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HOW BEHAVIOR IS
AFFECTED BY LEARNING?
OBJECTIVES:
At the end of the discussions, the students
will be able to:
•Explain the basic principles of behaviorism.
•Ma...
the manner in which one behaves.
anything that an organism does involving
action and response to stimulation.
the response...
According to the behaviorists, learning can be
defined as “the relatively permanent change in
behavior brought about as a ...
“Learning is
represented by
a change in
behavior”
BEHAVIORISM
 Focuses on one particular view of
learning:
 a change in external behavior
achieved through a large amount
...
BEHAVIORISM
 As we learn, we alter the way we
perceive our environment, the way
we interpret the incoming stimuli,
and th...
HOW BEHAVIORISTS VIEW THE
FUNCTION OF THE BRAIN
The behavioral learning theory is
represented by an S-R paradigm. The orga...
BEHAVIOURISTS
Ivan Pavlov
Edward Thorndike
John B. Watson
B.F. Skinner
BEHAVIOURISTS
 Ivan Pavlov
 Edward Thorndike
 John B. Watson
 B.F. Skinner
BEHAVIOURISTS
 Ivan Pavlov
 Edward Thorndike
 John B. Watson
 B.F. Skinner
BEHAVIOURISTS
 Ivan Pavlov
 Edward Thorndike
 John B. Watson
 B.F. Skinner
JOHN BROADUS WATSON
 Born Jan 9, 1878
 Died Sept 25, 1958
 Born in Greenville, South
Carolina
 American psychologist
...
“LITTLE ALBERT“
EXPERIMENT
J. WATSON
 The first to study how the process of learning
affects our behavior, and he formed the school of
thought known...
EDWARD LEE THORNDIKE
 Born August 31, 1874
 Died August 9, 1949
 Born in Williamsburg,
Massachusetts
 Studied animal b...
E. THORNDIKE
 Thorndike specified three
conditions that maximize learning:
 The Law of Effect states that the
likely rec...
E. THORNDIKE
 Thorndike specified three
conditions that maximize learning:
 The Law of Exercise stated that
stimulus-res...
E. THORNDIKE
 Thorndike specified three
conditions that maximize learning:
 The Law of Readiness states
that, the more r...
2 MAJOR TYPES OF CONDITIONING
CLASSICAL
CONDITIONING
IVAN PETROVICH PAVLOV
 Born Sept 14, 1849
 Died Feb 27, 1936
 Born in Ryazan,
Russia
 Physiologist,
psychologist, and
...
PAVLOV’S EXPERIMENT
 Pavlov discovered classical conditioning
almost by accident. Originally, he wanted to
study the role...
 A STIMULUS is an observable environmental event
that has a potential to exert control over a
behavioral response.
 A RE...
TYPES OF STIMULUS AND RESPONSE
COMMON PHENOMENA IN
CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
1. Stimulus Generalization
2. Extinction
3. Spontaneous recovery
4. Discriminat...
OPERANT
CONDITIONING
BURRHUS FREDERIC SKINNER
 Born March 20, 1904
 Died August 18, 1990
 Born in Susquehanna,
Pennsylvania
 American psych...
 Operant or instrumental conditioning is a form of
learning in which the consequences of behavior
lead to changes in the ...
 REINFORCEMENT is a consequence that
increases the probability that a behavior will occur.
 PUNISHMENT is a consequence ...
TYPES OF REINFORCEMENT AND PUNISHMENT
SCHEDULE OF REINFORCEMENT
 Reinforces are more effective when they are
given as soon as possible after a student
performs...
4 TYPES OF SCHEDULE OF REINFORCEMENT
 Fixed-ratio schedule
 Variable-ratio schedule
 Fixed-interval schedule
 Variable...
Schedule of
reinforcement
Description Example
Fixed-ratio
schedule
A behavior is reinforced after a set
number of response...
DANGERS OF PUNISHMENT
 Punishment can be abusive.
 For example, a teacher might become so
aroused when he is punishing a...
Thus, punishment does not convey any
information about what an alternative and more
appropriate behavior might be.
It may ...
Behaviorist perspective
Behaviorist perspective
Behaviorist perspective
Behaviorist perspective
Behaviorist perspective
Behaviorist perspective
Behaviorist perspective
Behaviorist perspective
Behaviorist perspective
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Behaviorist perspective

  1. 1. HOW BEHAVIOR IS AFFECTED BY LEARNING?
  2. 2. OBJECTIVES: At the end of the discussions, the students will be able to: •Explain the basic principles of behaviorism. •Make a simple plan applying the primary laws of learning. •Determine how to use rewards in the learning process more effectively.
  3. 3. the manner in which one behaves. anything that an organism does involving action and response to stimulation. the response of an individual, group, or species to its environment.
  4. 4. According to the behaviorists, learning can be defined as “the relatively permanent change in behavior brought about as a result of experience or practice.” Behaviorists recognize that learning is an internal event. However, it is not recognized as learning until it is displayed by overt behavior.
  5. 5. “Learning is represented by a change in behavior”
  6. 6. BEHAVIORISM  Focuses on one particular view of learning:  a change in external behavior achieved through a large amount of repetition of desired actions, the reward of good habits and the discouragement of bad habits.
  7. 7. BEHAVIORISM  As we learn, we alter the way we perceive our environment, the way we interpret the incoming stimuli, and therefore the way we interact, or behave.
  8. 8. HOW BEHAVIORISTS VIEW THE FUNCTION OF THE BRAIN The behavioral learning theory is represented by an S-R paradigm. The organism is treated as a “black box.” We only know what is going on inside the box by the organism’s response.
