 255) artificial intelligence (AI) (p. 262) availability heuristic (p. 256) babblings (p. 270) cognitive map (p. 252) concepts (p. 250) confirmation bias (p. 262) convergent thinking (p. 265) creativity (p. 264) divergent thinking (p. 264) expected value (p. 266) familial retardation (p. 288) formal concepts (p. 250) formal reasoning (p. 254) functional fixedness (p. 260) grammar (p. 269) heuristics (p. 255) images (p. 252) informal reasoning (p. 255) information-processing system (p. 249) intelligence (p. 274) IQ score (p. 276) IQ test (p. 274) language (p. 269) mental models (p. 252) mental set (p. 260) natural concepts (p. 250) norms (p. 276) one-word stage (p. 271) performance scale (p. 276) propositions (p. 251) prototype (p. 251) reasoning (p. 254) reliability (p. 276) representativeness heuristic (p. 256) rules of logic (p. 254) schemas (p. 251) scripts (p. 252) Stanford-Binet (p. 274) test (p. 276) thinking (p. 249) utility (p. 266) validity (p. 278) verbal scale (p. 276) Try writing your own definitio n of intelligence. Make a list of at least seven behaviors or characteristics that you feel represent intelligen ce, and then decide how they could best be tested in children and adults from your own culture and other cultures. Describe the kinds of difficulties you encountered in making your list and designin g your assessment devices. 1. Thinking is defined as the manipulation of a. concepts. b. mental models. c. heuristics. d. mental representations. 2. While trying to describe an unusual bird he saw on his walk, Jarrod asks his friend to “Think of a robin, but with blue tips on the wings, and a tuft of hair on the head. That’s what it looked like.” Because “bird” is a concept, Jarrod began with the image of a robin, which is the of “bird.” He hoped that his description would allow his friend to develop a of the bird he saw. a. b. c. d. formal; concept; prototype natural; image; concept natural; prototype; mental model visual; mental model; script 3. Clint is frustrated. His uncle has been winning at checkers all night. During the next game he is going to base his strategy on an algorithm, not a heuristic. What problem will this strategy cause? a. Clint still may not win the game. b. Clint and his uncle may be playing the same game of checkers for a long time. c. Clint will be ignoring overall probabilities. d. The representativeness heuristic will bias Clint’s choice of strategy. Personal Learning Activity Consider a problem that you are facing at the moment or one that is being faced by someone you know. In accordance with the problem-solving section of this chapter, write down all the alternative solutions you can think of to solve this problem; then list the pros and cons of each option. Which alternative comes out on top? Does the alternative that seems best on paper also strike you as the best solution to try? Why or why not? For additional projects, see the Personal Learning Activities in the corresponding chapter of the study guide that accompanies this text. Step into Action c Multiple-Choice Self-Test Select the best answer for each of the following questions. Then check your responses against the Answer Key at the end of the text. Gardner, biology equips us with the capacities for several intelligen ces that can function with some independence—specifically, linguisti c, logical-mathematical, spatial, musical, body-kinesthetic, intraper sonal, interpersonal, and naturalis tic intelligences. Knowledge about cognitive abilities has been expande d by research on giftedness and mental retardation. People with very high IQ scores tend to be successful in life but are not necessar ily geniuses. People are consider ed retarded if their IQ scores are below about 70 and if their communication and daily living skills are less than expected of people their age. In cases of familial retardat ion, no genetic or environmental causes are evident. Compared with people of normal intellige nce, people who are retarded process information more slowly, know fewer facts, and are deficient at knowing and using mental strategie s. Special teaching programs can, to some extent, improve the intellectual abilities of some people who are mentally retarded. f Courses Experimental Psychology Cognitive Psychology Psycholinguistics Engineering Psychology (also called Human Factors) Tests and Measurement (sometim es called Psychometrics) Behavioral Genetics Movies Nell; Dances with Wolves; Clan of the Cave Bear. Language development. Gorillas in the Mist. Animal commun ication. Apollo 13; The Negotiator; K-19: The Widowmaker. Problem solving. 2001: A Space Odyssey. Artificia l intelligence. My Left Foot. Assessment of ability. Forrest Gump; Of Mice and Men; The Other Sister; Charly; Rain Man; Little Man Tate. Diversity of Cast Away. Problem solving, creativit intelligence. y, intelligence. Searching for Bobby Fischer; Hilary and Jackie; Pi. Giftedness. Born Yesterday; Real Genius. Kinds of intelligence. d Books Gerd Gigerenzer, Peter M. Todd, and ABC Research Group, Simple Heuristics That Make Us Smart (Oxford University Press, 2000). Research on, and ideas for using, mental shortcuts. Peter Bernstein, Against the Gods: The Remarkable Story of Risk (Wiley, 1998). History of efforts to understand risk and probability in decision making. James Surowiecki, The Wisdom of Crowds: Why the Many Are Smarter than the Few and How Collective Wisdom Shapes Business, Economi es, Societies, and Nations. (Doubleday, 2004). Presents theories and evidence for the value of group rather than individual decisions. Philip Tetlock, Expert Political Judgment: How Good is it? How Can We Know? (Princet on University Press, 2006). Presents evidence that the judgment of even revered political experts are subject to the same flaws and pitfalls that plague the rest of us. Howard Gardner, Intelligence Reframe d: Multiple Intelligences for the 21st Century (Basic Books, 1999). Theory of multiple intelligences. v
  6. 6. 2 Learn by Doing Four features throughout the text underscore a commitment to active learning and applying psychology. 427 The Trait Approach FIGURE 11.2 Two Personality Profiles Trait theory describes personlearn ality in terms of the strength by of particular dimensions, or traits. Here are trait profiles for Rodney, an inner-city social worker, and James, a sales clerk. Compared with James, Rodney is about equally industrious; more generous; and less nervous, extraverted, and aggressive. Just for fun, mark this figure to indicate how strong you think you are on each of the listed traits. Trait theorists suggest that this should be easy for you to do because, they say, virtually everyone displays a certain amount of almost any personality characteristic. Industry 2 doing Figure and Photo Captions Dozens of new figure and photo captions identified with a “Learn by Doing” symbol reinforce concepts by suggesting ways in which students can demonstrate the concepts for themselves. Generosity Nervousness Extraversion Aggression Low Moderate High Strength of trait Rodney James Source: Costa & McCrae (1992). that organize and control behavior in many different situations. Central traits are roughly equivalent to the descriptive terms used in letters of recommendation (reliable or distractible, for example) that are meant to tell what can be expected from a person most of the time (Schultz & Schultz, 2005). Allport also believed that people possess secondary traits—those that are more specific to certain situations and control far less behavior. “Dislikes crowds” is an example of a secondary trait. Applying Psychology Photos These photos highlight the diversity of applied psychology. ⌿ psychology applying SELECTING A JURY Some psychologists employ trait theories of personality in advising prosecution or defense attorneys about which potential jurors are most likely to be sympathetic to their side of a court case. p p y p p y 3. People differ in how much of a particular personality trait they possess; no two people are exactly alike on all traits. The result is an endless variety of unique personalities. In short, psychologists who take the trait approach see personality as a combination of stable internal characteristics that people display consistently over time and across situations (Pervin et al., 2005). Trait theorists seek to measure the relative strength of the many personality characteristics that they believe are present in everyone (see Figure 11.2). Learn by Doing Icon A symbol appears next to the text where active learning opportunities occur. Early Trait Theories trait approach A perspective on personality that views it as the combination of stable characteristics that people display over time and across situations. Put It in Writing and Personal Learning Activity As part of the Active Review section, Put It in Writing invites readers to write about a specific chapter topic, and Personal Learning Activity provides another opportunity to do psychology— not just read about it. vi Today’s trait theories of personality are largely based on the work of Gordon Allport and Raymond Cattell. (The contributions of another early trait theorist, Hans Eysenck, are discussed later.) Allport spent thirty years searching for the traits that combine to form personality. When he looked at the nearly 18,000 dictionary terms that can be used to describe human behavior (Allport & Odbert, 1936), he noticed that there are clusters of terms referring refer to the same thing. For example, hostile, nasty, and mean all convey a similar meaning. To better understand this clustering, think of a close rellearn ative, and jot down all the personality traits that describe this person. If you by doing are like most people, you were able to capture your relative’s personality using only a few trait labels. Allport believed that the set of labels that describe a particular person reflects that person’s central traits—those that are usually obvious to others and 2 Learn 2 by Doing Put It in Writing Personal Learning Activity What is stress like for you? To help you understand the role of stress in your life, write a page or two describing a stressful incident that you had to face in the recent past. Identify what the stressors were, and classify each of them as physical or psychological. List your physical, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral responses to these stressors, and how long the responses lasted. Include a brief summary of how you coped with these stressors and how successful your coping efforts were. Some research suggests that writing about stressful experiences can help people to deal with those experiences. Did this writing project have any such benefits for you? For more about writing and health, visit http://homepage.psy.utexas.edu/homepage/faculty/ pennebaker/Home2000/WritingandHealth.html To get an idea of the differences in people’s stress-coping methods, create a one-paragraph story about a stressful situation (such as losing a job, having one’s home destroyed by fire, working for an obnoxious boss, or being overburdened by schoolwork). Now show this description to ten people and ask each of them to tell you how they would cope with the situation if it happened to them. Classify each of their coping methods as problem focused or emotion focused. Did you notice any relationships between the kind of coping responses these people chose and their personal characteristics, such as age, gender, ethnicity, or experience with stress? If so, why do you think those relationships appeared? For additional projects, see the Personal Learning Activities in the corresponding chapter of the study guide that accompanies this text.
