Global knowledge management_pawlowski_2012


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The extensive slideset is used for a 5ECTS course on global knowledge management. It covers theoretical aspects as well as practical issues. It is accompanied by a case study on global knowledge management as a practical application of the theoretical concepts. For further information, please contact me.The slides can be used for non-commercial purposes but please inform me how you used them!

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  • Relation from the paper + one maybe from Jan’s slides
  • Don’t go too deeply on the first lecture.
  • Don’t go too deeply on the first lecture.
  • Can support various stagesRelated to barrier knowledge explained later.
  • Informal networks are getting more visible. If communities are bundled to knowledge networks, the advantages of peripherally orga- nized communities can be combined with the advantages of centrally organized approaches, such as content management (Bach, 2000, p. 81). By defining roles and responsibilities within knowledge networks, communities can be closely linked to business processes. Directory and skill management. Skill management is based on expert directories that are maintained by the process ‘knowledge documentation,’ how- ever, not only the storing of information about pro- fessionals is of interest. In addition, knowledge profiles should be managed and assessed in such a way that a skill management is able to contribute to the planning of measures.
  • Different models and approaches where can be utilized-KM & PM (different phases)-Designing systems for KM-selecting systems for KM (show evaluation strategies (thesis, WS papers etc))
  • Multiple entry points depending on what do you want to focus on (improving the process, application of technologies, communication channels, communication flow etc.)
  • Here from thesis and other evaluation frameworks
  • Global knowledge management_pawlowski_2012

    1. 1. Global Knowledge Management An Introduction Jan M. Pawlowski, Markus Bick, Franz Lehner Spring 2012
    2. 2. Licensing: Creative CommonsYou are free: to Share — to copy, distribute and transmit Collaborative Course Development! the work Thanks to my colleagues Prof. Dr. to Remix — to adapt the work Markus Bick and Prof. Dr. Franz Lehner who have developed parts of the Knowledge Management CourseUnder the following conditions: which we taught together during the Jyväskylä Summer School Course Attribution. You must attribute the work in 2011. the manner specified by the author or licensor (but not in any way that suggests Prof. Dr. Markus Bick (Introduction, that they endorse you or your use of the CEN Framework) work). ESCP Europe Campus Berlin Web: Noncommercial. You may not use this work for commercial purposes. Prof. Dr. Franz Lehner (Assessment, Process Integration) Share Alike. If you alter, transform, or build University of Passau upon this work, you may distribute the Web: http:// resulting work only under the same or similar license to this one. sa/3.0/
    3. 3. The License in plain words…All slides in this set can be used for non-commercialpurposes (academic, general)If you like to use my slides, just inform one of theauthors by sending a mail (eg to you modify the slides, please send usyour versionIf you use the slide for a commercial course, contactus and we agree how to arrange this
    4. 4. …Jyväskylä, Finland…Source: [,]
    5. 5. …Jyväskylä, Finland…Source: [,,]
    6. 6. University of JyväskyläFounded in 1934Nearly 15.000 degree students in seven faculties.Approximately 2.500 Staff members.– About 700 Research StaffExcellence Centre nominated by the Finnish Academye.g. in Learning and Motivation Research
    7. 7. Global Information Systems, University of Jyväskylä (JYU) - The Team Kati Philipp Denis Kozlov Clements Holtkamp Henri Jan M. Pirkkalainen Pawlowski My background Ph.D. Business Information Systems, University of Essen Habilitation ―Quality Management / Integration of Knowledge Management and E-Learning‖ Professor in ―Global Information Systems‖ Chair CEN/ISSS Workshop Learning Technologies ISO/IEC JTC1 SC36 Project Editor
    8. 8. JYU: Global Information SystemsFocus areas Projects Global Information Systems OpenScout: OER for Supporting globally distributed Management workgroups TELMAP: Technology Open Educational Resources Forecasting Reference Modeling NORDLET: Nordic Baltic Network for Learning, Education and TrainingE-Learning COSMOS, Open Science Supporting international Resources: Exchange of education settings Scientific Content Cultural adaptation ASPECT: Open Content Standardization & Quality and standards for schools Management iCOPER: New standards for Mobile & Ambient Learning educational technologies Innovative tools and solutions LaProf: Language learning in ICT and agriculture
    9. 9. Global Information Systems
    10. 10. What can you expect?Understand the different concepts of knowledge ,knowledge management and knowledge sharingAnalyze global influence factors to knowledgemanagementDesign and develop knowledge managementsystems, processes and instruments in a systematicwayAssess and optimize knowledge managementsystems
    11. 11. Course OrganizationLecture 1 IntroductionLecture 2 Conceptual Foundation The context of KM: Understanding the starting situation (context and strategies)Lecture 3 Case Study introductionLecture 4 KM Frameworks: The components of KM KM & CultureLecture 5 Process Management: Integration of Knowledge, Learning and Business ProcessesLecture 6 Assessment of KM Success KM Instruments and ToolsLecture 7 Global Social Knowledge ManagementLecture 8 Final presentations
    12. 12. ApproachCourse outline– Lecture– Guiding Questions– Discussion– Assignment / Case Study & Presentation– ExaminationInteraction & Discussion– Preparation: Slides, readings & recent papers– Preparation (2): Questions on Papers– Questions: E-Mail, Forum, Skype (jan_m_pawlowski)
    13. 13. Your expectations?Why did you choose this course?Which experiences do you have in the field?Which issues would you like to discuss?
    14. 14. A first questionWhat is common knowledge?
    15. 15. Sauna: German instructions
    16. 16. Sauna: American instructions
    17. 17. Sauna: Finnish instructions
    18. 18. A first questionsWhy is Knowledge a Global Success Factor?
    19. 19. Just a simple product?
    20. 20. Business Process Management in a Networked Business Management ProcessingR&D A Marketing R&D Sales Marketing Processing Marketing Production B Sales IT Services Sales IT Services Marketing Material Flow Knowledge/ Information / Data Flow
    21. 21. Some random questions…Decision questions– Where to produce?– How to build partnerships (joint ventures, contractors, …)– Which systems to exchange knowledge?Operational questions– How to process wood?– When will the next shipment arrive?– How to market the product in Japan?– How to explain the concept and advantages of Finnish saunas?– How to find the main problems of customers?– Which are import and safety regulations?
