Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Constructivism: How to Use It to Improve YOUR Teaching and Learning

16,735 views

Published on

This presentation is required work in Walden University's EDUC 8101-3, Spring 2011. The project is designed to educate an non-professional audiences about the learning theory called Constructionism so examples are, of necessity, simplified. Jargon is held to a minimum.

Published in: Education
  • DOWNLOAD THIS BOOKS INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT (2019 Update) ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... Download Full PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... eBook is an electronic version of a traditional print book THIS can be read by using a personal computer or by using an eBook reader. (An eBook reader can be a software application for use on a computer such as Microsoft's free Reader application, or a book-sized computer THIS is used solely as a reading device such as Nuvomedia's Rocket eBook.) Users can purchase an eBook on diskette or CD, but the most popular method of getting an eBook is to purchase a downloadable file of the eBook (or other reading material) from a Web site (such as Barnes and Noble) to be read from the user's computer or reading device. Generally, an eBook can be downloaded in five minutes or less ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks .............................................................................................................................. Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .....BEST SELLER FOR EBOOK RECOMMEND............................................................. ......................................................................................................................... Blowout: Corrupted Democracy, Rogue State Russia, and the Richest, Most Destructive Industry on Earth,-- The Ride of a Lifetime: Lessons Learned from 15 Years as CEO of the Walt Disney Company,-- Call Sign Chaos: Learning to Lead,-- StrengthsFinder 2.0,-- Stillness Is the Key,-- She Said: Breaking the Sexual Harassment Story THIS Helped Ignite a Movement,-- Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones,-- Everything Is Figureoutable,-- What It Takes: Lessons in the Pursuit of Excellence,-- Rich Dad Poor Dad: What the Rich Teach Their Kids About Money THIS the Poor and Middle Class Do Not!,-- The Total Money Makeover: Classic Edition: A Proven Plan for Financial Fitness,-- Shut Up and Listen!: Hard Business Truths THIS Will Help You Succeed, ......................................................................................................................... .........................................................................................................................
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • DOWNLOAD THAT BOOKS INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT (2019 Update) ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... Download Full PDF EBOOK here { http://bit.ly/2m6jJ5M } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full EPUB Ebook here { http://bit.ly/2m6jJ5M } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full doc Ebook here { http://bit.ly/2m6jJ5M } ......................................................................................................................... Download PDF EBOOK here { http://bit.ly/2m6jJ5M } ......................................................................................................................... Download EPUB Ebook here { http://bit.ly/2m6jJ5M } ......................................................................................................................... Download doc Ebook here { http://bit.ly/2m6jJ5M } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... eBook is an electronic version of a traditional print book that can be read by using a personal computer or by using an eBook reader. (An eBook reader can be a software application for use on a computer such as Microsoft's free Reader application, or a book-sized computer that is used solely as a reading device such as Nuvomedia's Rocket eBook.) Users can purchase an eBook on diskette or CD, but the most popular method of getting an eBook is to purchase a downloadable file of the eBook (or other reading material) from a Web site (such as Barnes and Noble) to be read from the user's computer or reading device. Generally, an eBook can be downloaded in five minutes or less ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks .............................................................................................................................. Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .....BEST SELLER FOR EBOOK RECOMMEND............................................................. ......................................................................................................................... Blowout: Corrupted Democracy, Rogue State Russia, and the Richest, Most Destructive Industry on Earth,-- The Ride of a Lifetime: Lessons Learned from 15 Years as CEO of the Walt Disney Company,-- Call Sign Chaos: Learning to Lead,-- StrengthsFinder 2.0,-- Stillness Is the Key,-- She Said: Breaking the Sexual Harassment Story That Helped Ignite a Movement,-- Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones,-- Everything Is Figureoutable,-- What It Takes: Lessons in the Pursuit of Excellence,-- Rich Dad Poor Dad: What the Rich Teach Their Kids About Money That the Poor and Middle Class Do Not!,-- The Total Money Makeover: Classic Edition: A Proven Plan for Financial Fitness,-- Shut Up and Listen!: Hard Business Truths that Will Help You Succeed, ......................................................................................................................... .........................................................................................................................
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • DOWNLOAD THIS BOOKS INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT (Unlimited) ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... Download Full PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... ACCESS WEBSITE for All Ebooks ......................................................................................................................... Download Full PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... Download EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... Download doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks ......................................................................................................................... Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult,
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • DOWNLOAD THIS BOOKS INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT (Unlimited) ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... Download Full PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... ACCESS WEBSITE for All Ebooks ......................................................................................................................... Download Full PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... Download EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... Download doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks ......................................................................................................................... Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult,
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • DOWNLOAD FULL eBOOK INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF eBook here { https://tinyurl.com/y3nhqquc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB eBook here { https://tinyurl.com/y3nhqquc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc eBook here { https://tinyurl.com/y3nhqquc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF eBook here { https://tinyurl.com/y3nhqquc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB eBook here { https://tinyurl.com/y3nhqquc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc eBook here { https://tinyurl.com/y3nhqquc } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks ......................................................................................................................... Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, CookeBOOK Crime, eeBOOK Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult,
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