  7. 7. Thinking Critically A dedicated section in each chapter helps improve this vital skill. Structured around five questions, these sections encourage readers to analyze material before drawing conclusions: • • • • • What am I being asked to believe or accept? Is there evidence available to support the claim? Can that evidence be interpreted another way? What evidence would help to evaluate the alternatives? What conclusions are most reasonable? T H I N K I N G C R I T I C A L LY S ome researchers and clinicians worry that problems with the reliability and Is Psychological validity of the diagnostic system are due partly to bias in its construction and use. They Diagnosis Biased? point out, for example, that if the criteria for diagnosing a certain disorder were based on research that focused on only one gender, one ethnic group, or one age group, those criteria might not apply to other groups. Moreover, diagnosticians, like other people, hold expectations and make assumptions about males versus females and about individuals from differing cultures or ethnic groups. These cognitive biases could color their judgments and might lead them to apply diagnostic criteria in ways that are slightly but significantly different from one case to the next (Garb, 1997; Hartung & Widiger, 1998). ■ What am I being asked to believe or accept? Here, we focus on ethnicity as a possible source of bias in diagnosing psychopathology. It is of special interest because there is evidence that, like social class and gender, ethnicity is an important sociocultural factor in the development of mental disorder. The assertion to be considered is that clinicians in the United States base their diagnoses partly on a client’s ethnic background and, more specifically, that there is bias in diagnosing African Americans. ■ What evidence is available to support the claim? Several facts suggest the possibility of ethnic bias in psychological diagnosis. For example, African Americans receive the diagnosis of schizophrenia more frequently than European Americans do (Manderscheid & Barrett, 1987; Minsky et al., 2003; Pavkov, Lewis, & Lyons, 1989). Further, relative to their presence in the general population, African Americans are overrepresented in public mental hospitals, where the most serious forms of disorder are seen, and they are underrepresented in private hospitals and outpatient New! Active Learning and Critical Thinking booklets provide a wealth of thoughtprovoking, hands-on activities that help students to apply key concepts to their own experiences and develop important critical thinking skills. Both of these passwordprotected booklets may be accessed from the Online Study Center via a passkey packaged upon request with the text. Instructor versions of these booklets are available on the Online Teaching Center. Please consult your sales representative for further details. T H I N K I N G C R I T I C A L LY What Can fMRI Tell Us about Behavior and Mental Processes 58 Does Acupuncture Relieve Pain 109 Can Subliminal Messages Change Your Behavior 139 Does Watching Violence on Television Make People More Violent 197 Can Traumatic Memories Be Repressed, Then Recovered 230 Are Intelligence Tests Unfairly Biased Against Certain Groups 283 What Shapes Sexual Orientation 313 Does Day Care Harm the Emotional Development of Infants 364 Does Hostility Increase the Risk of Heart Disease 409 Are Personality Traits Inherited 430 Is Psychological Diagnosis Biased 464 Are All Forms of Therapy Equally Effective 518 Does Pornography Cause Aggression 572 vii
  8. 8. Focus on Research Highlighting a particular study, these sections emphasize the value of research and the creativity with which it is often conducted. These sections are organized around five questions: • • • • • What was the researcher’s question? How did the researcher answer the question? What did the researcher find? What do the results mean? What do we still need to know? W FOCUS ON RESEARCH hy is self-esteem so important to so many people? An intriguing answer Self-Esteem and the to this question comes from the terror management theory proposed by Jeff Ultimate Terror Greenberg, Tom Pyszczynski, and Sheldon Solomon. This theory is based on the notion that humans are the only creatures capable of thinking about the future and realizing that we will all eventually die. Terror management theory suggests that humans cope with anxiety, including the terror that thoughts about death might bring, by developing a variety of self-protective psychological strategies. One of these is the effort to establish and maintain high self-esteem (Greenberg, Pyszczynski, & Solomon, 2003; Pyszczynski et al., 2004). ■ What was the researchers’ question? In one series of experiments, Greenberg and his colleagues (1992) asked whether high self-esteem would, in fact, serve as a buffer against anxiety—specifically, the anxiety brought on by thoughts about death and pain. ■ How did the researchers answer the question? FOCUS ON RESEARCH Studying EMDR 32 About 150 students at several North American universities participated in one of three studies, each of which followed a similar format. The first step was to temporarily alter the participants’ self-esteem. To do so, the researchers gave the students feedback about a personality or intelligence test they had taken earlier in the semester. Half the participants received positive feedback designed to increase their self-esteem. The other half received feedback that was neutral—it was neither flattering nor depressing. (Measurement of the students’ self-esteem showed that the positive feedback actually did create higher self-esteem than the neutral feedback.) In the next phase of each experiment, the researchers used either a film about death or the (false) threat of a mild electric shock to provoke some anxiety in half the participants in the positive-feedback group and half the participants in the neutral-feedback group. The amount of anxiety created was measured by the participants’ self-reports or by monitoring galvanic skin resistance (GSR), a measure of perspiration in their skin that reflects anxiety-related physiological arousal (Dawson, Schell, & Filion, 2000). The Case of the Disembodied Woman 67 Attention and the Brain 128 Subliminal Messages in Rock Music 141 The “I Can’t Do It” Attitude 192 I Could Swear I Heard It! 223 Problem-Solving Strategies in the Real World 258 Tell Me About Your Sex Life 309 What Do Infants Know About Physics 352 Personality and Health 405 Personality Development over Time 441 Exploring Links Between Child Abuse and Antisocial Personality Disorder 486 Which Therapies Work Best for Which Problems 519 Self-Esteem and the Ultimate Terror 541 viii
  9. 9. Linkages The Linkages feature reflects the relationships among the subfields of psychology. ACTIVE REVIEW Sensation and Perception Linkages Linkages Diagram As noted in the introductory chapter, all of psychology’s subfields are related to one another. Our discussion of the development of perception illustrates just one way in which the topic of this chapter, sensation and perception, is linked to the subfield of developmental psychology, which is described in the chapter on human development. The Linkages diagram shows ties to two other subfields, and there are many more ties throughout the book. Looking for linkages among subfields will help you see how they all fit together and help you better appreciate the big picture that is psychology LINKAGES CHAPTER 9 HUMAN DEVELOPMENT How do infants perceive the world? (ans. on p. 125) CHAPTER 3 SENSATION AND PERCEPTION CHAPTER 12 Do people perceive hallucinations as real sensory events? (ans. on p. 481) PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS In the Active Review section at the end of each chapter, a Linkages diagram presents three questions to illustrate how material in the chapter is related to other chapters in the book. CHAPTER 14 Do we sometimes Marginal Callouts The Linkages diagram directs students to the pages that carry further discussion of each question, where a marginal callout appears. LINKAGES How do infants perceive the world? (a link to Human Development) W LINKAGES e have seen that perception is influenced by the knowledge and expePerception and Human rience we gain over time, but what perceptual abilities do we start with? To learn Development about infants’ perception, psychologists have studied two inborn patterns called habituation and dishabituation. Infants stop looking when they repeatedly see stimuli that they perceive to be the same. This is habituation. If they see a stimulus that is perceived to be new and different, they resume looking. This is dishabituation. Using the habituation/ dishabituation technique, researchers have found that newborns can perceive differences in stimuli showing various amounts of black-and-white contrast but that they cannot yet distinguish differences between colors (Burr, Morrone, & Fiorentini, 1996). Other studies using the same methods have shown that newborns can perceive differences in the angles of lines (Slater et al., 1991). Taken together, these studies suggest that we are born with the basic components of feature detection. A l b ith th bilit t bi f t i t ti f h l LINKAGES Linkages Sections Psychological Research and Behavioral Genetics 37 Human Development and the Changing Brain 73 Perception and Human Development 125 Meditation, Health, and Stress 154 One of the questions in the Linkages diagram is discussed at length in the chapter’s special section titled Linkages. Networks of Learning 190 Memory and Perception in the Courtroom 225 Group Processes in Problem Solving and Decision Making 268 Conflicting Motives and Stress 321 Development and Memory 358 Stress and Psychological Disorders 398 Personality, Culture, and Human Development 440 Anxiety Disorders and Learning 469 Biology, Behavior, and the Treatment of Psychological Disorders 531 Biological and Social Psychology 582 ix