    22. 22. This means…Knowledge is a key to global successGlobal KM managers need to understand the valuechain and knowledge requirementsGlobal KM managers need to understandknowledge processes and cultureGlobal KM managers are the main hubs for smoothoperations in production and service enterprises
    23. 23. ContentsIntroductionKnowledge Management Foundations– Conceptual foundation– Theoretical Frameworks– Practical FrameworksGlobal KM– Influence factors– Cultural BarriersSolutions– Strategies– Processes– Tools
    24. 24. Types and Classes of Knowledge Knowledge ―high flyer‖ interpretation/ cross-Linking Information stock price: 81,60 € context Data 81,60 syntax Characters ―1―, ―6―, ―8― and ―,― character set
    25. 25. Related Concepts (modified, North, 1998) Competitiveness + Competence uniqueness +applying to Skill new settings Knowledge +use Information +context Data +meaningSymbol +syntax
    26. 26. Myths of Knowledge ManagementMyth 1:KM technologies can deliver the right information to the rightperson at the right timeMyth 2:KM technologies can „store― human knowledge, intelligence orexperienceMyth 3:KM technologies can distribute or multiply human intelligenceMyth 4:Organizations are not able to learn, only individuals learn
    27. 27. VideoFord Learning Network Slide 27
    28. 28. Introduction: What is Knowledge Management? Knowledge Management in Practice Ford Learning NetworkWhat is (in your opinion) the message of this case?How important is the so called “Virtual Librarian” for the FLN solution?What does impress and what does irritate you about the KM solution mostly?
    29. 29. Some issues…How do you organize the development process?How to find components which need to be changed, how todevelop different versions?How qualified are the development partners? How good are theirlanguage and communication skills? Will they understand yourcodes?How to keep track of the changes and versioning?How to change the development environment (e.g. new release)in a coordinated way?How to find out country-/market-specific needs?How to coordinate prototype validations?What are communication standards?How are problems communicated?How is the development process and specific aspectsdocumented?
    30. 30. Introduction – What is Knowledge Management? Main Drivers Co-evolution of society, organization, products, services, work and workers Globalization of business Distribution of organizations Fragmentation of knowledge Need for speed and cycle-time reduction Need for organizational growth Complex organizational interlacings Increasing pace of organisational redesign and increasing employee mobility Business process reengineering and lean management New information and communication technologies
    31. 31. Introduction – Global Knowledge Management Geographic dispersion Some Issues – Level of dispersion Coordination – Synchronicity Communication Organizational issues Culture and Awareness – Type of stakeholders – Type of projects Technology Support – Complexity Process Alignment Individual Issues … – Perceived distance – Trust Methodology and processes – Systems methodology – Policy and standards Culture – Knowledge & communication
    32. 32. So, what is the problem…?What is common and crucial knowledge in differentcommunities?How can we organize knowledge sharing acrossborders?Which technologies can we use?Which problems might occur?Potential solutions– Theories and frameworks– Practical methods and instruments
    33. 33. Context Stakeholders create Society Organization Individual Instruments influences runs perform Intervention A Intervention B Intervention N Human-based instruments Resources embedded in influences Processes External Processes Infrastructures enable Business Processes Strategies change Support Knowledge guide Processes Technologies and tools enable Problems use Knowledge Measured influences by Improved by Validation, Feedback, Improvement Measured by measures influences Results Performance Knowledge … Culture
    34. 34. Culture •Barrier 1: Understanding of Common Knowledge •Barrier 2: Lack of understanding of partner organization / countryKnowledge / problems Intervention 1-3• Common knowledge on • Create Reflection Processthe organization • Visualize communication paths• Communication patterns • Create culture wiki / allocate• Process knowledge task Results Metric 1: #interrupted communication processes Metric 2: #shared visualizations Metric 3: avg. wiki usage / employee Metric 4: staff satisfaction Framework as tool box for barrier identification, intervention selection, metrics, process design Recommendation of possible solutions
    35. 35. SummaryKnowledge as a critical success factorKnowledge management to support businessesGlobal aspects– Understanding the context– Process design– Systems and tool support– Cultural aspects
    36. 36. References (required readings)Conceptual Foundations: Baskerville R and Dulipovici A (2006) The theoreticalfoundations of knowledge management. Knowledge Management Research andPractice 4, 83–105.Frameworks: Pawlowski, J. & Bick, M. (2012). The Global Knowledge ManagementFramework: Towards a Theory for Knowledge Management in Globally DistributedSettings. Electronic Journal of Knowledge Management, 2012Context/Barriers and Culture: Leidner D, Alavi M, Kayworth T. 2006.The role ofculture in knowledge management: a case study of two global firms. InternationalJournal of e-Collaboration 2: 17–40.Processes: Remus, U.; Schub, S. A Blueprint for the Implementation of Process-oriented Knowledge Management. In: Journal of Process- and KnowledgeManagement. 10 No. 4, (2003)Knowledge and Knowledge Representation: A. Abecker and L. van Elst, Ontologiesfor Knowledge Management, in Handbook on Ontologies second edition, Internationalhandbooks on information systems, Heidelberg: Springer, 2009, pp. 713-734.Tools and Social Software: ZHENG Y, LI L and ZHENG F (2010) Social MediaSupport for Knowledge Management. In Proceedings of the International Conferenceon Management and Service Science. pp 1-4, IEEE, Wuhan, ChinaAssessment of KM: Lehner, F.: Measuring KM Success and KM Service Quality withKnowMetrix–First Experiences from a Case Study in a Software Company. KnowledgeScience, Engineering and Management, 2009 - Springer.Bose, R. (2004), "Knowledge management metrics", Industrial Management & DataSystems, Vol. 104 No.6, pp.457-68.
    37. 37. References (practical issues, good practices)APQC (1996): Knowledge Management, a Consortium Benchmarking Study FinalReport.CEN/ISSS (2004): European Guide to Good Practice in Knowledge Management,Bruxelles 2004., M. J. (2002): Knowledge Management Light. In O. Sukowski, and M. J.Eppler (Eds): Knowledge Management Case Studies. Project Experiences,Implementation Insights, Key Questions. NetAcademy Press, St. Gallen.Maier, R. (2002): Knowledge Management Systems. Springer, Stuttgart.
    38. 38. References (theory and background)Bick, M. (2004): Knowledge Management Support System. UniversityDuisburg-Essen, 2004. (in German)Kalkan, V.D. (2008): An overall view of knowledge managementchallenges for global business, Business Process Management Journal,14 (3), pp.390 – 400Desouza, K.C., Awazu, Y., Baloh, P. (2006): Managing Knowledge inGlobal Software Development Efforts: Issues and Practices, IEEESoftware, 23 (5), pp. 30-37McDermott, R., O‘Dell, C. (2001): Overcoming cultural barriers to sharingknowledge, Journal of Knowledge Management, 5 (1), pp.76 – 85Bhagat, R.S., Kedia, B.L., Harveston, P.D., Triandis, H.C. (2002):Cultural Variations in the Cross-Border Transfer of OrganizationalKnowledge: An Integrative Framework, The Academy of ManagementReview, 27 (2), pp. 204-221Holden, NJ. (2002): Cross-cultural Management: A KnowledgeManagement Perspective. London: Financial Times/ Prentice Hall.
