LEARNING This is one of the fundamental processes underlying behavior. Most behavior within organizations is learned behavior. Perceptions, attitudes, goals and emotional reactions are learned. THREE TYPES OF LEARNING Classical conditioning Operant conditioning Social learning
DRIVES A drive is an aroused condition resulting from deprivation or some specific stimulation. Primary drives are inherent to a person, while in contrast, secondary drives are learned. Once a drive has been learned, it triggers behavior.
STIMULUS A stimulus is a cute that is the occasion for a response. Stimuli set the stage for a response or a series of responses. In some cases, the stimulus that calls forth a response is obvious, while in other times it is obscure.
RESPONSE A response is the behavioral result of stimulation. It is any activity of the person, whether or not the stimulus is identifiable or the activity is observable. Responses are linked to stimuli in that when a stimulus occurs, a response is likely to follow. Responses in work organization may be oral, written, manual or attitudinal.
REINFORCER A reinforce is any object or event that increases or sustains the strength of a response. Common reinforcers used in an organization are praise, merits, increase of pay and job transfer.
CLASSICAL CONDITIONING This is a kind of learning that was created by the Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov around the beginning of the 20th century. This is the use of unconditioned stimulus and response towards conditioned stimulus and response.
OPERANT CONDITIONING This created by the behavioralist B.F. Skinner. This form of conditioning is concerned with learning that occurs as a consequence of behavior. Behaviors can be controlled by altering the consequences (reinforcers and punishments) that follow them are called operants.
SOCIAL LEARNING The operant conditioning theory of B.F. Skinner was further expanded by Stanford University’s Albert Bandura by illustrating how people acquire new behavior by imitating role models (learning vicariously). Social learning refers to the fact that we acquire much of our behavior by observation and imitation of others in a social context. The central part of the social learning theory is the concept of self-efficacy. This is defined as the belief that one can perform adequately in a particular situation.
THREE DIMENSIONS OF SELF EFFICACY Magnitude – The level of difficulty of a task a person believes s/he can attain Strength – Referring to the conviction regarding magnitude as strong or weak Generality – The degree to which the expectation is generalized across situations.
PYGMALION EFFECT This refers to enhanced learning or performance resulting from the positive expectations of others. Some believe that self-efficacy may be involved in the Pygmalion effect through the persuasive influence of others holding positive expectations.
REINFORCEMENT THEORY Reinforcement theory is one of the four major process motivation theories. This is closely related to B.F. Skinner’s operant conditioning theory and was coined organizational behavior modification or OB Mod. This is the systematic reinforcement of desirable organization behavior and the nonreinforcement or punishment of unwanted organizational behavior.
FOUR PRINCIPLES OF REINFORCEMENT THEORY Positive reinforcement – Anything that both increases the strength of response and induces repetitions of the behavior that preceded the reinforcement. Negative reinforcement – Anything that increases the frequency of a response following removal of a negative reinforce immediately after the response. Punishment – An uncomfortable consequence of a particular behavioral response. Extinction – Decline of response rate due to nonreinforcement.
WHY PUNISHMENT IS CONSIDERED A POOR APPROACH IN LEARNING The results of punishment are not as predictable as those of rewards The effects of punishments are less permanent than those if a reward Punishment is frequently accompanied by negative attitudes toward he administrator of the punishment, as well as toward the activity that led to the punishment
EXPECTANCY THEORY One of the more popular expectancy explanations of motivation was developed by Victor Vroom. Vroom defines motivation as a process governing choices among alternative forms of voluntary activity. In his view, most behaviors are under the voluntary control of the person and are consequently motivated.
EXPECTANCY THEORY TERMINOLOGIES First and second level outcomes – The first level outcomes resulting from behavior are associated with doing the job itself. Second level outcomes are those events that the first level outcomes are likely to produce. Instrumentality – This is the perception by an individual that first level outcomes are associated with second level outcomes. Valence – Strength of a person’s preference for a particular outcome. Expectancy – Perceived likelihood that particular act will be followed by particular outcome.
EQUITY THEORY The essence of equity theory is that employees compare their efforts and rewards with those of others in similar work situations. This theory of motivation is based on the assumption that individuals, who work in exchange of rewards from the organization, are motivated by a desire to be equitably treated at work.
EQUITY THEORY TERMINOLOGIES Person – the individual for whom equity or inequity is perceived. Comparison other – any individual or group used by “person” as a referent regarding the ratio of inputs and outcomes. Inputs – the individual characteristics brought by “person” to the job. Outcomes – what “person” received from the job.
CHANGE PROCEDURE TO RESTORE EQUITY Changing inputs Changing outcomes Changing attitudes Changing the reference person Changing the inputs or outcomes of the reference person Changing the situation
GOAL SETTING THEORY Goal setting was a cognitive process of some practical utility. An individual’s conscious goals and intentions are the primary determinants of behavior. That is one of the commonly observed characteristics of intentional behavior is that it tends to keep going until it reaches completion.
ATTRIBUTES OF GOAL SETTING Goal specificity – is the degree quantitative precision of the goal. Goal difficulty – is the degree of proficiency or the level of performance sought. Goal intensity – pertains to the process of setting the goal or of determining how to reach it.
KEY STEPS IN GOAL SETTING Diagnosis – of whether the people, the organization, and the technology are suited for goal setting. Preparing – employees via increased interpersonal interaction, communication, training, and action plans for goal setting. Emphasizing – the attributes of goals that should be understood by a manager and subordinates. Conducting – intermediate reviews to make necessary goal adjustments in established goals. Performing – a final review to check the goals set modified and accomplished.
TRADITIONAL THEORY The traditional theory evolved from the work of Frederick W. Taylor. The traditional theory of motivation is based on the assumption that money is the primary motivator. Financial rewards are directly related to performance in the belief that if the reward is great enough, the employees will produce more.
MASLOW’S HEIRARCHY OF NEEDS THEORY This is one of the most important theories of motivation that was postulated by the industrial psychologist Abraham W. Maslow. He stated that human needs in the form of hierarchy should be satisfied in order, from the lowest to the highest needs. It consists of physiological, security, love and belongingness, self esteem and self actualization.
ACHIEVEMENT-POWER-AFFILIATION THEORY This is a theory created by David McClelland. This theory holds that all people have three needs: a need to achieve, a need for power and a need for affiliation. The need for achievement is a desire to do something better or more efficiently that it has been done before. The need for power is basically a concern for influencing people – to be strong or influential. The need for affiliation is a need to be liked – to establish or maintain friendly relations with others.
MOTIVATION-MAINTENANCE THEORY Frederick Herzberg, Bernard Mausner, and Barbara Syndeman developed a theory of work motivation which has wide acceptance in management circles. The motivation-maintenance theory contends that motivation comes from the individual, not from the manager. At best, proper attention to hygiene factors keep an individual from being highly dissatisfied but does not make that individual motivated. Both hygiene and motivation must be present for true motivation to occur.