  10. 10. Media Resources for Instructors Two powerful tools designed to enhance and maximize the teaching and learning experience: Ask your Houghton Mifflin sales representative for further details on these two products. Psych In Film® DVD/VHS contains 35 clips from Universal Studios films illustrating key concepts in psychology. Clips from films like Apollo 13, Schindler’s List, Snow Falling on Cedars, and many others are combined with commentary, discussion questions, and teaching tips to make psychology come alive for students! Eduspace® is a powerful course management system powered by Blackboard that makes preparing, presenting, and managing courses easier. Use this distance-learning platform to manage large courses online, as well as to access, customize, create, and deliver course materials and tests online. You can easily maintain student portfolios using the gradebook where grades for all assignments are automatically scored, averaged, and saved. Our premium Eduspace content for Essentials Fourth Edition includes our Psych In Film® video clips, complete with teaching tips, discussion questions, and trackable quizzing (in addition to our computerized test bank material); self-assessment quizzes and interactive Tutorials for your students; as well high quality presentation tools such as PowerPoint slides and art from the textbook. All in one easy-touse platform! x
  11. 11. NEW for Instructors! P R E S E N TAT I O N M A D E E A S Y HM ClassPresent Includes over 45 animations that project effectively in a lecture hall. Easy to navigate and searchable by thumbnail images organized by topic. Export the animations to your own computer or simply use them for presentation directly from the CD. Enhanced PowerPoint® Presentations Include lecture outlines, tables and figures from the main text, and hyperlinks to interactive tutorials that help to enliven lecture content and illuminate specific topics ranging from action potential to classical conditioning. Classroom Response System (CRS) Content An additional set of PowerPoint slides for use with a CRS system gives you the flexibility to perform “on-thespot” assessments, deliver quick quizzes, gauge students’ understanding of a particular question or concept, conduct anonymous polling for class discussion purposes, and take their class roster—all easily. Students receive immediate feedback on how well they understand concepts covered in the text and where they need to improve. Answer slides provide the correct answer and explanation of why the answer is correct. HMCO Psychology Image Gallery Includes over 150 images from the text as well as other sources, which can be downloaded for inclusion in your classroom presentations.The intuitive interface displays thumbnail images that make identifying images easy. xi
  12. 12. NEW for Students! Eduspace® This complete online learning tool features all the student resources included within the Online Study Center, such as tutorials, flashcards, ACE practice tests, chapter outlines, learning objectives, and online concept maps. Gradable Homework Exercises now include remediation from each question to the section of the text where corresponding topical coverage is found. Remediation is provided on the feedback screen upon completion of the quiz. The multimedia eBook, available only within Eduspace, integrates an online version of the textbook with interactive media. Students can access tutorial activities and Psych in Film video clips that expand upon and reinforce main concepts in the text. Students can also link to ACE practice quizzes to test their understanding of the text material, as well as use the electronic flashcards to review key terms and concepts. xii Online Study Center Improve Your Grade Tutorial: Immediate Memory Span Storing New Memories ᭤ What am I most likely to remember? The storage of information is critical to memory, because we can retrieve only information that has been stored. According to the information-processing model, sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory each provide a different type of storage. Let’s take a closer look at these three memory systems in order to better understand how they work—and sometimes fail. parallel distributed processing (PDP) models Memory models in which new experiences are seen as changing one’s overall knowledge base. information-processing model A model suggesting that information must pass through sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory in order to become firmly embedded in memory. sensory memory A type of memory that is very brief, but lasts long enough to connect one impression to the next. sensory registers Memory systems that briefly hold incoming information. Sensory Memory To recognize incoming information, the brain must analyze and compare it with what is already stored in long-term memory. This process is very quick, but it still takes time. The major function of sensory memory is to hold information long enough for it to be processed further. This “holding” function is the job of the sensory registers, which act as temporary storage bins. There is a separate register for each of the five senses. Each register can store a nearly complete representation of a sensory stimulus, but only briefly, often for less than one second (Eysenck & Keane, 2005). Sensory memory helps us experience a constant flow of information, even learn if that flow is interrupted. To see this for yourself, move your head and eyes by doing slowly from left to right. It may seem as though your eyes are moving smoothly, like a movie camera scanning a scene, but that’s not what is happening. Your 2
  13. 13. ESSENTIALS of PSYCHOLOGY FOURTH EDITION Douglas A. Bernstein University of South Florida University of Southampton Peggy W. Nash Broward Community College with Alison Clarke-Stewart University of California, Irvine Louis A. Penner Wayne State University University of Michigan Edward J. Roy University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Houghton Mifflin Company Boston New York
  14. 14. To my friends and colleagues, who have shared my good times and stood by me in bad times. Doug Bernstein To my family and sons, Rob and Jeff, with love. Peggy Nash Executive Publisher: George Hoffman Sponsoring Editor: Jane Potter Marketing Manager: Amy Whitaker Marketing Assistant: Samantha Abrams Development Editor: Laura Hildebrand Editorial Associate: Henry Cheek Senior Project Editor: Aileen Mason Editorial Assistant: Andrew Laskey Senior Art and Design Coordinator: Jill Haber Atkins Cover Design Director: Tony Saizon Senior Photo Editor: Jennifer Meyer Dare Composition Buyer: Chuck Dutton New Title Manager for College & Trade: Priscilla Manchester Cover image: © Photodisc, Ryan McVay, Getty Images For permission to use copyrighted materials, grateful acknowledgment is made to the copyright holders listed on page A-98, which is hereby considered an extension of the copyright page. Copyright © 2008 by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system without the prior written permission of Houghton Mifflin Company unless such copying is expressly permitted by federal copyright law. Address inquiries to College Permissions, 222 Berkeley Street, Boston, MA 02116-3764. Printed in the U.S.A. Library of Congress Control Number: 2006934310 Instructor’s exam copy: ISBN-(10): 0-618-83396-X ISBN-(13): 978-0-618-83396-2 For orders, use student text ISBNs: ISBN-(10): 0-618-71312-3 ISBN-(13): 978-0-618-71312-7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9-VH-11 10 09 08 07
  15. 15. Brief Contents Preface xxv 1 Introduction to the Science of Psychology 1 2 Biology and Behavior 47 3 Sensation and Perception 84 4 Consciousness 135 5 Learning 169 6 Memory 207 7 Thought, Language, and Intelligence 246 8 Motivation and Emotion 296 9 Human Development 341 10 Health, Stress, and Coping 389 11 Personality 419 12 Psychological Disorders 453 13 Treatment of Psychological Disorders 500 14 Social Psychology 538 Appendix: Statistics in Psychological Research A-1 Answer Key to Multiple-Choice Self-Test Questions A-6 Answer Key to In Review Chart Questions A-11 References A-15 Credits A-98 Glossary/Index A-100 xv