    39. 39. References (theory and background)Desouza, K., Evaristo, R. (2003): Global Knowledge Management Strategies,European Management Journal, 21 (1), pp. 62-67Richter, T., Pawlowski, J.M. (2007): Adaptation of E-Learning Environments:Determining National Differences through Context Metadata. TRANS - InternetJournal for Cultural Studies, 17.De Long, D. W., Fahey, L. (2000): Diagnosing cultural barriers to knowledgemanagement. Academy of Management Executive, 14(4), pp.113-128.Pauleen, D. (Ed.) (2006). Cross-cultural perspectives on knowledge management,Westport, Conn.: Libraries Unlimited.Vaidyanathan, G. (2007). Networked Knowledge Management Dimensions inDistributed Projects, In: Tan, F.: Global Information Technologies: Concepts,Methodologies, Tools and Applications, Idea Group, 2007.Dawes, S.S., Gharawi, M., Burke, B. (2011). Knowledge andInformation Sharing in Transnational Knowledge Networks: AContextual Perspective, Proceedings of the 44th Hawaii InternationalConference on System Sciences, 2011.More references given on request and during the lecture
    40. 40. Global Knowledge Management Case Study Jan M. Pawlowski, Markus Bick, Franz Lehner 28.10.2011
    41. 41. Evaluation / Credits(Final) Evaluation – 50 % Final examination – 25% case study presentation • ―active‖ presentation (in case related sessions) – 25% final assignment • -10 pages (Times New Roman 12pt, single spacing, ―common margin‖) • finally revised presentations • ppt/pdf + doc/pdf • provide the full names and email of all group members
    42. 42. Global Knowledge Management>> Case – Part I <<
    43. 43. Case – Part I Group Work (1/2) Next ≈ 60minPlease form groups of four to fiveRead the case study carefully. – The Pragmatic Development And Use Of Know-How: Knowledge Management Light At Securitech LTDAnswer the first four questions, making some notes – Basic Questions 1-4This Group Work is the basis for the next parts of this case andthereby crucial for the final assignment.
    44. 44. Case – Part I Group Work (2/2) Knowledge Management Light At Securitech LTD.1.) Why do you think it was these five measures Furrer proposed? (Discuss with reference to the details given in the case study.) Please allocate Furrer’s measures to the problems illustrated in the case study wherever possible.2.) Which measures do you consider to be appropriate solutions to the illustrated problems? Which measures do you view with concern, and why?3.) What are the central findings (in the sense of success factors) with regard to the process of introducing knowledge management which can be deduced from Furrer’s actions?4.) Which of Furrer’s ideas did you consider to be the best? Could this idea have emerged and been implemented even without any involvement of knowledge management?
    45. 45. Integrated Knowledge Management>> Case – Part II <<
    46. 46. Case – Part II Group Work (1/2) Next ≈ 60minPlease stick to your groupRe-Read the case study carefully. – The Pragmatic Development And Use Of Know-How: Knowledge Management Light At Securitech LTDAnswer the following questions, preparing a presentation (.ppt, etc.) – See questions next slideThis Group Work is the basis for Part III of this case
    47. 47. Case – Part II Group Work (2/2) Knowledge Management Light At Securitech LTD.5.) Which next steps would you propose to Mr. Furrer for the coming six months? How can he ensure the continued success of the undertaken measures, and achieve the continuation of knowledge management in the approaching business management meeting?6.) With regard to this mornings session, what do you think about the knowledge cockpit? What about the criteria / indicators? Are these sufficient and tailored to the companies needs?7.) Discuss the difficulties of measuring Knowledge Management success or impacts in general and more specifically concerning Knowledge Management Light At Securitech LTD.8.) Which aspects of the given context should Furrer pay more attention to in his next steps? Which factors has he given too little consideration until now?
    48. 48. Case – Part III Group Work Next ≈ 4 weeksPlease stick to your groupDiscuss the extension of the case study – whichchanges to the previous situation can you identifyAnswer the questions of the case extension, wesupport the case workPrepare a presentation of the overall solution until13.12.2011
    49. 49. Contact InformationProf. Dr. Jan M. Pawlowski Skype: jan_m_pawlowski Office: Room 514.2 Telephone +358 14 260 2596
    50. 50. Global Knowledge Management Conceptual foundation Jan M. Pawlowski, Markus Bick, Franz Lehner 28.10.2011
    51. 51. Licensing: Creative CommonsYou are free: to Share — to copy, distribute and transmit Collaborative Course Development! the work Thanks to my colleagues Prof. Dr. to Remix — to adapt the work Markus Bick and Prof. Dr. Franz Lehner who have developed parts of the Knowledge Management CourseUnder the following conditions: which we taught together during the Jyväskylä Summer School Course Attribution. You must attribute the work in 2011. the manner specified by the author or licensor (but not in any way that suggests Prof. Dr. Markus Bick (Introduction, that they endorse you or your use of the CEN Framework) work). ESCP Europe Campus Berlin Web: Noncommercial. You may not use this work for commercial purposes. Prof. Dr. Franz Lehner (Assessment, Process Integration) Share Alike. If you alter, transform, or build University of Passau upon this work, you may distribute the Web: http:// resulting work only under the same or similar license to this one. sa/3.0/
    52. 52. Types and Classes of Knowledge Knowledge ―high flyer‖ interpretation/ cross-Linking Information stock price: 81,60 € context Data 81,60 syntax Characters ―1―, ―6―, ―8― and ―,― character set
    53. 53. Related Concepts (modified, North, 1998) Competitiven ess + Competence uniqueness +applying to Skill new settings Knowledge +use Information +context Data +meaningSymbol +syntax
    54. 54. Definition – Knowledge“Knowledge comprises all cognitive expectancies – observationsthat have been meaningfully organized, accumulated andembedded in a context through experience, communication, orinference – that an individual or organizational actor uses to interpretsituations and to generate activities, behavior and solutions no matterwhether these expectancies are rational or used intentionally.” (Maier 2002)“A set of data and information (when seen from an InformationTechnology point of view), and a combination of, for example know-how, experience, emotion, believes, values, ideas, intuition, curiosity,motivation, learning styles, attitude, ability to trust, ability to deal withcomplexity, ability to synthesize, openness, networking skills,communication skills, attitude to risk and entrepreneurial spirit toresult in a valuable asset which can be used to improve the capacityto act and support decision making.” (CEN 2004)
    55. 55. Definition – Knowledge Management―Knowledge management is defined as the management function responsible forthe regular selection, implementation and evaluation of goal-orientedknowledge strategies that aim at improving an organization’s way of handlingknowledge internal and external to the organization in order to improveorganizational performance. The implementation of knowledge strategiescomprises all person-oriented, organizational and technological instrumentssuitable to dynamically optimize the organization-wide level of competencies,education and ability to learn of the members of the organization as well as todevelop collective intelligence.― (Maier 2002)”Planned and ongoing management of activities and processes forleveraging knowledge to enhance competitiveness through better use andcreation of individual and collective knowledge resources.” (CEN2004)
    56. 56. Types and Classes of KnowledgeDeclarative Knowledge: Procedural Knowledge:• knowing that • knowing how [Source:] My position How to get to the lecture… Position, room Navigation Lecture time Lecture behavior Traffic rules Traffic behavior
    57. 57. Types and Classes of KnowledgeOrganizational Knowledge: Individual Knowledge:• consists of the critical intel- • knowledge of each person lectual assets within an (employee) organization Building cars…. Steering / using production facilities[Picture Source:]