Constructivism: How to Use It to Improve YOUR Teaching and Learning

  1. 1. Constructivism: How to Use It to Improve YOUR Teaching and Learning by Barbara Rademacher For EDUC 8101-3 Spring 2011 Walden University
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Constructivism – in its many forms – is an important education theory. </li></ul><ul><li>Since the 1990’s, constructivism has dominated mathematics education. </li></ul><ul><li>In this workshop, you will: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>use constructivist methods to learn about constructivism, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>learn about traditional educational theories, and maintain your interest by filling in blanks, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>learn about and discuss the types of constructivism, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>learn about constructivist teaching methods you can use to improve YOUR teaching and learning, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>brainstorm teaching activities you can use yourselves. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. When you see this icon… <ul><li>Click on it to learn more about the subject covered on the slide. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Building Meaning <ul><li>Refer to your handout for the first activity. </li></ul><ul><li>You will spend three minutes writing down every mental image and word that occurs to you when you hear and see the word CONSTRUCT . </li></ul>
  5. 5. Your Theory of Constructivism <ul><li>What do you think the Theory of Constructivism is all about? </li></ul><ul><li>Write your thoughts. </li></ul>I think the Theory of Constructivism says that …
  6. 6. Share Your Theory <ul><li>Now, all the participants in this workshop will share with each other their theories about what CONSTRUCTIVISM is. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Reconsider and Rewrite <ul><li>Hearing the theories of others may have caused you to alter your thinking. </li></ul><ul><li>Rewrite your Theory of Constructivism. </li></ul>I Now think the Theory of Constructivism says that …
  8. 8. CONGRATULATIONS! You Have Just Practiced Constructivism <ul><li>First, you considered a new word: Constructivism. </li></ul><ul><li>Second, you associated words you already knew with the root word that is the source of the word Constructivism. </li></ul><ul><li>Next, you guessed what the word constructivism might mean. </li></ul><ul><li>You discussed your ideas with others who were also developing guesses about the meaning of the word Constructivism. </li></ul><ul><li>Finally, you rewrote your theory based upon the ideas of others. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Constructivist Theory says: <ul><li>People are constantly building knowledge like they build houses from materials they already have on hand, and then creating new knowledge like they might build a new house. </li></ul><ul><li>Other people influence how individuals create knowledge just like neighbors influence the styles of house that are built. </li></ul>
  10. 10. What Came Before Constructivism?
  11. 11. Transmission Theory <ul><li>From ancient times to the present, many teachers and theorists have insisted that students – both children and adults – are empty vessels waiting to be filled by a teacher. </li></ul>
  12. 12. COGNITIVISM <ul><li>Developed by the famous educational theorist, Jean Piaget. </li></ul><ul><li>All people learn by relating new information and facts to older ones in a process called assimilation. </li></ul><ul><li>When humans learn something so new it cannot be assimilated, they create new mental structures called schemas. This is a process called accommodation. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning takes place in the individual. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Stage Theory <ul><li>There have been many stage theorists, but the most famous have probably been Piaget and Erickson. </li></ul><ul><li>Stage theories say that people develop by going from one stage to another sequentially. </li></ul><ul><li>Higher stages are superior to lower stages. </li></ul><ul><li>Education should be offered according to the stage the student is in. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>COGNITIVISM </li></ul><ul><li>CONSTRUCTIVISM </li></ul>SIMILARITIES <ul><li>Schemas (aka schemata): People learn relatively new facts by relating them to previously learned facts which make up the way they view the world. </li></ul><ul><li>People understand relatively new information by building it onto related facts which are built on a foundation of related information. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>COGNITIVISM </li></ul><ul><li>CONSTRUCTIVISM </li></ul>SIMILARITIES <ul><li>When faced with entirely new information that cannot be fit into previous schemas, people create new schemas. </li></ul><ul><li>When faced with entirely new information that does not fit on a previous foundation, people have to lay entirely new foundations on which the new sets of facts can become building materials. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Varieties of Constructivism There are many ways to be a constructivist. <ul><li>Besides education, constructivists are concerned with questions like: </li></ul><ul><li>Who does the learning: The individual or the group? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there an objective reality? </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Mental Structures </li></ul>Piaget’s Constructivism <ul><li>People learn by building mental structures called schemas that interpret external reality. </li></ul><ul><li>People learn new information by relating it to already known information. </li></ul><ul><li>Schemas are like building blocks. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Emphasis is on Action </li></ul>Discovery Learning <ul><li>People discover information through performing activities. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>The Mind is An Active Computer </li></ul>Information Processing Theory <ul><li>The mind is an active processor of information. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowing is active (not passive), based on previous knowledge, and takes place in the individual. </li></ul><ul><li>There is objective truth that cannot be known perfectly. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Mind is Located in the Brain </li></ul>Weak Constructivism <ul><li>Similar to Information Processing Theory. </li></ul><ul><li>The mind is located in the brain and nervous system. </li></ul><ul><li>Truth is objective and “out there”. </li></ul><ul><li>Truth can be known imperfectly. </li></ul><ul><li>Chief proponent: Paul Ernest </li></ul>Detractors call this “Trivial” Constructivism.
  21. 21. <ul><li>Truth Cannot Be Known </li></ul>Radical Constructivism <ul><li>Humans build knowledge on a foundation of previous knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Truth may exist but humans cannot ever know it. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is using the senses to make successful guesses about objects we encounter. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning occurs in the individual. </li></ul><ul><li>Chief proponent: Ernst von Glasersfeld </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Knowledge is Built in Groups </li></ul>Social Constructivism <ul><li>Individual mind, alone, doesn’t exist. Mind is part of society and culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning cannot occur in isolation. </li></ul><ul><li>Humans construct reality and change it constantly so that it fits the true reality better. </li></ul><ul><li>Conventional knowledge is socially accepted. </li></ul><ul><li>Chief proponent: Lev Vygotsky </li></ul>
  23. 23. Paul Cobb’s Eclectic Constructivism Click on Dr. Cobb’s photo to go to his faculty web page.
  24. 24. Paul Cobb <ul><li>Cobb holds Peabody Chair in Teaching and Learning at Vanderbilt University. </li></ul><ul><li>A dominant influence on mathematics education. </li></ul><ul><li>Author of many, many journal articles and books about constructivist teaching methods. </li></ul><ul><li>Currently working on equity and diversity issues in mathematics education. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Cobb’s Constructivism <ul><li>Most people conduct intricate mathematical calculations in real-life situations. </li></ul><ul><li>Where they have problems is in the classroom. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Cobb’s Constructivism <ul><li>People learn by linking new knowledge to old. </li></ul><ul><li>Students learn math by being part of groups of people doing math, a process called “enculturation”. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Cobb’s Constructivism <ul><li>Students and teachers together make up the classroom culture. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Cobb’s Constructivism <ul><li>When students share their constructions, their understanding improves. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Cobb’s Constructivism <ul><li>When students reflect together about how they developed their constructions, their concepts often become permanent ideas, and they are able to use those ideas outside the classroom (transference). </li></ul>