  16. 16. Features LINKAGES Psychological Research and Behavioral Genetics 37 Human Development and the Changing Brain 73 Perception and Human Development 125 Meditation, Health, and Stress 154 Networks of Learning 190 Memory and Perception in the Courtroom 225 Group Processes in Problem Solving and Decision Making 268 Conflicting Motives and Stress 321 Development and Memory 358 Stress and Psychological Disorders 398 Personality, Culture, and Human Development 440 Anxiety Disorders and Learning 469 Biology, Behavior, and the Treatment of Psychological Disorders 531 Biological and Social Psychology 582 Aggression in the Workplace 612 Language Disorders and the Brain 644 FOCUS ON RESEARCH Studying EMDR 32 The Case of the Disembodied Woman 67 Attention and the Brain 128 Subliminal Messages in Rock Music 141 The “I Can’t Do It” Attitude 192 I Could Swear I Heard It! 223 Problem-Solving Strategies in the Real World 258 Tell Me About Your Sex Life 309 What Do Infants Know About Physics? 352 xvi Personality and Health 405 Personality Development over Time 441 Exploring Links Between Child Abuse and Antisocial Personality Disorder 486 Which Therapies Work Best for Which Problems? 519 Self-Esteem and the Ultimate Terror 541 Can People Learn to Be Charismatic Leaders? 618 Studying Hemineglect 642 THINKING CRITICALLY What Can fMRI Tell Us About Behavior and Mental Processes? 58 Does Acupuncture Relieve Pain? 109 Can Subliminal Messages Change Your Behavior? 139 Does Watching Violence on Television Make People More Violent? 197 Can Traumatic Memories Be Repressed, Then Recovered? 230 Are Intelligence Tests Unfairly Biased Against Certain Groups? 283 What Shapes Sexual Orientation? 313 Does Day Care Harm the Emotional Development of Infants? 364 Does Hostility Increase the Risk of Heart Disease? 409 Are Personality Traits Inherited? 430 Is Psychological Diagnosis Biased? 464 Are All Forms of Therapy Equally Effective? 518 Does Pornography Cause Aggression? 572 Is Job Satisfaction Genetic? 609 Can Someone Be Partially Paralyzed and Not Know It? 638
  17. 17. Contents Preface 1 xxv Introduction to the Science of Psychology 1 2 Biology and Behavior 47 Cells of the Nervous System 49 Neurons 49 Action Potentials 50 Synapses and Communication Between Neurons 51 Organization of the Nervous System 53 The World of Psychology: An Overview 4 Subfields of Psychology 4 Linkages Within Psychology and Beyond 7 A Brief History of Psychology 10 Approaches to the Science of Psychology 14 The Biological Approach 14 The Evolutionary Approach 15 The Psychodynamic Approach 16 The Behavioral Approach 16 The Cognitive Approach 16 The Humanistic Approach 17 Human Diversity and Psychology 18 The Impact of Sociocultural Diversity on Psychology 19 The Peripheral Nervous System: Keeping in Touch with the World 53 The Somatic Nervous System 54 The Autonomic Nervous System 54 The Central Nervous System: Making Sense of the World 54 The Spinal Cord 55 The Brain 56 Thinking Critically About Psychology (or Anything Else) 21 Five Questions for Critical Thinking 22 Critical Thinking and Scientific Research 24 Research Methods in Psychology 26 ■ ■ Naturalistic Observation: Watching Behavior 26 Case Studies: Taking a Closer Look 26 Surveys: Looking at the Big Picture 27 Correlational Studies: Looking for Relationships 29 Experiments: Exploring Cause and Effect 30 FOCUS ON RESEARCH: Studying EMDR 32 Selecting Human Participants for Research 35 LINKAGES: Psychological Research and Behavioral Genetics 37 Statistical Analysis of Research Results 39 What Can fMRI Tell Us About Behavior and Mental Processes? 58 The Hindbrain 61 The Midbrain 63 The Forebrain 63 The Cerebral Cortex 64 Sensory and Motor Cortex 65 FOCUS ON RESEARCH: The Case of the Disembodied Woman 67 Association Cortex 68 The Divided Brain: Lateralization 70 Plasticity in the Central Nervous System 71 LINKAGES: Human Development and the Changing Brain 73 ■ THINKING CRITICALLY: ■ ■ The Chemistry of Behavior: Neurotransmitters 74 Three Classes of Neurotransmitters 74 Ethical Guidelines for Psychologists 40 The Endocrine System: Coordinating the Internal World 77 Active Review 42 Active Review 79 xvii
  18. 18. xviii 3 Contents Sensation and Perception 84 Sensing and Perceiving the World 86 4 Consciousness The Scope of Consciousness 137 Sensory Systems 86 Coding Sensations: Did You Feel That? 87 Absolute Thresholds: Is Something Out There? 87 ■ Seeing 90 Light 90 Focusing Light 90 Converting Light into Images 92 Seeing Color 94 Theories of Color Vision 94 Summing Up 96 Colorblindness 96 ■ Stages of Sleep 144 Sleep Disorders 146 Why Do People Sleep? 148 Dreams and Dreaming 150 Hypnosis 152 The Chemical Senses: Taste and Smell 102 Smell, Taste, and Flavor 102 Our Sense of Smell 103 Our Sense of Taste 105 Sensing Your Body 106 ■ Touch and Temperature 106 Pain 106 THINKING CRITICALLY: Does Acupuncture Relieve Pain? 109 Sensing Body Position 110 Perception 112 States of Consciousness 137 Levels of Consciousness 137 Mental Processing Without Awareness 138 THINKING CRITICALLY: Can Subliminal Messages Change Your Behavior? 139 FOCUS ON RESEARCH: Subliminal Messages in Rock Music 141 Altered States of Consciousness 142 Sleeping and Dreaming 144 Hearing 98 Sound 98 The Ear 99 Coding Sounds 101 135 ■ Experiencing Hypnosis 152 Explaining Hypnosis 153 Applications of Hypnosis 154 LINKAGES: Meditation, Health, and Stress 154 Psychoactive Drugs 155 Psychopharmacology 155 The Varying Effects of Drugs 156 Depressants 158 Stimulants 159 Opiates 161 Hallucinogens 161 Active Review 164 Organizing the Perceptual World 113 Principles of Perceptual Organization 113 Perception of Depth and Distance 114 Perception of Motion 117 Perceptual Constancy 117 Size Illusions 119 Recognizing the Perceptual World 121 ■ Bottom-Up Processing 121 Top-Down Processing 122 Top-Down and Bottom-Up Processing Together 123 Culture, Experience, and Perception 123 LINKAGES: Perception and Human Development 125 Attention 126 ■ Directing Attention 127 Dividing Attention 128 FOCUS ON RESEARCH: Attention and the Brain 128 Active Review 129 5 Learning 169 Classical Conditioning: Learning Signals and Associations 171 Pavlov’s Discovery 171 Conditioned Responses over Time: Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery 173
  19. 19. xix Contents Stimulus Generalization and Discrimination 173 The Signaling of Significant Events 174 Some Applications of Classical Conditioning 176 Instrumental and Operant Conditioning: Learning the Consequences of Behavior 178 ■ From the Puzzle Box to the Skinner Box 179 Basic Components of Operant Conditioning 179 Forming and Strengthening Operant Behavior 183 Why Reinforcers Work 186 Punishment 187 Some Applications of Operant Conditioning 189 LINKAGES: Networks of Learning 190 Cognitive Processes in Learning 192 ■ ■ Learned Helplessness 192 FOCUS ON RESEARCH: The “I Can’t Do It” Attitude 192 Latent Learning and Cognitive Maps 194 Insight and Learning 195 Observational Learning: Learning by Imitation 196 THINKING CRITICALLY: Does Watching Violence on Television Make People More Violent? 197 Constructing Memories 222 I Could Swear I Heard It! 223 Constructive Memory and PDP Models 224 LINKAGES: Memory and Perception in the Courtroom 225 ■ FOCUS ON RESEARCH: ■ Forgetting 227 How Do We Forget? Why Do We Forget? ■ 227 228 THINKING CRITICALLY: Can Traumatic Memories Be Repressed, Then Recovered? 230 Biological Bases of Memory 234 The Biochemistry of Memory 234 Brain Structures and Memory 235 Improving Your Memory 237 Mnemonics 238 Guidelines for More Effective Studying 238 Active Review 240 Using Research on Learning to Help People Learn 200 Classrooms Across Cultures 200 Active Learning 201 Skill Learning 201 Active Review 202 7 Thought, Language, and Intelligence 246 Basic Functions of Thought 248 The Circle of Thought 248 Mental Representations: The Ingredients of Thought 250 6 Memory Concepts 250 Propositions 251 Schemas, Scripts, and Mental Models 251 Images and Cognitive Maps 252 207 Thinking Strategies 254 The Nature of Memory 208 Basic Memory Processes 209 Types of Memory 210 Models of Memory 211 Storing New Memories 213 Sensory Memory 213 Short-Term Memory and Working Memory 214 Long-Term Memory 216 Distinguishing Between Short-Term and Long-Term Memory 218 Formal Reasoning 254 Informal Reasoning 255 Problem Solving 257 Strategies for Problem Solving 257 Problem-Solving Strategies in the Real World 258 Obstacles to Problem Solving 259 Problem Solving by Computer 262 Creative Thinking 264 ■ FOCUS ON RESEARCH: Decision Making 265 Retrieving Memories 218 Retrieval Cues and Encoding Specificity 219 Context and State Dependence 219 Retrieval from Semantic Memory 220 ■ Evaluating Options 265 Biases and Flaws in Decision Making 266 LINKAGES: Group Processes in Problem Solving and Decision Making 268
