Skinner

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Skinner

  1. 1. SKINNER’s Behaviorist Theories of Learning: Building on the S-R Connection Stimulus-Response
  2. 2. Before SKINNER Theories of Leaning dominated by involuntary physical responses to outside stimuli. (Ivan Pavlov, 1900s) Response Stimulus
  3. 3. SKINNER’S THEORY    People can have mental control over their responses.  “ behavior is more controlled by the consequences of actions than by events preceding the actions” (Eggen & Kauchak, 1999).  Internal processes involved in learning could not be seen directly  cause and effect relationships established by observation.  Human behavior could be shaped by “contingencies of reinforcement” or situations in which reinforcement for a learner is made contingent upon a desired response.
  4. 4. SKINNER identified three kinds of situations that can shape behavior:   POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT    A situation is set up so that an increase in a desired behavior will result from a stimulus.
  5. 5. NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT    A situation is set up so that an increase in a desired behavior will result from avoiding or removing a stimulus.
  6. 6. PUNISHMENT    A situation is set up so that a decrease in a desired behavior will result from undesirable consequences.
  7. 7. INPLICATIONS FOR EDUCATION   To SKINNER:    Teaching was a process of arranging contingencies of reinforcement effectively to bring about learning  It was simply a matter of establishing chains of behavior through principles of reinforcement  Programmed instruction was the most efficient means available for learning skills.   Many of his classroom management and instructional techniques are widely used today
  8. 8. IMPLICATIONS FOR TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION    Most original drill and practice software was based on SKINNER’s reinforcement principles  helps students memorize important basic information.  Tutorial software usually is based on the idea of programmed instruction  gives students an efficient path through concepts they want to learn.
  9. 9. Carolina García  Romina Hernández Practice II 2010

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