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Behaviorism and education


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Behaviorism and education

  1. 1. Behaviorism and Education
  2. 2. Behaviorism • Behaviorism is an approach to psychology based on the belief that all human actions and responses can be explained in terms of reflexes conditioned by reward and punishment. • Behaviorists look at learning as an aspect of conditioning and will advocate a system of rewards and targets in education.
  3. 3. The learning Theorists
  4. 4. Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) • Pavlov did a famous experiment that demonstrate the theory of classical conditioning • He is known for using dogs for behavioral tests. He used a bell to teach the dogs to know that food was being given and it resulted in the dogs salivating while waiting for the food. This became known as classical conditioning.
  5. 5. Edvard Thorndike (1874-1949) • Thorndike is known for the theory he called the law of effect , which emerged from his research on how cats learn to escape from puzzle boxes. According to the law of effect, responses that are immediately followed by a satisfactory outcome become more strongly associated with the situation and are therefore more likely to occur again in the future . In his view, behaviors and responses that are rewarded will become strengthened and habitual.
  6. 6. John B. Watson(1878-1958) Watson believed that human behavior resulted from specific stimuli that elicited certain responses. Watson's basic premise was that conclusions about human development should be based on observation of overt behavior rather than speculation about subconscious motives or latent cognitive processes.
  7. 7. B.F Skinner (1904-1990) • Skinner believed that the best way to understand behavior is to look at the causes of an action and its consequences. He called this approach operant conditioning. Operant conditioning is a method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behavior.
  8. 8. Examples of operant conditioning • When a person makes something that we approve, he or she must be rewarded • When a person makes something that we do not approve, he or she must be punished • Memory as a key to success
  9. 9. The learning goals • learning task – based learning • improving student’s memory • throwing out bad behaviour
  10. 10. The role of a trainer • giving students positive reinforcement • providing stimulus materials • Dividing the task into small steps • Working from the most simple to the most complex assignments
  11. 11. The role of a student • Responding to the reinforcement • Asking question for more clarity to the directions • Asking for feedback • Practising to remove old habits
  12. 12. Advantages and disadvantages • Advantages - Excellent scores - By learning programmed- instructions, learnes may be good athletics or have some other aptitudes • Disadvantages - requires only low- level thinking
  13. 13. Sources • /edward-thorndike.htm • nkston_learning.pdf • orism • to-4-complex-learning-theories/