  20. 20. xx Contents Achievement and Success in the Workplace 318 Achievement and Subjective Well-Being 319 Language 269 Learning to Speak: Stages of Language Development 270 How Is Language Acquired? 271 Relations and Conflicts Among Motives 320 Testing Intelligence 273 Maslow’s Hierarchy 320 Conflicting Motives and Stress 321 ■ LINKAGES: A Brief History of Intelligence Tests 274 Intelligence Tests Today 275 Calculating IQ 276 The Nature of Emotion 322 Defining Characteristics 322 The Biology of Emotion 323 Evaluating Intelligence Tests 277 ■ The Reliability and Validity of Intelligence Tests 278 IQ Scores as a Measure of Inherited Ability 279 Group Differences in IQ Scores 281 THINKING CRITICALLY: Are Intelligence Tests Unfairly Biased Against Certain Groups? 283 Theories of Emotion 326 James’s Peripheral Theory 326 Cannon’s Central Theory 329 Cognitive Theories 330 Communicating Emotion 332 Diversity in Intelligence 285 Innate Expressions of Emotion 333 Social and Cultural Influences on Emotional Expression 334 Practical and Creative Intelligence 285 Multiple Intelligences 286 Unusual Intelligence 286 Active Review 336 Active Review 290 9 Human Development 8 Motivation and Emotion 296 Concepts and Theories of Motivation 298 Sources of Motivation 298 Instinct Theory and Its Descendants 298 Drive Reduction Theory 299 Optimal Arousal Theory 300 Incentive Theory 301 Eating 302 Signals for Hunger and Satiety 302 Hunger and the Brain 303 Flavor, Sociocultural Experience, and Food Selection 304 Eating Disorders 305 Exploring Human Development 343 Understanding Genetic Influence 344 Genes and the Environment 345 Beginnings 345 Prenatal Development 345 The Newborn 347 Infancy and Childhood: Cognitive Development 349 Tell Me About Your Sex Life 309 The Biology of Sex 310 Social and Cultural Factors in Sexuality 311 Sexual Orientation 312 THINKING CRITICALLY: What Shapes Sexual Orientation? 313 Sexual Dysfunctions 315 ■ Achievement Motivation 316 Need for Achievement 316 The Development of Knowledge: Piaget’s Theory 349 What Do Infants Know About Physics? 352 Modifying Piaget’s Theory 355 Information Processing During Childhood 356 LINKAGES: Development and Memory 358 Culture and Cognitive Development 358 Individual Variations in Cognitive Development 359 ■ FOCUS ON RESEARCH: ■ Sexual Behavior 308 ■ FOCUS ON RESEARCH: 341 Infancy and Childhood: Social and Emotional Development 361 ■ Individual Temperament 361 The Infant Grows Attached 362 THINKING CRITICALLY: Does Day Care Harm the Emotional Development of Infants? 364 Relationships with Parents and Peers 365 Social Skills 368 Gender Roles 369
  21. 21. xxi Contents Adolescence 371 The Challenges of Change 371 Identity and Development of the Self 373 Moral Reasoning 374 Adulthood 376 Physical Changes 376 Cognitive Changes 377 Social Changes 379 Death and Dying 382 11 Personality 419 The Psychodynamic Approach 421 Active Review 383 The Structure of Personality 421 Stages of Personality Development 423 Variations on Freud’s Personality Theory 424 Contemporary Psychodynamic Theories 424 Evaluating the Psychodynamic Approach 425 The Trait Approach 426 10 Health, Stress, and Coping ■ 389 Health Psychology 391 The Social-Cognitive Approach 433 Prominent Social-Cognitive Theories 433 Evaluating the Social-Cognitive Approach 436 Understanding Stress and Stressors 392 Psychological Stressors 393 Measuring Stressors 394 The Humanistic Approach 436 Stress Responses 394 ■ Physical Responses 395 Psychological Responses 396 LINKAGES: Stress and Psychological Disorders 398 Stress Mediators 399 ■ How Stressors Are Perceived 399 Predictability and Control 400 Coping Resources and Coping Methods 401 Social Support 402 Stress, Personality, and Gender 404 FOCUS ON RESEARCH: Personality and Health 405 Early Trait Theories 426 The Big-Five Model of Personality 428 Biological Trait Theories 428 THINKING CRITICALLY: Are Personality Traits Inherited? 430 Evaluating the Trait Approach 432 ■ ■ Prominent Humanistic Theories 436 Evaluating the Humanistic Approach 438 LINKAGES: Personality, Culture, and Human Development 440 FOCUS ON RESEARCH: Personality Development over Time 441 Assessing Personality 443 Objective Personality Tests 443 Projective Personality Tests 446 Personality Tests and Employee Selection 447 Active Review 448 The Physiology and Psychology of Health and Illness 407 ■ Stress, Illness, and the Immune System 407 Stress, Illness, and the Cardiovascular System 408 THINKING CRITICALLY: Does Hostility Increase the Risk of Heart Disease? 409 Promoting Healthy Behavior 411 Health Beliefs and Health Behaviors 411 Changing Health Behaviors: Stages of Readiness 412 Programs for Coping with Stress and Promoting Health 413 Active Review 415 12 Psychological Disorders 453 Defining Psychological Disorders 455 What Is Abnormal? 455 Behavior in Context: A Practical Approach 456
  22. 22. xxii Contents Explaining Psychological Disorders 457 Behavior Therapy and Cognitive-Behavior Therapy 508 The Biopsychosocial Model 457 Diathesis-Stress as an Integrative Explanation 460 Classifying Psychological Disorders 460 ■ A Classification System: DSM-IV 461 Evaluating the Diagnostic System 463 THINKING CRITICALLY: Is Psychological Diagnosis Biased? 464 Techniques for Modifying Behavior 509 Cognitive-Behavior Therapy 512 Group, Family, and Couples Therapy 514 Group Therapy 514 Family and Couples Therapy 515 Evaluating Psychotherapy 516 ■ THINKING CRITICALLY: Anxiety Disorders 466 ■ Types of Anxiety Disorders 466 Causes of Anxiety Disorders 468 LINKAGES: Anxiety Disorders and Learning 469 Effective? Which Therapies Work Best for Which Problems? 519 Sociocultural Factors in Therapy 522 Rules and Rights in the Therapeutic Relationship 524 ■ FOCUS ON RESEARCH: Somatoform Disorders 470 Dissociative Disorders 472 Biological Treatments 524 Mood Disorders 473 Depressive Disorders 474 Bipolar Disorders 476 Causes of Mood Disorders 477 Schizophrenia 480 Symptoms of Schizophrenia 481 Categorizing Schizophrenia 482 Causes of Schizophrenia 483 Are All Forms of Therapy Equally 518 ■ Electroconvulsive Therapy 524 Psychoactive Drugs 525 Human Diversity and Drug Treatment 527 Drugs and Psychotherapy 529 LINKAGES: Biology, Behavior, and the Treatment of Psychological Disorders 531 Community Psychology 531 Active Review 533 Personality Disorders 485 Exploring Links Between Child Abuse and Antisocial Personality Disorder 486 ■ FOCUS ON RESEARCH: A Sampling of Other Psychological Disorders 488 Psychological Disorders of Childhood 488 Substance-Related Disorders 490 Mental Illness and the Law 492 Active Review 494 14 Social Psychology 538 Social Influences on the Self 540 Social Comparison 540 Self-Esteem and the Ultimate Terror 541 Social Identity Theory 542 ■ FOCUS ON RESEARCH: Social Perception 543 13 Treatment of Psychological Disorders 500 The Role of Schemas 543 First Impressions 543 Explaining Behavior: Attribution 545 Biases in Attribution 546 Attitudes 548 Basic Features of Treatment 502 Psychodynamic Psychotherapy 503 Classical Psychoanalysis 504 Contemporary Variations on Psychoanalysis 504 Humanistic Psychotherapy 505 Client-Centered Therapy 506 Gestalt Therapy 507 The Structure of Attitudes 548 Forming Attitudes 549 Changing Attitudes 549 Prejudice and Stereotypes 552 Theories of Prejudice and Stereotyping 552 Reducing Prejudice 554
  23. 23. xxiii Contents Interpersonal Attraction 555 Group Processes 579 Keys to Attraction 555 Intimate Relationships and Love 556 Social Influence 559 Social Norms 559 Conformity and Compliance 560 Obedience 564 Factors Affecting Obedience 566 Evaluating Obedience Research 566 Aggression 568 ■ Why Are People Aggressive? 569 When Are People Aggressive? 570 THINKING CRITICALLY: Does Pornography Cause Aggression? 572 Altruism and Helping Behavior 574 Why Do People Help? 575 Cooperation, Competition, and Conflict 578 ■ The Presence of Others 579 Group Leadership 580 Groupthink 581 LINKAGES: Biological and Social Psychology 582 Active Review 583 Appendix: Statistics in Psychological Research A-1 Answer Key to Multiple-Choice Self-Test Questions A-6 Answer Key to In Review Chart Questions A-11 References A-15 Credits A-98 Glossary/Index A-100
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  25. 25. Preface PSYCHOLOGY IS A RICH and varied science, covering the breadth and depth of human behavior—everything from fleeting reflexes to enduring memories, from falling asleep to falling in love. In our experience, most students enter the introductory course thinking that psychology concerns itself mainly with personality, psychological testing, mental disorders, psychotherapy, and other aspects of clinical psychology. Many of these students are surprised, then, when they find themselves reading about such topics as the structure of the brain, optical illusions, the effect of jet lag on Olympic athletes, AIDS and the immune system, and prenatal risk factors, to name just a few. Yet these are all topics under the umbrella that is psychology. For all its diversity, psychology is also a remarkably integrated discipline whose subfields are linked to one another through common interests and overarching research questions. As psychologists and scholars, we wrote this book to portray the wide range of topics that make up the science of psychology. As teachers, we focused on the essentials of the discipline, the core concepts of psychology that we hope will be especially accessible and interesting to students. We also tried to present these topics through an integrated, active pedagogical system designed to help students get the most out of the text. In creating the fourth edition of Essentials of Psychology, we continued our commitment to presenting a textbook that is not only clear and enjoyable to read but that also provides features to support the learning process in all