    58. 58. Types and Classes of Knowledge Implicit / Tacit Knowledge:Explicit Knowledge: • knowledge that people carry in• codified knowledge that can be their minds and is, therefore, easily shared and understood difficult to access Traffic rules Traffic customs Driving instructions Interpretations … … Global / cultural differences [Picture Source:]
    59. 59. SECI Model (Nonaka & Takeuchi, 1996) Socialization Externalization Combination Internationalization
    60. 60. SECI ProcessesSocialization: Transfer tacit knowledge from oneperson to another personExternalization: Translate tacit knowledge intoexplicit knowledge in a repositoryCombination: Combine different bodies ofexplicit knowledge to create new explicitknowledgeInternalization: Extract the explicit knowledgefrom a repository that is relevant to a particularperson‘s need and deliver it to that person whereit is translated into tacit knowledgeCognition: Apply tacit knowledge to a businessproblem
    61. 61. Person Group Organisation Person Group from team A to team BOrganisation Basic Processes Knowledge Sharing Knowledge Exchange Knowledge Transfer
    62. 62. Selected Knowledge ExchangeModels• Know-How transfer model (after Boeglin)• Szulanski‘s stepwise model of Best PracticesTransfer• Internal Knowledge Transfer model (Krogh)• Richter‘s Transfer Potential Absorption model• Zander & Kogut‘s Transfer and Imitation model
    63. 63. Boeglin‘s model of Know-How Transfer Sender Receiver willing unwilling willing unwilling able A&W A/UW A&W A/UW able Know-How Transfer unable unable W/UA Ux2 W/UA Ux2 A/UW Leadership Problem A/UW W/UA Communication Problem W/UA Ux2 Combined L/C Problem Ux2
    64. 64. The Step-Model of Best-PracticesTransfer (Szulanski, 1996) Influence Factors CharacteristicsKnowledge AmbiguityCharacteristics UnprovenSender Qualities Lack of Motivation Perceived as unreliableReceiver Qualities Lack of Motivation Insufficient Absorptive Capacity Insufficient Retentive CapacityContext Barren Organisational Context Integration Arduous Relationship Ramp-up Achieving Installation Target Building Prototypes Performance ‘Routine’ Initiation Pilots Level
    65. 65. Richter‘s Absorption Potential Model Transfer Potential Absorption Potential Transfer Implementation Power Power Mediation Learning Absorption Resources Resources Communication Interpretation Capability Capability Subsidiary Centre
    66. 66. Overview of the factors that influence speed of transferand early imitation risk (Zander and Kogut, 1995) Influence Factors Hypothesis Codifiability; how far can the required The higher codifiability, the faster the knowledge be articulated into software transfer and the higher the risk of and/or documents early imitation Complexity; the number of capabilities The higher the complexity, the more and competencies required difficult (and slow) the transfer and imitation Teachability; how easy/hard it is to The easier it is to teach, the faster the disseminate, teach and demonstrate the transfer – and imitation required knowledge System Dependence; the effort The higher the systems dependence, required to assemble the necessary the longer before the transfer can be groups of experts and the technology effected and imitations could be needed started. Parallel Development; the number of The higher the competitive pressure, competitors engaged in similar transfer the faster the transfer and the earlier and/or product development projects the risk of imitation Product Observability; how easy is it The more observability, the sooner to ‘reverse engineer’ the product in imitations may be expected; (this question or reconstruct it from factor does not apply to internal published Information? transfers)
    67. 67. Overview of the factor structure of the Zanderand Kogut transfer model Internal Transfer Imitation Codifiability Codifiability Complexity Complexity Teachability Teachability Systems Dependence Systems Dependence Parallel Development Parallel Development Product Observability Proprietary vs. Outsourcing Key Employee Turnover Continuous Development
    68. 68. Some history of KMHistorical Roots: Durkheims school of sociologyLate 70 s, early 80 s: simple structural theories,knowledge representation (AI), group remembering(Hartwick et al.)Late 80 s, 90 s: Transactive Memory System(Wegner et al.), Organisational Memory (Walsh/Ungson),OM Architecture (Stein, Stein/Zwass), TechnicalApproaches of OMLate 90 s: Growing Importance of KnowledgeArchitectures (eg. Borghoff/Pareschi et al.)-2011: Human-technology balance, social aspects, socialKM, …
    69. 69. Review of KM Field (1)We find a lot of companies with no or little consciousKM-activities – KM ―happens― (nevertheless thequestion arises in which situations an active consciousknowledge management is above simply letting thingshappen).The practically necessary activities do not refer toshared knowledge, resp. do not require the measuresrecommended in KM literature (theory – practice gap)KM-activities are intentionally introduced but are notknown to all (resp. not to all that should know aboutthem). Especially in bigger organisations uncoordinatedKM-activities can be the consequence. TKM in thissense can mean a reduction of knowledge deficitsabout KM-activities.KM activities concentrate on information sharing, whileknowledge processes and knowledge sharing areneglected (nevertheless they exist)
    70. 70. Review of KM Field (2)Consequences of existing but not explicitlycommunicated goals of knowledge management(hidden agenda of KM resp. Management)essential KM-processes are understood as―autopoietical‖ (self-organising)significance of hidden knowledge structures; i.e.informal structures and relationships, which have aspecific meaning and which are actually more importantthan formal structures and tasks (under control of KM)Lack of consciousness about the knowledge withbusiness relevance (as a consequence it is not clearwhat should be addressed by KM)Explicit KM activities are related to the businessactivities – and contrast to hidden and notcommunicated expectations (e.g. related to unexpectedevents)
    71. 71. Types and Classes of Knowledge (Mentzas et al. 2001)
    72. 72. Conceptual Roots (Maier, 2002) Knowledge Management Knowledge goals Knowledge strategy Intellectual Knowledge asset human-oriented technology-oriented management management Contents, E-Learning systems Knowledge structures, Roles and Knowledgesystems processes ontology organization economics Translation to business Goal-oriented design of handling of knowledge, Use of supporting infor- and management con- capabilities and competences mation and communica- cepts and terminology tion technologies OL as dynamic process Individual Group Single/double loop Learning Organization Organizational Identification Organizational Feedback knowledge base/ learning Intuition memory Application Innovation Interpretation Diffusion Integration Artificial management intelligence Sociology System Strategic of knowledge Organization Organizational management development intelligence dynamics OrganizationalManagement psychology Organizational Systemsby ... Evolution of culture Organizational theory Cognitive psychology organization Organized change chaos
    73. 73. Conceptual Roots Strategy Organizational KM tools knowledge Knowledge life cyclehuman-oriented technology-orientedknowledge management knowledge management Business and know- ledge processes Individual Platforms knowledge Integrating instruments
    74. 74. Conceptual Roots: Knowledge Management Approaches human-oriented technology-oriented knowledge management personalization codification approach comprehension of knowledge is contained in documented knowledge; knowledge peoples head detached from employees knowledge worker, networks, authors, experts, actors/roles and communities of interest knowledge brokerknowledge managements interactive knowledge integrative knowledge systems (KMS) managements systems management systems publication, structuring and prior knowledge communication and co- integration, search, presen- management system operation, locating of tation and visualization of functions experts, community-support knowledge elements