  9. 9. BEHAVIOURISTS Ivan Pavlov Edward Thorndike John B. Watson B.F. Skinner
  10. 10. BEHAVIOURISTS  Ivan Pavlov  Edward Thorndike  John B. Watson  B.F. Skinner
  11. 11. BEHAVIOURISTS  Ivan Pavlov  Edward Thorndike  John B. Watson  B.F. Skinner
  12. 12. BEHAVIOURISTS  Ivan Pavlov  Edward Thorndike  John B. Watson  B.F. Skinner
  13. 13. JOHN BROADUS WATSON  Born Jan 9, 1878  Died Sept 25, 1958  Born in Greenville, South Carolina  American psychologist  Established the psychological school of behaviourism  “Little Albert” experiment
  14. 14. “LITTLE ALBERT“ EXPERIMENT
  15. 15. J. WATSON  The first to study how the process of learning affects our behavior, and he formed the school of thought known as BEHAVIORISM.
  16. 16. EDWARD LEE THORNDIKE  Born August 31, 1874  Died August 9, 1949  Born in Williamsburg, Massachusetts  Studied animal behaviour and the learning process  Led to the theory of connectionism  Laying the foundation for modern educational psychology.
  17. 17. E. THORNDIKE  Thorndike specified three conditions that maximize learning:  The Law of Effect states that the likely recurrence of a response is generally governed by its consequence or effect generally in the form of reward or punishment.
  18. 18. E. THORNDIKE  Thorndike specified three conditions that maximize learning:  The Law of Exercise stated that stimulus-response associations are strengthened through repetition.
  19. 19. E. THORNDIKE  Thorndike specified three conditions that maximize learning:  The Law of Readiness states that, the more readiness the learner has to respond to stimulus, the stronger will the bond between them.
  20. 20. 2 MAJOR TYPES OF CONDITIONING
  21. 21. CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
  22. 22. IVAN PETROVICH PAVLOV  Born Sept 14, 1849  Died Feb 27, 1936  Born in Ryazan, Russia  Physiologist, psychologist, and physician  Awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1904 for research on the digestive system
  23. 23. PAVLOV’S EXPERIMENT  Pavlov discovered classical conditioning almost by accident. Originally, he wanted to study the role of salivation in digestion. He measured how much saliva dogs produce when given meat. After a few days in the experiment, Pavlov noticed that the dogs in his laboratory started salivating when the lab attendant entered the room with the meat dish, before meat was placed in their mouth.
  24. 24.  A STIMULUS is an observable environmental event that has a potential to exert control over a behavioral response.  A RESPONSE is an overt behavior by a learner.  Put it in a simpler way, a STIMULUS is anything that can directly influence behavior and the stimulus produces a RESPONSE.
  25. 25. TYPES OF STIMULUS AND RESPONSE
  26. 26. COMMON PHENOMENA IN CLASSICAL CONDITIONING 1. Stimulus Generalization 2. Extinction 3. Spontaneous recovery 4. Discrimination 5. Higher order conditioning
  27. 27. OPERANT CONDITIONING
  28. 28. BURRHUS FREDERIC SKINNER  Born March 20, 1904  Died August 18, 1990  Born in Susquehanna, Pennsylvania  American psychologist, author, inventor, advocate for social reform and poet.  Innovated his own philosophy of science called Radical Behaviorism
  29. 29.  Operant or instrumental conditioning is a form of learning in which the consequences of behavior lead to changes in the probability that the behavior will occur.
  30. 30.  REINFORCEMENT is a consequence that increases the probability that a behavior will occur.  PUNISHMENT is a consequence that decreases the probability a behavior will occur.  Put it another way, reinforcement will strengthen a behavior while punishment will weaken a behavior.
  31. 31. TYPES OF REINFORCEMENT AND PUNISHMENT
  32. 32. SCHEDULE OF REINFORCEMENT  Reinforces are more effective when they are given as soon as possible after a student performs the target behavior. In continuous reinforcement like this, a student learns very rapidly but when the reinforcement stops, the behavior decreases rapidly too. Therefore, the schedule of reinforcement was developed. The schedule will determine when a behavior will be reinforced.
  33. 33. 4 TYPES OF SCHEDULE OF REINFORCEMENT  Fixed-ratio schedule  Variable-ratio schedule  Fixed-interval schedule  Variable-internal schedule
  34. 34. Schedule of reinforcement Description Example Fixed-ratio schedule A behavior is reinforced after a set number of responses have occurred. A student may be given a bar of Kit Kat chocolate for every ten mathematical problems solved. Variable-ratio schedule On a variable-ratio schedule, the number of responses needed to gain the reinforcement is not constant. Rewards could be given after 3, 5, 9, and 15 mathematical problems solved. Fixed-interval schedule A behavior will be reinforced after a certain period of time. No matter how often it occurs, the behavior will not be reinforced until the time is up. Students are given a quiz every Wednesday. Variable-interval schedule Also based on time passing but the time period keep changing. Students are given pop quizzes.
  35. 35. DANGERS OF PUNISHMENT  Punishment can be abusive.  For example, a teacher might become so aroused when he is punishing a student that he becomes abusive.  Punishment may create a new problem, that is aggression.  Students commonly react to physical punishment by learning to dislike the punisher and perhaps by reacting aggressively toward that person.
  36. 36. Thus, punishment does not convey any information about what an alternative and more appropriate behavior might be. It may suppress one inappropriate behavior only to be replaced by another one. Punishment can turn out to be reinforcing. A student might learn that misbehaving will get the teacher’s attention.
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