students, regardless of their academic background. Specifically, we set these goals: ■ To focus on topics that represent the full range of psychology, from cell to society, without overwhelming the reader with details. ■ To provide many active learning exercises that invite students to work with the text material in ways that can help them understand and remember it. ■ To help students develop their ability to think critically and scientifically by examining the ways that psychologists have solved, or failed to solve, fascinating puzzles of behavior and mental processes. ■ To explain the content of psychology with an emphasis on the doing of psychology, grounding all discussions in current and classic research studies. (We help students appreciate the importance of research by exploring one study in detail in a special feature in each chapter.) Our discussion of research in psychology is also designed to remind students that although, in some ways, “people are people wherever you go,” sociocultural factors—including gender, eth- nicity, cultural background, and geography—often shape human behavior and mental processes. We repeatedly point out, therefore, that psychological research on the thinking styles, perceptual habits, psychological disorders, social pressures, and other phenomena seen in North America or Europe, for example, may or may not apply to other cultures—or even to subcultures within Western countries. Rather than isolating discussion of sociocultural material in boxed features, we have woven it into every chapter so that students will encounter it repeatedly as they read. We introduce the importance of sociocultural factors in Chapter 1 and continue to reinforce it through coverage of such topics as the impact of culture and experience on perception (Chapter 3), classrooms across cultures (Chapter 5), ethnic differences in IQ (Chapter 7), social and cultural factors in sexuality (Chapter 8), gender differences in stress responses (Chapter 10), personality, culture, and human development (Chapter 11), gender and cultural differences in depression and suicide (Chapter 12), and cultural factors in aggression (Chapter 14), to cite just a few examples. Please refer to the tabbing guide on the inside front cover of this text, for a comprehensive listing of sociocultural coverage. What’s New in This Edition? Feedback from faculty colleagues and students suggests that the changes we made in the third edition of Essentials were well received. Accordingly, in creating the fourth edition, we have sought to update and upgrade all the book’s best features rather than change them for the sake of change. We hope that the result of our efforts is a book that offers even more of what faculty and students want and need. Chapter Organization Designed for presentation in a single semester, the book’s fourteenchapter organization has been retained, and the chapters appear in the same sequence as before. Have we arranged those fourteen chapters in an ideal sequence? The sequence reflects the way we teach our introductory courses, but we know that your preference for chapter sequencing may not match ours. Accordingly we have again ensured that each of the fourteen chapters appears as a freestanding unit so that you may assign the chapters in whatever order you wish. For example, many instructors prefer to teach the material on human development relatively late in the course, which is why it appears as Chapter 9. However, the chapter can be just as comfortably assigned earlier in the course. xxv
  26. 26. xxvi For the third edition, we added an optional fifteenth chapter, on Industrial/Organizational Psychology. For the fourth edition, we have added an optional sixteenth chapter, on Neuropsychology, coauthored by Doug Bernstein and Joel Shenker, a diplomate of the American Board of Neurology and Psychiatry who specializes in memory loss, dementia, and neuro-cognitive behavioral impairments. Either (or both) chapter(s) may be included in the textbook upon request, and select ancillaries contain supporting material for these chapters. Note that in the end-of-book materials—such as answer keys, references, credits, and the combined glossary/ index—the entries for these chapters are printed in blue. A Continued Emphasis on Learning by Doing Based on the continued popularity of active learning activities, we have continued to enhance this focus in the fourth edition. Three kinds of Learn by Doing features appear throughout the book. ■ First, there are dozens of new or revised figure and photo cap- tions that help students understand and remember a psychological principle or phenomenon by suggesting ways in which they can demonstrate it for themselves. In the memory chapter, for example, a photo caption suggests that students show the photo to a friend, and then ask questions about it to illustrate the operation of constructive memory. These captions are all identified with a Learn by Doing symbol. ■ Second, we have placed Learn by Doing symbols in the pages at even more places where active learning opportunities occur in the narrative. At these points, we ask students to stop reading and try doing something to illustrate or highlight the psychological principle or phenomenon under discussion. For example, in the sensation and perception chapter, we ask the student to focus attention on various targets as a way of appreciating the difference between overt and covert attention shifts. ■ Finally, we have carried the active learning theme through to the end of each chapter, where—as part of the built-in study guide we call Active Review—students will find sections called Put It in Writing and Personal Learning Activity. These sections invite students to (a) write about a specific chapterrelated topic, and (b) collect, analyze, and discuss some data on a chapter-related principle or phenomenon. Active Review The Put It in Writing and Personal Learning Activity sections are just one part of our effort to add educational value to the built-in Active Review study guide. The Active Review’s other features include ■ A Linkages diagram, which helps students understand and appreciate the ways in which the chapter they have just read relates to other subfields of psychology. ■ Twenty-item multiple-choice self-tests. We have revised some of the questions, and they continue to focus on the application—as well as the definition—of principles, concepts, and phenomena. Preface ■ A Step into Action section, which—to highlight our empha- sis on active learning—lists the courses in which students can further pursue chapter-related study, and provides a newly expanded and annotated list of movies and books related to each chapter. We also refer students to Houghton Mifflin’s Online Study Center, where—as the result of a continuous updating and upgrading process—they can easily find the latest, most interesting, and most valuable web addresses related to chapter content, as well as a range of interactive activities and practice quizzes for each chapter. ■ An updated Review of Key Terms section, which invites stu- dents to write their own definitions of the most important terms presented in the chapter. Applying Psychology Photos As in the third edition, we continue to emphasize the many ways in which psychological theory and research results are being applied to benefit human welfare. We further highlight the diversity of applied psychology by including in each chapter at least one Applying Psychology photo that offers a memorable example. In the social psychology chapter for example, a photo illustrates the way some organizations use petitions to identify people who are likely to become supporters of that organization’s goals. In the personality chapter, the Applying Psychology photo illustrates the use of personality trait theory in jury selection. Updated Content As in the previous editions, our goal in preparing this new edition of Essentials was to present the latest, as well as the most established, results of basic and applied research on topics that are both important to psychology and of high interest to students. Accordingly, we offer updated coverage of research on how drugs affect the brain (Chapter 2), the basis for optical illusions (Chapter 3), the effects of subliminal messages (Chapter 4), the importance of active learning in the classroom (Chapter 5), the accuracy of eyewitness testimony (Chapter 6), the origins of intelligence (Chapter 7), sources of sexual orientation (Chapter 8), the development of morals (Chapter 9), the effects of stress on health (Chapter 10), what determines and shapes our personalities (Chapter 11), the causes of multiple personality disorder (Chapter 12), the effects of psychotherapy (Chapter 13), and the development of ethnic prejudice (Chapter 14). In this new edition, students will also encounter the latest evidence on topics such as ■ The value of dietary supplements in improving memory and slowing memory loss (Chapter 2) ■ Individual differences in taste abilities, including how to deter- mine if one is a “supertaster” (Chapter 3) ■ The role of expectations on the effects of psychoactive drugs (Chapter 4) ■ The role of active learning processes in long-term retention of information (Chapter 5)