    75. 75. Knowledge Management Systems Technological roots and influences Skill Extended Knowledge Knowledge Push Database CRM Cooperating Maps E-Learning Knowledge Portals Portal Platform Meta-Search KM Suite Community Organizational Engine Homespace Integrative Interactive Knowledge Base Enterprise Knowledge KMS KMS Organizational Learning Medium Knowledge Transactive Memory Management System Knowledge System (KMS) Management Organizational Memory Organizational System AI-technology MemoryOrganizational Memory Search VisualizationInformation System Engines Systems Business Intranet/Groupware CBT/ Intelligence Platform Learning Tools Environments (Maier Data Warehouse Document Workflow Group Communication Systems 2002) Management ManagementSupport e-mail, video conferences) (e.g.. Systems Systems Systems
    76. 76. Conceptual Roots: KM activities Knowledge Knowledge Goals Measurement Knowledge Knowledge Identification Use Knowledge Knowledge Acquisition Preservation Knowledge Knowledge Development Distribution (Probst & Romhardt 2000)
    77. 77. Practical implementation of technologies for knowledge management 30% 25% 23% 23% 25% 20% 18% 15% 12% 10% 9% 9% 10% 6% 5% 5% 5% 0% Ps ET g ls s s ls es nces et es Co AN rainin porta logie forum n too ngi n t r an ag R INT ing, t IP, hno atio rch e confe re Ex llow p P, E ec or ye ar n K gt lab sea Tel e e- l e ha rin col s Technologies for knowledge sharing
    78. 78. Samples of KMSMany types of systemsIssues– Integration in Processes– User acceptance– Usage frequency– Multilinguality– …
    79. 79. Samples…Content Management
    80. 80. Samples…Content Management
    81. 81. Social SoftwareUmbrella of technologies under a fuzzy conceptEasy way to spread, distribute, and disseminateinformation to a wide communityEncourage people to dialogue and discourseEasy content creation and sharingAggregating wisdom of the crowdsTransparent
    82. 82. Samples: Social Networks
    83. 83. Ready for Use?Is there management support in all parts of anenterprise?Does a system fit the users‘ work behavior?Does a system fit the purpose? What kind ofknowledge needs to be shared?Are there incentives for knowledge sharing?Are there communication options fitting the usersneeds?…
    84. 84. Ready for Global Use?Is the process clear, within and outside theorganization?Are there clear procedures for inter-organizationalknowledge exchange (who shares with whom?)Is the system multilingual?– Multilingual ontologies– Tag / Query translations– …Are there communication options support multi-lingual communication (e.g. translation support,facilitation)?…
    85. 85. Global aspects to KMCoordination: In international team work severalproblems such as time differences have to be takeninto consideration and managed.Communication: Common ways of communicationincluding language need to be agreed on.Collaboration: Team work has to be facilitated byproviding suitable mechanisms and support.Knowledge Management including knowledgesharing and transfer is crucial to establish a commonknowledge base of all team members– KM as a horizontal aspect!
    86. 86. Global aspects to KM (2)Challenges– Lack of Trust– Different vocabularies, frames of reference– Status and rewards of knowledge owners– Behavior towards mistakes…
    87. 87. Global aspects to KM (Vaidyanathan, 2007)
    88. 88. Preliminary SummaryBroad field with– …a variety of conceptual foundations– …interdisciplinary approaches– …different viewpoints– …possibilities of interventions– …uncertain success probabilities– …unknowns!Need for frameworks and comparable models!
    89. 89. Guiding questionsWhat is the different between knowledge andcompetence?Give an example for explicit and implicit knowledge.Find an example where explicit knowledge in oneculture is implicit in another.Do you know international communities on the webwhere knowledge on a certain topic is shared – is thishuman- or technology oriented? Give an example.In a development process for mobile applications,which knowledge is organizational, which is personal?
    90. 90. Global Knowledge Management Frameworks and Strategies Jan M. Pawlowski, Markus Bick, Franz Lehner 28.10.2011
    91. 91. Licensing: Creative CommonsYou are free: to Share — to copy, distribute and transmit Collaborative Course Development! the work Thanks to my colleagues Prof. Dr. to Remix — to adapt the work Markus Bick and Prof. Dr. Franz Lehner who have developed parts of the Knowledge Management CourseUnder the following conditions: which we taught together during the Jyväskylä Summer School Course Attribution. You must attribute the work in 2011. the manner specified by the author or licensor (but not in any way that suggests Prof. Dr. Markus Bick (Introduction, that they endorse you or your use of the CEN Framework) work). ESCP Europe Campus Berlin Web: Noncommercial. You may not use this work for commercial purposes. Prof. Dr. Franz Lehner (Assessment, Process Integration) Share Alike. If you alter, transform, or build University of Passau upon this work, you may distribute the Web: http:// resulting work only under the same or similar license to this one. sa/3.0/
    92. 92. Knowledge Management FrameworksFramework– Conceptual models describing and relating potential influencing aspects, such as systems, processes or instruments– Understanding the inter-relations in global settings– Learning how to apply in in practice…Utilization:– Guideline which aspects should be taken into account– Research tool
    93. 93. Knowledge ManagementFramework (CEN, 2004)
    94. 94. KM Architecture (Maier, 2007)
    95. 95. Context Stakeholders Global Society Organization Individual Knowledge Management Instruments Intervention A Intervention B Intervention N Human-based Framework instruments Resources Processes External Processes Infrastructures Business ProcessesStrategies Knowledge Processes Technologies Knowledge and tools Problems Validation, Feedback, Improvement Results Performance Knowledge … Culture
    96. 96. Knowledge… Category Description Sample Values / Attributes Subject area Description of knowledge Type (procedural, factual, …)Knowledge element areas of an organization Representation / codification Culture specifics (common, contextualized, …) Knowing that / knowing how Tacit / implicit / explicit Knowledge type What kind of knowledge Knowledge as object / knowledge as process … Problem description Context Problems to which Problem Related knowledge knowledge is applied Related competences Related actors
    97. 97. Global Knowledge Context Management FrameworkContext– Society: (National, regional) culture, legal aspects, infrastructure, …– Organization: Culture, Strategies, Structure, Processes, …– Individuals: Characteristics, preferences, knowledge / skills / competences, barriers
    98. 98. Context. Organization / Individuals Barriers to KMLack of time 70,1%Lack of understanding KM & its corresponding benefits 67,7%Ignorance of knowledge demand 39,4%Attitude knowledge is power 39,0%Missing transparency 34,6%Missing reward system 34,4%Too high specialization of personnel 32,2%No organized knowledge exchange 28,7%Inappropriate IT-Infrastructure 28,3%Hierarchical structures 28,0%Interdepartmental competition 27,6%Missing business culture 26,7%
    99. 99. Global barriers Context. Organization / Individuals Challenges faced in global processesChallenges in Communication Challenges in coordination Challenges information sharing Delayed responses Lack of overlapping working Lack of opportunities to share Communication requires hours information extra efforts Less possibilities to coordinate a Difficulties to find correct Misunderstandings with the synchronous meeting contact to get the information use of email for complex Extra effort requires in Lack of opportunities to learn topics coordination and which can about other peoples skills and Lack of informal increase the coordination cost. capabilities communication Reduced trust Effect of organizational and Extra effort to Initiate Lack of group awareness and national culture towards the contacts and networking team spirits difference in information Troubles in finding the Incompatible views of the sharing practices correct contact problem Language differences can Doubts about other team force team to asynchronous members capabilities and skills method of communication; Not easy to enforce standards cause misunderstandings, and process for the people from extra delays and errors. different working environments Differences in negotiations Hard to synchronize the work and accepting work between different locations Different formalities including different laws, traditions, and regulations. Different hierarchy and authority Difficulty of changing usual practices from the past
