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Cognitive learning theory

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Cognitive Learning Theory
Cognitive Learning Theory
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Cognitive learning theory

  2. 2. Basis and Focus • Basis: Principles of cognitive psychology • Focus: Role of cognitive processes in learning
  3. 3. Focus • The mental processes involved in learning: – Observing, categorizing, forming generalizations to make sense of the information provided
  4. 4. Main Assumptions • Learning results from internal mental activity and not from externally imposed stimuli
  5. 5. • The learner comes with knowledge, skills and related experiences to the learning situation
  6. 6. Role of the Learner • Active participant in the learning process, using various strategies to process and construct their personal understanding of the content to which they are exposed
  7. 7. Piaget, Bloom, Bruner, Ausubel • Each of these psychologists focused on different cognitive conditions that impact on learning
  8. 8. Jean Piaget • Constructed models of child development and the learning process • Identified 4 developmental stages and the cognitive processes associated with each of them
  9. 9. Developmental Stages • Sensory-motor - understands his environment through the basic senses • Intuitive /Pre-operational - Thoughts more flexible, memory and imagination begin to play a part in learning, capable of more creativity
  10. 10. • Concrete Operational – Can go beyond the basic information given, but still dependent on concrete material and examples to support reasoning • Formal Operational – Abstract reasoning becomes increasingly possible
  11. 11. Accommodation • Accommodation – The process by which we modify what we already know to take into account the new information
  12. 12. Assimilation • The process by which new knowledge is changed / modified / merged in our minds to fit into what we already know
  13. 13. Equilibration • The balance between what is known and what is currently being processed, mastery of the new material
  14. 14. Implications for the Classroom • Learning is the process of relating new information with what was previously learnt • Learning is cumulative
  15. 15. Implications • Learners should be assigned tasks that are age and stage appropriate
  16. 16. Bloom’s Taxonomy • Identifies and describes, in hierarchical order, the cognitive processes involved in learning
  17. 17. Implication for Teaching • Use verbs aligned to the taxonomy to plan lessons that would ensure that learners’ cognitive skills develop from LOTS to HOTS
  18. 18. Revised Taxonomy • The original taxonomy has now been revised to make provision for the new knowledge and skills that now exist as a result of the integration of web 2.0 tools in teaching
  19. 19. Original and Revised Taxonomies
  20. 20. Bloom (Rev.) and Web 2.0
  21. 21. Jerome Bruner - Focus Development of conceptual understanding, cognitive skills and learning strategies rather than the acquisition of knowledge
  22. 22. Bruner’s Focus • Teaching Approach - Learners should be encouraged to discover solutions via appropriate tasks which require the application of relevant critical thinking skills
  23. 23. Bruner – Modes of Thinking • Extended aspects of Piaget’s theory. He identified three ways in which learners process information
  24. 24. • Enactive Level – learning takes place via direct manipulation of objects and materials
  25. 25. • Iconic Level – Objects are represented by visual images and are recognized for what they represent
  26. 26. • Symbolic Level – Learning can take place using symbols, objects and mental images. Language is used to represent thoughts and experiences
  27. 27. Implications for Teaching • Providing opportunities for learners to be actively engaged in making sense of the language input, through meaningful tasks
  28. 28. • Providing opportunities for learners to develop the ability to analyze the language, make generalizations about rules, take risks in trying out the language, and to learn from errors
  29. 29. • Catering for interaction of learner with curriculum material and the learning environment • Catering for the three modes of thinking (Bruner)
  30. 30. • The Spiral Process: The cumulative nature of learning requires frequent opportunities for reviewing previously learnt material even as new material is introduced.
  31. 31. David Ausubel - Focus • Stressed the importance of active mental participation in meaningful learning tasks • Learning must be meaningful to be effective and permanent
  32. 32. • Made a distinction between meaningful learning and rote learning • Meaningful Learning – relatable to what one already knows so it can be easily integrated in one’s existing cognitive structure
  33. 33. • Rote Learning – the material to be learnt is not integrated / subsumed into an existing cognitive structure but learnt as isolated pieces of information
  34. 34. Implications for Classroom • Teacher has to enhance the meaningfulness of new material to increase the chances of its being anchored to what is already known
  35. 35. • New material must be organized to be easily relatable to what is already known • New material must be appropriately sequenced to facilitate integration
  36. 36. • Use of advance organizers. These facilitate the learning process by providing ideas to which the new knowledge can be attached
  37. 37. Advance Organizers • Introductory material presented in advance of the new material • Information that activates relevant background knowledge
  38. 38. Advance Organizers • Material that orients learners to the subject matter and relates new learning to what is already known • Can take the form of textual material, pictures, titles, topic summaries, questions
  39. 39. Attention should be given to: • The need to organize and structure meaningful learning activities. • The requirements of the task must be appropriate to the developmental stage (Piaget, Bruner) and allow for the development of HOTS (Bloom)
  40. 40. Moving from LOTS to HOTS

Editor's Notes

  • more concerned with learning processes than content