  27. 27. Preface ■ Factors that may make people more susceptible to reporting false memories (Chapter 6) ■ The process of acquiring language (Chapter 7) ■ Factors that influence subjective well-being (Chapter 8) ■ The origins of infantile amnesia (Chapter 9) ■ The “tend and befriend” response to stressors, and its relation- ship to the traditional “fight-or-flight” syndrome (Chapter 10) ■ Biological theories of personality (Chapter 11) ■ The origins of schizophrenia, depression, and anxiety (Chap- ter 12) ■ The current status of psychologists’ efforts to gain the right to prescribe psychoactive drugs (Chapter 13) ■ Social neuroscience, which lies at the interface between bio- logical and social psychology (Chapter 14) Special Features The fourth edition of Essentials of Psychology contains improved versions of a number of special features found in its predecessor. Designed to promote efficient learning and mastery of the material, these include, in each chapter, an integrated pedagogical system, as well as sections on Thinking Critically, Focus on Research, and Linkages, along with an Active Review section. An Integrated Pedagogical System Our integrated pedagogical system is designed to help students get the most out of their reading. Based on the PQ4R study system (discussed in detail in Chapter 6, “Memory”), learning aids in each chapter include the following elements. Preview Questions To help students survey and question the material, each chapter opens with a full outline, a brief preview statement, and a list of questions related to the key topic of each main section of the chapter. Those questions are repeated within the chapter at the start of each corresponding main section, and they appear again in the Active Review, where they help to organize the chapter summary. Margin Glossary Key terms are defined in the margin of the page where they appear, reinforcing core concepts without interrupting the flow of reading. (For the fourth edition, we have revised many of our phonetic guides to make it even easier for students to correctly pronounce unfamiliar key terms—as well as other terms whose pronunciation is not immediately obvious.) In the Active Review section at the end of each chapter, a definition exercise encourages students to restate these core concepts in their own words. Instructional Captions Captions to all figures, tables, photographs, and cartoons reiterate core concepts and help students learn to interpret visual information. And, as mentioned earlier, many of these captions prompt students to engage in various kinds of active learning experiences. xxvii In Review Charts In Review study charts summarize information in a convenient tabular format. We have placed two or three In Review charts strategically in each chapter to help students synthesize and assimilate large chunks of information—for example, on drug effects, key elements in personality theories, and stress responses and mediators. We have added additional fill-inthe-blank self-testing items at the bottom of each In Review chart to further aid student learning and review of the chapter material. The answer key is at the back of the book; answers printed in blue indicate those for the optional Industrial/Organizational Psychology and Neuropsychology chapters. Active Review As mentioned earlier, the built-in Active Review study guide at the end of each chapter includes ■ A Linkages diagram containing questions that illustrate three of the ways in which material in each chapter is connected to other chapters in the book. ■ A chapter summary organized around major topic headings and the related preview questions. The summary is presented in short, easy-to-read paragraphs that are focused on subheadings. ■ A Learn by Doing feature that is designed to promote active learning. Here, students will find Put It in Writing and Personal Learning Activity sections that invite them to (a) write about a specific chapter-related topic, and (b) collect, analyze, and discuss some data on a chapter-related principle or phenomenon. For example, in the personality chapter, the Put It in Writing section suggests that students list a celebrity’s personality traits, then summarize how various personality theories would account for the development of those traits. In the biology and behavior chapter, students are asked to write about how research on brain development might affect one’s choice of an infant day care center. These Put It in Writing suggestions may be helpful as writing-across-the-curriculum assignments. ■ The Personal Learning Activity section suggests ways in which students can do psychology as well as read about it. In the motivation and emotion chapter, for example, the Personal Learning Activity section suggests a way in which students can collect data on lie-detection skills. In the social psychology chapter, students are invited to test some assumptions of evolutionary theories of mate selection by analyzing personals ads in a local newspaper. Each Personal Learning Activity section ends by referring the student to additional projects listed in the study guide that accompanies the book. ■ A Step into Action section, which (a) suggests courses that students can take to pursue further chapter-related study, (b) presents an annotated list of movies and books related to each chapter, and (c) encourages students to visit Houghton Mifflin’s Online Study Center for resources related to the chapter in the form of interactive activities, self-quizzes, and web links. ■ A Review of Key Terms, which invites students to write their own definitions of the most important terms presented in the chapter. These lists have been updated to include all the key terms discussed in the new edition. ■ A twenty-item Multiple-Choice Self-Test designed to help stu- dents assess their understanding of the chapter’s key points prior
  28. 28. xxviii to taking quizzes and exams. As before, we provide an answer key at the back of the book that identifies and briefly explains each correct answer, and refers students to the page on which the tested material was first discussed. Note that the answers printed in blue are for the optional Industrial/Organizational Psychology and Neuropsychology chapters. Thinking Critically A special Thinking Critically section in each chapter helps students hone their abilities in this vital skill. Our approach to writing centers on describing research on psychological phenomena in a way that reveals the logic of the scientific method, identifies possible flaws in design or interpretation, and leaves room for more questions and further research. In other words, as authorteachers, we try to model critical thinking processes for our readers. The Thinking Critically sections are designed to make these processes more explicit and accessible by providing readers with a framework for analyzing evidence before drawing conclusions. The framework is built around five questions that the reader should find useful in analyzing not only psychological research studies, but other forms of communication as well, including political speeches, advertising claims, and appeals for contributions. These five questions first appear in Chapter 1, when we introduce the importance of critical thinking, and they are repeated in every chapter’s Thinking Critically section. 1. What am I being asked to believe or accept? 2. Is there evidence available to support the claim? 3. Can that evidence be interpreted another way? 4. What evidence would help to evaluate the alternatives? 5. What conclusions are most reasonable? Using this simple yet powerful framework, we explore issues such as subliminal persuasion, pornography and aggression, recovered memories, and memory-enhancing dietary supplements, to name just a few. Page xvi includes a complete list of the Thinking Critically features. Focus on Research Scientists in psychology have helped us to better understand behavior and mental processes through their commitment to empirical research. They have posed vital questions about psychological phenomena and designed research that is capable of answering, or at least illuminating, those questions. In Chapter 1 we introduce readers to the methods of scientific research and to basic research designs in psychology. Every subsequent chapter features a Focus on Research section that highlights a particular research study to help students appreciate the value of research and the creativity with which psychologists have conducted it. Like the Thinking Critically sections, the Focus on Research features are organized around five questions designed to help readers organize their thinking about research questions and research results. 1. What was the researcher’s question? 