SKINNER’s Behaviorist Theories of Learning: Building on the S-R Connection Stimulus-Response
Before SKINNER Theories of Leaning dominated by involuntary physical responses to outside stimuli. (Ivan Pavlov, 1900s) Response Stimulus
SKINNER’S THEORY People can have mental control over their responses. “ behavior is more controlled by the consequences of actions than by events preceding the actions” (Eggen & Kauchak, 1999). Internal processes involved in learning could not be seen directly cause and effect relationships established by observation. Human behavior could be shaped by “contingencies of reinforcement” or situations in which reinforcement for a learner is made contingent upon a desired response.
SKINNER identified three kinds of situations that can shape behavior: POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT A situation is set up so that an increase in a desired behavior will result from a stimulus.
NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT A situation is set up so that an increase in a desired behavior will result from avoiding or removing a stimulus.
PUNISHMENT A situation is set up so that a decrease in a desired behavior will result from undesirable consequences.
INPLICATIONS FOR EDUCATION To SKINNER: Teaching was a process of arranging contingencies of reinforcement effectively to bring about learning It was simply a matter of establishing chains of behavior through principles of reinforcement Programmed instruction was the most efficient means available for learning skills. Many of his classroom management and instructional techniques are widely used today
IMPLICATIONS FOR TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION Most original drill and practice software was based on SKINNER’s reinforcement principles helps students memorize important basic information. Tutorial software usually is based on the idea of programmed instruction gives students an efficient path through concepts they want to learn.
Carolina García Romina Hernández Practice II 2010