    100. 100. Sample attributes on the context Category Description Sample Values / Attributes Demographic data (name, age, gender, …) QualificationsIndividual: Personal Description of individuals’ Competences Characteristics characteristics Globalization competences Educational preferences … lack of time fear about job security; Lack of awareness use of strong hierarchy, position-based status insufficient capture, evaluation, feedback, communication Potential barriers towards differences in experience levels;Individual: Barriers knowledge management utilization lack of time and interaction poor verbal/written communication and interpersonal skills; age and gender differences; Lack of networking skills Lack of trust …
    101. 101. Sample attributes on the context Name Size Context: Type (private, government, NGO, …) Description of organizationOrganizational Sector (healthcare, automotive, …) characteristicsCharacteristics Vision Strategy … lack of leadership and managerial direction / strategies shortage of formal and informal spaces to share, reflect and generate (new) knowledge; lack of a transparent rewards and recognition Potential organizational insufficient corporate culture Context: barriers towards shortage of appropriate infrastructure supportingOrganizational knowledge management sharing practices; Barriers utilization deficiency of company resources communication and knowledge flows are restricted physical work environment and layout of work areas internal competitiveness within business units, …
    102. 102. Sample attributes on the contextContext: Success Success factors for KM in Integrated Technical Infrastructure factors organizations Knowledge Strategy that identifies users, sources, processes, storage strategy, knowledge Clear knowledge structure Motivation and Commitment Organizational culture supporting sharing and use of knowledge Senior Management support including allocation of resources, leadership, and providing training Measures are established to assess the impacts Clear goal and purpose for the KMS Search, retrieval, and visualization functions Work processes incorporate knowledge capture and use Learning Organization Security/protection of knowledge …
    103. 103. Knowledge Management Context. Organization Strategies Knowledge Management as business strategyPersonal Transfer ofresponsibility for knowledge andKnowledge best practicesManagement Knowledge Management StrategiesManagement of Customer-focusedintellectual assets Knowledge(human capital) Management Innovation and (APQC knowledge creation 1996)
    104. 104. Knowledge Management Context. Organization StrategiesKnowledge management as a business strategy: – most comprehensive and enterprise approach – KM is central to the ability to grow and compete – knowledge is seen as a product with significant and direct impact on the profitability and viability of the enterprise – firms pursuing this strategy mostly align their KM strategies closely with the other major directions of the enterpriseTransfer of knowledge and best practice: – key strategy that mostly all of the companies: transfer not only has tremendous intuitive appeal and face validity but also leads to rapid, demonstrated successes – focuses on systematic approaches to knowledge reuse and transfer for best practices and knowledge to where companies can use them to improve operations or include them in products and services – documentation of a practice does not itself produce transfer, but the importance of teams, relationships, and networks is the basis for effective transfer – various approaches in this strategy: the learning organization, networking, (APQC practice centers and communities of practice, and lessons learned 1996)
    105. 105. Knowledge Management Context. Organization StrategiesCustomer-focused Knowledge Management: – focuses on capturing knowledge about customers – developing and transferring knowledge and understanding of customers‘ needs, preferences, and businesses – to increase sales, and bringing the knowledge of the organization to bear on customer problems – belief that if a company could make their customers successful, their own success would be secured as wellInnovation and knowledge creation: – emphasizes innovation and the creation of new knowledge through basic and applied research and development – example: NSA set aside a multi-million-dollar annual funding pool for high-risk research and development to provide a simple, fast, and streamlined process for sponsoring exploration of technical innovation (APQC 1996)
    106. 106. Knowledge Management StrategiesManagement of intellectual assets (human capital): – emphasizes enterprise-level management of specific intellectual assets such as patents, technologies, operational and management practices, customer relations, organizational arrangement, and other structural knowledge assets – management focus may center on renewing, organizing, evaluating, marketing, and increasing the availability of these assetsPersonal responsibility for Knowledge Management: – people are the engine of knowledge and should be supported as such, – individuals are personally responsible for identifying, maintaining, and expanding their own knowledge as well as understanding, renewing, and sharing their knowledge assets – reasons for this strategy: perception of the value of having employees who are broadly knowledgeable and able to perform competent work, and the understanding that successful development of knowledge in individuals cannot be micromanaged and must be done by the individual – strategy is in line with the emerging paradigm that employees are the ultimate source of new knowledge in a firm and that they are responsible for their own knowledge development (APQC 1996)
    107. 107. Knowledge Management StrategiesGlobal Aspects of Strategies – Which partners are strategic & trusted in terms of knowledge exchange? – How to align strategies for knowledge in all parts of the globe? – Which knowledge makes competitive advantages?Guidance – Develop national / regional strategies – Provide strategies in local languages – Let partners participate in strategy development – Define procedures for strategy implementation (APQC 1996)
    108. 108. Knowledge Management Framework Context Processes Business Focus (CEN, 2004) The business focus should be in the centre of any KM initiative and represents the value-adding processes of an organization, which may typically include – strategy development – product/service innovation and – development, manufacturing and service delivery, sales and customer support. Processes represent the organizational context, creating critical knowledge on – products and services – Customers – technology – … Processes are inter-organizational in distributed networks (CEN 2004)
    109. 109. Knowledge Management Framework Processes Business FocusProcess orientation knowledge-intensive (operative) business strategy process – denotes a business process that relies substantially ‗more‘ on knowledge; regarding organizations core competencies on the processes operative level: e.g., design products and services, produce products and services. knowledge process instruments/ content/ systems – refers to a dedicated service or support topic process which supports the flow of knowledge within and between knowledge- intensive (operative) business processes: knowledge base e.g., search, acquisition. processes knowledge life cycle knowledge management process – kind of a ‗meta‘-process that is responsible for the extensive implementation of the knowledge management initiative: e.g., organizational instruments, ICT instruments, controlling. (Remus 2002)
    110. 110. Knowledge Management Framework ProcessesCore Knowledge Activities (CEN, 2004) Five core knowledge activities: – identify, create, store, share and use. – Supported by the right KM methods and tools Requirements have to be fulfilled to achieve improvements – Integration / alignment of core activities with organizational processes and daily tasks. – Carefully balanced in accordance with the specificities of each business process and organization. A KM solution should not focus only on one or two activities in isolation.
