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Skinner learning theory
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BF Skinner- Operant Conditioning

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BF Skinner- Operant Conditioning

  1. 1. PRESENTATION ON SKINNER’S THEORY LEARNING BEHAVIOR Kalik Dev & Ajay Singh Rathore Applied Criminology
  2. 2.  B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)  Operant Conditioning
  3. 3. Operant Behavior Is Voluntary & Directed by Consequences.  Edward Thorndike’s Law of Effect:  The relationship between behavior and its consequences.  So named because behavior becomes more or less likely based on the effect it has in producing desirable or undesirable consequences.  Rewarded behavior is likely to recur. Behavior followed by a negative consequence is less likely to recur.
  4. 4.  B. F. Skinnermade the law of effect the cornerstone for his influential theory of learning, called “Operant Conditioning”.  According to Skinner, the organism’s behavior is “operating” on the environment to achieve some desired goal.  Operant conditioning: learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcement and weakened if followed by Operant Behavior Is Voluntary & Directed by Consequences.
  5. 5. A Reinforcer Increases the Probability of the Behavior It Follows-  The fundamental principle of behaviorism is that rewarded behavior is likely to be repeated.  This is known as reinforcement in operant conditioning.  It also states the positive side of Thorndike’s Law of Effect.
  6. 6. Operant Chamber (“Skinner Box”) soundproof chamber with a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer, contains a device to record responses,
  7. 7. A Reinforcer Increases the Probability of the Behavior It Follows-  Primary versus secondary reinforcers.  Primary reinforcers: innately reinforcing— satisfy biological needs.  Secondary reinforcers: learned and become reinforcing when associated with a primary reinforcer.
  8. 8. A Reinforcer Increases the Probability of the Behavior It Follows-  Positive and negative reinforcers.  Positive reinforcers: strengthen a response by presenting a positive stimulus after a response.  Negative reinforcer: strengthens a response by removing an aversive stimulus after a response.
  9. 9. Different Reinforcement Schedules Lead to Different Learning and Performance Rates.  Continuous reinforcement leads to the fastest learning.  The biggest problem with continuous reinforcement is that when it ends, extinction occurs rapidly.
  10. 10. Different Reinforcement Schedules Lead to Different Learning and Performance Rates.  Partial reinforcement has an important effect on your continued performance because being reinforced only once in a while keeps you responding vigorously for longer periods of time than does continuous reinforcement.
  11. 11. Accidental Reinforcement Can Cause Superstitious Behavior.  Superstitious behavior: learned because it happened to be followed by a reinforcer, even though this behavior was not the cause of the reinforcer.  Skinner trained superstitious behavior in hungry pigeons. He reasoned that when reinforcement occurred, it would be paired with whatever response the pigeons had just performed. Instances of accidental reinforcement triggering superstitious behavior is common among people.
  12. 12. Punishment Should Be Used Only under Certain Circumstances.  Punishment: The process by which a consequence de cre ase s the probability of the behavior that it follows.
  13. 13. Applications of Operant Conditioning.  Structure and feedback in learning – immediate reinforcement.  Defined performance goals and immediate reinforcement at work.  Parenting – reward good behavior, ignore whining, time-out.
  14. 14. Any Query ?
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