2. How did the researcher answer the question? Preface 3. What did the researcher find? 4. What do the results mean? 5. What do we still need to know? These Focus on Research sections help students to see how psychologists have used experiments, surveys, observations, and other designs to explore phenomena such as learned helplessness, infant cognition, evolutionary theories of helping, and human sexual behavior. A full list of the Focus on Research features appears on page xvi. Linkages In our experience, introductory psychology students are better able to appreciate the scope of our discipline when they look at it not as a laundry list of separate topics but as an interrelated set of subfields, each of which contributes to—and benefits from—the work being done in all the others. To help students see these relationships, we have built into the book an integrating tool called Linkages. There are three elements in the Linkages program. ■ Linkages diagrams The first element of the chapter’s Active Review is a Linkages diagram, which presents a set of questions that illustrate three of the ways in which material in the chapter is related to other chapters in the book. For example, the Linkages diagram in Chapter 2, “Biology and Behavior,” contains questions that show how biological psychology is related to consciousness (“Does the brain shut down when we sleep?”), human development (“How do our brains change over a lifetime?”), and treatment of psychological disorders (“How do drugs help people who suffer from schizophrenia?”). These diagrams are designed to help students keep in mind how the content of each chapter fits into psychology as a whole. To introduce the concept of Linkages, the diagram in Chapter 1 appears within the body of the chapter. ■ Cross-references The page numbers following each question in the Linkages diagrams direct the student to pages that carry further discussion of that question. There, the linking question is repeated in the margin alongside the discussion. ■ Linkages sections One of the questions in each chapter’s Linkages diagram reminds the student of the chapter’s discussion of that question in a special section titled, appropriately enough, Linkages (see page xvi for a complete list of Linkages sections). These three elements combine with the text narrative to highlight the network of relationships among psychology’s subfields. This Linkages program is designed to help students see the “big picture” that is psychology—no matter how many chapters their instructor assigns or in what sequence. Teaching and Learning Support Package Many useful instructional and pedagogical materials have been developed to support the Essentials of Psychology textbook and the introductory course. Designed to enhance and maximize the teaching and learning experience, this fourth edition focuses on
  29. 29. Preface greater integration of the supplemental package components with the text itself. New features of several supplements reflect the text’s emphasis on active learning and writing across the curriculum. For the Instructor Online Instructor’s Resource Manual The Online Instructor’s Resource Manual, by Linda Lebie, Travis Sola (both at Lakeland College), Douglas A. Bernstein, and Peggy W. Nash, contains for each chapter of the textbook a complete set of learning objectives, detailed chapter outlines, and numerous classroom supplements that include discussion and lecture suggestions, Thinking Critically and Put It in Writing activities, and related handouts. The manual also contains a video guide and a Pedagogical Strategies section that covers implementing active learning, encouraging critical thinking, using the Linkages feature and the Research Focus supplements, and writing across the curriculum, as well as suggestions on how to build a syllabus. For instructors switching from the third to the fourth edition of the text, the manual includes a detailed transition guide for each chapter, outlining the key changes between editions. Note that in addition to the fifteenth chapter of supporting material for the optional Industrial/Organizational Psychology chapter (offered with the third edition), this revised Instructor’s Resource Manual comes with a sixteenth chapter offering supporting material on the new optional Neuropsychology chapter specially written for the fourth edition. As noted earlier, either—or both—of these chapters can be included in your text upon request; see your Houghton Mifflin sales representative for details. Online Test Bank The Test Bank, by Chris Armstrong (University of Illinois) and Douglas A. Bernstein, contains 125 multiple-choice items plus three essay questions per chapter. All multiple-choice items are keyed to pages in the textbook and to the learning objectives that appear in the Instructor’s Resource Manual and Study Guide. Each question is identified by whether it tests simple factual recall or deeper conceptual understanding. Over 45 percent of the items have been class-tested with between 400 and 2,500 students, and a statistical performance analysis is provided for those items. The computerized version of the Test Bank allows instructors to edit questions, integrate their own, and generate paper or online exams. New to the fourth edition Test Bank are an additional 100 test questions for each of the two optional chapters (the Industrial/Organizational Psychology and Neuropsychology chapters) that may be bundled with the text. The Test Bank is available on the HM Testing CD-ROM. HM Testing CD-ROM (0-618-83497-4) HM Testing (powered by Diploma) is a flexible testing program that allows instructors to create, edit, customize, and deliver multiple types of tests via print, network server, or the web on either the Mac or Windows platform. The test bank contains over 2,000 multiple-choice and essay questions, including 100 questions for each of the two optional chapters (these chapters may be packaged with your text upon request). Over 45 percent of the multiple-choice questions have been class-tested with between 400 and 2,500 students, and the test item analysis including a quintile graph for each of these items is included within the testing program. The Test Bank Word files are also included on the CD-ROM for easy reference. xxix New! Enhanced PowerPoint® Presentations An enhanced set of PowerPoint Presentations consists of lecture sequences, tables, figures, and photos from the main text. New to this edition are hyperlinks to interactive tutorials that enliven lecture content and illuminate specific topics ranging from action potential to classical conditioning. The slides are available on the Online Teaching Center. New! Classroom Response System (CRS) Classroom Response System (CRS) content, available on the Online Teaching Center, allows instructors to perform “on-the-spot” assessments, deliver quick quizzes, gauge students’ understanding of a particular question or concept, conduct anonymous polling for class discussion purposes, and take their class roster easily. Students receive immediate feedback on how well they understand concepts covered in the text and where they need to improve. Answer slides provide the correct answer and explanation of why the answer is correct. New! HM ClassPresent ClassPresent includes over 45 newly developed animations that project effectively in a lecture hall. The CD also has an easy-to-navigate interface, with searchable thumbnail images organized by topic. These animations can be easily inserted into PowerPoint presentations or projected directly from the CD. New! Active Learning and Critical Thinking Booklets The Active Learning and Critical Thinking booklets build on the pedagogy of the main text by offering a wealth of interesting exercises that help students apply key concepts to their own experiences and develop important critical thinking skills. The annotated instructor versions of these booklets contain additional tips for helping students derive the full benefit from these activities, and where applicable, include suggested answers to questions raised by some of the activities. Both instructor booklets are available from the Online Teaching Center. Students can get access to their version of these password-protected booklets via the Online Study Center with the Your Guide to an A access card, which comes packaged with all new texts (please consult your sales representative for details). Online Teaching Center (0-618-82532-0) The Online Teaching Center at college.hmco.com/pic/bernsteinessentials4e that accompanies the fourth edition of Essentials is a comprehensive gallery of online teaching resources that gives you one central place to access all of your teaching preparation tools. It includes the complete Instructor’s Resource Manual, PowerPoint Presentations, CRS content, downloadable PDFs of the overhead transparencies, and selected art from the textbook. New to this edition is a comprehensive image gallery of over 150 pieces of art from the text as well as other sources. Also included are video guides, ideas for encouraging critical thinking and active learning, and tips on how to use and assign the student activities available on the Online Study Center. Premium content on the student Online Study Center is passkey-protected and may be accessed with the Your Guide to an A access card, which comes packaged with all new texts (please see your sales representative for details). Eduspace® Eduspace is a powerful course management system that enables instructors to create all or part of their courses online using the widely recognized tools of Blackboard™ and

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