    111. 111. Knowledge Management Framework Processes Core Knowledge ActivitiesKnowledge Management Tasks (Maier, 2004) Knowledge Knowledge Goals Measurement creation, building, anticipation or generation Knowledge Knowledge acquisition, appropriation or adoption Identification Use identification, capture, articulation or extraction Knowledge Knowledge Acquisition Preservation collection, gathering or accumulation (legally) securing Knowledge Knowledge Development Distribution conversion organization, linking and embedding formalization (Probst & Romhardt 2000) storage refinement or development distribution, diffusion, transfer or sharing presentation or formatting application, deploying or exploiting review, revision or evolution of knowledge
    112. 112. Knowledge Management Framework: Instruments EnablerKnowledge Services Knowledge Services support the work of knowledge workers and their organizations Knowledge Knowledge Identification Use Knowledge Knowledge Human IT-Tools Acquisition Preservation Ressources Management Knowledge Knowledge Development DistributionIT-Tools Human- & Structure-oriented• Document Management Tools• E-Mail• CSCW • Mentoring• Search • Open Space• Data Mining • Job Rotation, Job Enlargement• List-Server• Multi-Point-Videoconference • Career Planning• News-Channel / News-Feed • Team Development• Application Sharing • Simulation Games• Social Software • Future Search Conference• etc. • etc.
    113. 113. Knowledge Management Framework: Results Acceptance of knowlede management systems (KMS) Usability / usefulness of KMS Knowledge assets (number, usefulness, Measurement of complexity, …) Knowledge knowledge and core Knowledge sharing (number of knowledge elements, processes motivation, know Knowledge utilization (usage of knowledge elements, number of users per element, perceived usefulness, …) … Improvement of global competences Awareness and sensitivity Measuring internationalGlobal aspects Team understanding, team-related aspects aspects Number of interrupted communications …
    114. 114. GKM Step by Step: Strategy and Requirements Assess organization‘s strategy and vision regarding KM Assess core knowledge of the organization – Knowledge cluster Assess core (business) processes – Business Process Model Specify and improve the strategy – Strategy specification
    115. 115. GKM Step by Step: ContextDescribe key context aspects Stakeholders and roles – Organization / individual profiles – Knowledge and competence profiles Culture – Culture profiles IT Infrastructure – Regional infrastructure – Enterprise Architecture
    116. 116. GKM Step by Step: GKM Design (1)Design Knowledge ProcessesAligned with the context, you should… Design potential knowledge processes – Specify processes – Embed with business processes – Agree / integrate with international collaborators – Prepare change processes Knowledge description – Develop knowledge descriptions / standards – Incorporate collaborators – Develop problem specifications
    117. 117. GKM Step by Step: GKM Design (2)Design interventions Choose a barrier / success factor Identify candidate instruments Integrate process Identify influences / context Validate process – context – instrument impact Validate, refine, improve…
    118. 118. GKM Step by Step: RealizationDeploy & adopt Initiate change processes Integrate processes Realize interventions Validate results – Short term and long term – Staff knowledge – Productivity – … Develop improvement recommendations
    119. 119. SummarySuccessful Global KM is still a creative, explorativedesign activityFactors are identified but their interdependenciesand context-correlations are unclearStep by step, participatory approaches withvalidations and continuous improvementMore research to be done…
    120. 120. Guiding questionsHow to embed knowledge management in a strategy?How could knowledge processes be integrated in workprocesses?What are promising tools?How can knowledge sharing be embedded in acollaborative environment?
    121. 121. Contact InformationProf. Dr. Jan M. Pawlowski Skype: jan_m_pawlowski Office: Room 514.2 Telephone +358 14 260 2596
    122. 122. Global Knowledge Management Context and BarriersJan M. Pawlowski, Henri Pirkkalainen, Markus Bick, Franz Lehner 15.11.2011
    123. 123. Licensing: Creative Commons You are free: Collaborative Course Development! to Share — to copy, distribute and transmit the work Thanks to my colleagues Prof. Dr. Markus Bick and Prof. Dr. Franz Lehner to Remix — to adapt the work who have developed parts of the Knowledge Management Course which Under the following conditions: we taught together during the Jyväskylä Attribution. You must attribute the work in Summer School Course 2011. the manner specified by the author or licensor (but not in any way that suggests that they endorse you or your Prof. Dr. Markus Bick (Introduction, use of the work). CEN Framework) Noncommercial. You may not use this ESCP Europe Campus Berlin work for commercial purposes. Web: Share Alike. If you alter, transform, or build Prof. Dr. Franz Lehner (Assessment, upon this work, you may distribute the Process Integration) resulting work only under the same or University of Passau similar license to this one. Web: http://
    124. 124. ContentsContext– What is it?– Context ModelsCultural context– Culture Models– Organizational culture analysisBarriers and Success Factors– KM Barriers– Global Barriers– Social Software Barriers
    125. 125. ContextContext denotes all influence factors which have animpact on KM situations but which are notimmediately affected by the design of KM project– Cultural context– Strategy– Infrastructure– Policies– Barriers, ….
    126. 126. ContextPurpose– Understanding the situation of KM and its potentials– Adapting interventions and tools to this situationChallenges– What are the aspects that matter (most)?– What are models to be used?– How to distinguish the important and irrelevant aspects?
    127. 127. Global KM ContextSocietal– Culture– Policies– Legislation– Technology infrastructure (networks, access, …)Organization– Type of organization– Sector / products / services– Organizational culture– Partnership structureIndividual– Barriers– Language– ICT / Globalization competences
    128. 128. An initial context model (Richter & Pawlowski, 2010)Starting points for society levelPick & choose list of aspectsWhat influences partnerships & external KM?