  30. 30. Cobb’s Constructivism <ul><li>Students construct their own concepts regardless of the teacher… </li></ul><ul><li>but those concepts may not resemble the teacher’s concepts. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Cobb’s Constructivism <ul><li>Learning to use mathematical symbols is not a separate skill from learning math-ematical concepts; students develop both skills at the same time. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Suggested Teaching Methods Cobb video: Improving schools, teaching and teachers.
  33. 33. Attention <ul><li>Teachers should listen carefully to students and watch their body language in order to try to comprehend how each individual is constructing concepts. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Stand on Giants’ Shoulders <ul><li>Teachers need to introduce each new topic by relating it to what students have already learned. Students learn by relating new knowledge to old. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Enculturation <ul><li>Teachers need to use group work so that students can share their understandings with each other. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Discussions <ul><li>Teachers need to encourage whole-class discussions of mathematical topics so that students can “negotiate” meanings with their peers and with the teacher. Discussing concepts has been shown in research to increase student engagement. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Video Record <ul><li>If possible, teachers should video record whole-class discussions, and study the videos after class in order to better understand students’ thinking processes. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Creativity <ul><li>To promote student engagement, teachers should assign a few harder word problems and encourage students to solve them using any method, even “street math”. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Tolerance <ul><li>Teachers must be willing to tolerate wrong answers in order to concentrate on the methods students are using to solve problems. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Conclusion <ul><li>Now that you are experts in constructivist methodology, we will go around the room and discuss a method you might use with your students. </li></ul><ul><li>Please, briefly jot down your thoughts and the thoughts of others so that you can engage in group constructions. </li></ul><ul><li>On your handout, you have room to take notes and a list of sources. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Videos about Constructivism <ul><li>von Glasersfeld http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zTsY3TosVX0 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YozoZxblQx8 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GpWbUWroPuA </li></ul><ul><li>Constructivism: </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YkENpwnlDTI </li></ul><ul><li>Abbott talks about Constructivism: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F00R3pOXzuk </li></ul><ul><li>Constructivism for the Beginning Educator: http://www.youtube.com/user/PatDA1#g/u </li></ul><ul><li>Constructivist teaching using blogs and wikis: Dr. Helen Cohen (University of Maryland) http://deimos3.apple.com/WebObjects/Core.woa/Browse/umd-public.4444871239?i=1289520483 </li></ul>
  42. 42. Books and journal articles used to prepare this presentation <ul><li>Cobb, P. (1994). Where is the mind? Constructivist and sociocultural perspectives on mathematical development. Educational Researcher , 23 (7), 13. </li></ul><ul><li>Cobb, P., Boufi, A., McClain, K., & Whitenack, J. (1997). Reflective discourse and collective reflection. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education , 28 (3), 258–277. </li></ul><ul><li>Cobb, P. (1988). The Tension Between Theories of Learning and Instruction in Mathematics Education. Educational Psychologist , 23 (2), 87. </li></ul><ul><li>Cobb, P. (2002). Reasoning With Tools and Inscriptions. Journal of the Learning Sciences , 11 (2/3), 187-215. </li></ul><ul><li>Ernest, P. (1996). Varieties of constructivism: A framework for comparison. In L. Steffe, P. Nesher, P. Cobb, G. A. Goldin, & B. Greer (Eds.), Theories of mathematical learning (pp. 335–350). Mahwah N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. </li></ul><ul><li>von Glasersfeld, E. (1996). Aspects of radical constructivism and its educational recommendations. In L. Steffe, P. Nesher, P. Cobb, G. A. Goldin, & B. Greer (Eds.), Theories of Mathematical Learning (pp. 307-314). Mahwah, N. J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Retrieved from http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=37042395# </li></ul><ul><li>Steffe, L., Nesher, P., Cobb, P., Goldin, G. A., & Greer, B. (Eds.). (1996). Theories of Mathematical Learning . Mahwah, N. J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Retrieved from http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=37042395# </li></ul>

×