    129. 129. Samples of Context InfluencesHuman-oriented instruments – How are KM interventions perceived (culture) – How is concrete knowledge shared (e.g. legislation: critical technologies), how is privacy / IPR perceived?Technology-oriented instruments – Which technologies can be used (infrastructure) – Which technologies are well adopted (e.g. mobile video streaming, google vs baidu, …)Process design – Culture & organizational practices influence business processes – Roles and responsibilities (culture, who is responsible for KM, who owns KM) – External processes: trust aspects
    130. 130. Definitions of Culture―Culture is the collective programming of the mindwhich distinguishes the members of one category ofpeople from another.‖ (Hofstede, 1984)―Most social scientists today view culture asconsisting primarily of the symbolic, ideational, andintangible aspects of human societies. The essence ofa culture is not its artifacts, tools, or other tangiblecultural elements but how the members of the groupinterpret, use, and perceive them. It is the values,symbols, interpretations, and perspectives thatdistinguish one people from another in modernizedsocieties; it is not material objects and other tangibleaspects of human societies. People within a cultureusually interpret the meaning of symbols, artifacts,and behaviors in the same or in similar ways‖ (Bankset al. 1989)
    131. 131. Definitions of CultureCulture is defined as the ―[…] definitive, dynamicpurposes and tools (values, ethics, rules, knowledgesystems) that are developed to attain group goals‖(Mabawonku, 2003)Culture includes ―[..]every aspect of life: know-how,technical knowledge, customs of food and dress,religion, mentality, values, language, symbols, socio-political and economic behavior, indigenous methodsof taking decisions and exercising power, methods ofproduction and economic relations, and so on."(Verhelst, 1990)The system of shared beliefs, values, customs,behaviours, and artifacts that the members of societyuse to cope with their world and with one another, andthat are transmitted from generation to generationthrough learning (Bates, Plog, 1990)
    132. 132. How does culture influence KM?Impact on– Working style– Group behavior– Communication– Design– …How to represent culture / which aspects should beanalyzed?How do these aspects influence KM processes?
    133. 133. More perspectives on ―culture‖Organizational or corporate culture: Managementstyle, rewards, working atmosphereProfessional culture: Formal education within a groupof professionalsFunctional culture: functional roles within theorganizationTeam culture: common work experiences
    134. 134. Culture Levels Regional / National Organizational Individual Individual Individual IndividualOrganizational Organizational Professional
    135. 135. Hofstede‘s ―Dimensions of Culture‖ (1) Model to compare cultures Culture as a set of typical attributes / behaviours (manifestations of culture) – Values – Rituals – Heroes – Symbols Based on a study for IBM in 64 countries / follow-up studies http://www.geert- Symbols Heroes Rituals Value s
    136. 136. Hofstede‘s ―Dimensions of Culture‖ (2) Analysis dimensions Power distance index (PDI): Common position to diversities within a country and the people‘s position towards authorities. individualism-index (IVD): Degree, to which individuals in a country wish to be free from dependencies to other persons and the authorities masculinity index (MAS): Degree to represent gender-roles as part of common norm, school, family and workplace as well as politics Uncertainty avoidance index (UAI): How do individuals feel threatened by uncommon or insecure situations Long term orientation (LTO): Time-orientation of a society (e.g., planning horizon)
    137. 137. Hofstede‘s ―Dimensions of Culture‖Country/Region Germany Score Rank 26 70 Germany (3) 18 Country/Region Score Country/Region Score Rank 67 Germany 66 Rank 11-13 Austria 11 74 Austria 55 27 Austria 79 4 France 68 27-29 France 71 13-14 France 43 47-50 Spain 57 45-46 Spain 51 30 Spain 42 51-53 Portugal 63 37-38 Portugal 27 49-51 Portugal 31 65 South Korea 60 41-42 South Korea 18 63 South Korea 39 59 Brazil 69 26 Brazil 38 39-40 Brazil 49 37 Guatemala 95 3-4 Guatemala 6 74 Guatemala 37 61-62Values for Power Distance Index (PDI) Values for Individualism Index (IDV) Values for Masculinity Index (MAS) Country/Region Score Rank Country/Region Score Rank Germany 65 43 Germany 31 25-27 Austria 70 35-38 Austria 31 25-27 France 86 17-22 France 39 19 Spain 86 17-22 Spain 19 35-36 Portugal 104 2 Portugal 30 28-30 South Korea 85 23-25 South Korea 75 6 Brazil 76 31-32 Brazil 65 7 Guatemala 101 3 Guatemala n.a. n.a. Values for Uncertainly Avoidance Index (UAI) Values for Long-Term Orientation Index (LTO) [Source:]
    138. 138. Power distance index (PDI)Small large• Equal treatment of all employees • Team members dependent on leaders• Employee centered education • Team members treat their boss with• Team members initiate some respectcommunication and discourse • Training suggested by boss• Leaders (in terms of position) areexperts who transfer impersonal truths • Leaders initiate all communication and discourse• KM activities between differenthierarchy levels • Bosses transfer personal wisdom • KM activities between similar levels
    139. 139. Individualism index (IVD)Individualism Collectivism• Team members‘ individual initiatives • Team members‘ individual initiativesencouraged discouraged• Team members are expected to • Team members only speak up inspeak up when seeing communication class when sanctioned by groupneeds / issues • Tasks are associated according to• Team members get tasks according groupsto interests • Successful KM activities provide• Successful KM activities increase entry to higher-status groupeconomic opportunities and/or self- • Knowledge ownership by groups /respect group leaders• Knowledge ownership by individuals • Group knowledge should be valued• Individual knowledge should bevalued and rewarded
    140. 140. Masculinity index (MAS)Masculinity Femininity• Brilliant bosses are admired • Friendly bosses most liked• Best performer is norm • Average performer is norm• Competition in the work place, • Over-ambition impopularincreased barriers to knowledgesharing • Team members under-rate own performance• Team members over-rate ownperformance • Failing is a minor incident• Failing is a disaster
    141. 141. Uncertainty avoidance index (UAI)Strong weak• Team members want to know right • Team members want goodanswers discussions• Leaders / colleagues are supposed • Leaders may say ―I don‘t know‖to have all answers • Emotions should be controlled• Emotions can be expressed anywhere• Pressure among team members to • Tolerance for differencesconform • Knowledge sharing in problematic• Knowledge sharing as future situationsinvestment
    142. 142. Long term orientation (LTO)Long team orientation Short term orientation• Team members attribute success to • Team members attribute botheffort and failure to lack of effort success and failure to luck and fate• Working hard is norm • Enjoyment is norm• Talent for applied, concrete sciences • Talent for theoretical, abstract sciences• Children learn to save • Children learn to spend
    143. 143. Some issues based on Hofstede…PDI: How is knowledge shared between hierarchylevels?IVD: Who ―owns‖ knowledge, is it a common good inan organization?MAS: Are there different ways of sharing knowledge?UAI/LTO: Is knowledge management seen as help forfuture problems?
    144. 144. Critical AnalysisEmpirical study in a corporate cultureResults were evaluated in hundreds of settingsRelative values seem to be stabile (while absolute valuesare changing)Not applicable to all contextsInterpretations for KM and specific components (e.g.,communication) are questionable (see previous slides )KM should take those categories as guidelines fordiscourseKM should be designed based on more detailed culturalaspects (e.g. media / software use, communicationbehavior, roles and responsibilities, …)
    145. 145. Analyzing culture: Characteristics Context. Society / Culture (De Long & Fahey, 2000)