What Is Knowledge Management

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An overview of Knowledge Management and reasons why we should care about it.

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  • Why should organizations invest in Knowledge Management.
  • Often data and information are tossed around when talking about knowledge. It is important to understand the differences Data are unprocessed signals communicated between any nodes in an information system or sensings from the environment detected by a collector of any kind (human, mechanical, or electronic) (FM 6-0). Data can be quantified, stored, and organized in files and databases; however, data only becomes useful when processed into information. Information is data that have been processed to provide further meaning (FM 6-0). Processing places data within a context that gives it meaning and value. Like data, information can be quantified, stored, and organized; however, information alone rarely provides a sound basis for deciding and acting. Good decisions and effective actions require knowledge. Knowledge, in this context, is information that has been analyzed to provide meaning or value or evaluated as to implications for the operation. Knowledge is meaningfully structured and based on experience. Some is usable as the basis for achieving understanding and making decisions. Other knowledge forms the background against which commanders make those decisions. This table shows a simple example of data becoming knowledge.
  • There are numerous KM definitions, but there is not an agreed upon definition. Here are the first published Army Definitions from Army Knowledge Management Principles, by Dr. Bob Neilson - signed by Army Secretary Pete Geren and Chief of Staff Gen. George Casey, Jul 2008 and FM 3-0, Operations, Section 7-53, 27 February 2008 and FM 6-01.1 Knowledge Management Section, 1-3. Aug 08
  • KM as a discipline was only introduced a little mover 20 years ago. KM first was introduced in 1986 by Karl-Erik Sveiby and Karl Wiig. KM didn’t start to pick up momentum until 1998.
  • KM comprises three major components: This is a Holistic Approach of KM. • People— People are the most important element of KM. those inside and outside the organization who create, organize, apply, and transfer knowledge, and the leaders who act on that knowledge. • Processes—the methods of creating, organizing, applying, and transferring knowledge. • Technology—information systems used to put knowledge products and services into organized frameworks. Relatively new fourth component is Content
  • Economists call the phenomenon of assets that increase in value when shared “network externality.” Of course, sharing can diminish the value of an asset under certain circumstances– that’s why we have laws to protect intellectual property. But within broad limits, an organization’s knowledge stock will go up if it is cultivated through sharing. Think of the Internet– it costs almost nothing to add another node, but adding such a node increases the opportunities for profitability. For that matter, think of paper money– as any economist will tell you, it basically has value because people think it has value and act accordingly. The more people who think so, the more who accept it, the more value it has. THE KEY IS TO GET THE ORGANIZATION TO SEE EFFECTIVE KM AS PROMOTING FLOWS, NOT STOCKS, OF KNOWLEDGE . TEACHING Q (ONE THAT WILL COME UP AGAIN): WHAT KIND OF REAL-WORLD INCENTIVES FOR INFO SHARE WILL WORK IN YOUR ORGANIZATION?
  • KM has gotten a bad wrap over the years. Most people really don’t understand what KM is.
  • People often hoard knowledge – if they share it, they won’t be in control. Someone else will get the glory/promotion.
  • Failure to share knowledge incurs costs.  During calm times in office environments these costs are usually expressed in lost efficiency and person hours or dollars.  In high-pressure environments such as hospitals and battlefields, the costs can be measured in casualties and human lives. Dangerous Knowledge Gaps Historically, failure to share knowledge has resulted in disasters.  Amazingly, each of the following could have been averted completely with “a word to the wise” -- knowledge shared at the right time, by the right person. The sinking of the Titanic: the location of the iceberg was spiked in the ship’s telegraph office. Crash of the Space Shuttle Challenger: the Challenger engineers knew the dangers of freezing the o-ring that failed. 9/11 attack on the World Trade Center and Pentagon: prior to 9/11 the FBI was investigating foreign students at flight schools learning to fly, but not land, large commercial jet planes.  Lee H. Hamilton, Former Vice Chair of the 9/11 Commission, made this statement to Congress on November 8, 2005: Poor information sharing was the single greatest failure of our government in the lead-up to the 9/11 attacks.  The failure to share information adequately, within and across federal agencies, and from federal agencies to state and local authorities, was a significant contributing factor to our government’s missteps in understanding and responding to the growing threat of al Qaeda in the years before the 9/11 attacks.  There were several missed opportunities to disrupt the 9/11 plot.  Most of them involved the failure to share information.  The right information was available; it just wasn’t shared .  That famous World War II slogan, “Loose Lips Sink Ships” is true: careless spilling of intelligence is a dangerous thing.  But it’s equally true that knowledge and information – properly exchanged – can save lives.  So, yes, catastrophic disasters have occurred because of failure to share information.  In addition, these stories are quietly echoed millions of times per day in all sorts of work environments.  Inefficiency How much time do knowledge workers and managers spend trying to find information that is somewhere “out there?”  Estimates vary, but a ballpark figure is that 10% of the workday is spent in attempting to find information necessary to do the job. Often searching for information is a matter of finding a person who knows something. This is a common problem, caused by the lack of internal understanding of “who knows what.” The cost of knowledge inefficiency is increased when we factor in work duplication, or “reinventing the wheel.”  This occurs when agencies re-do work that has been done elsewhere because they are unaware of or cannot find work product from the earlier project.
  • Less than 100 B2 Pilots in the entire Air Force. The first crash of an Air Force B2 stealth bomber occurred in Guam on 23 February 2008. Both pilots ejected safely just after the left wing made contact with the ground. Investigators laid the cause of the crash on moisture in sensors and estimated the loss of the aircraft at $1.4 billion. The crash probably could have been avoided if knowledge of a technique to evaporate the moisture had been disseminated throughout the B-2 program, according to the head of the investigation board. Learned by some crews two years earlier, the technique essentially heats the sensors and evaporates any moisture before data calibrations. "This technique was never formalized in a technical order change or captured in 'lessons learned' reports. Only some pilots and some maintenance technicians knew of the suggestion. The report concluded, "The human factor of communicating critical information was a contributing factor to this mishap." Feb 2008
  • In the early days of 2004 when the insurgency was heating up, enemies of the coalition used every trick they could think of to kill or main our troops thinking we would beat a hasty retreat if we suffered too many casualties. Al Quada and the insurgents watch us closely and learned our patterns and habits. One pattern they noticed was in northern Baghdad the US and coalition forces were tearing down Saddam Hussein and anti American posters with regularity. So in one neighborhood the insurgents started removing bricks from the wall behind the posters and placing explosives with a trip wire across the back of the poster. Initially this tactic had some success and more than one US soldier was killed or lost an arm. The word of success quickly spread among the insurgents and the tactic was employed in other areas. Yet after those initial successes this tactic had little effect thanks largely to the use of a distributed unit Network forum called CAVNET (a web based knowledge network designed for rapid dissemination of lessons and Best Practices). After a patrol suffering casualties from the tactic debriefed his leadership the new enemy tactic and a Best Practice solution was agreed upon at the BCT level (within hours) the word of this new tactic and Best Practice was distributed via CAVNET before the day ended. Each morning Soldiers of 1-41 Infantry, an Arkansas National Guard unit attached to 1 CD and located in the south west portion of Baghdad would check CAVNET for changes to enemy tactics and new Best Practices. This morning was no exception. CPT Wilson and his patrol leaders scanned through the site for the new entries discussing each as they went, making notes on their patrol notebooks. When they rejoined their men they discussed the new enemy tactics and decided how they would deal with such situations as they prepared and rehearsed their daily patrol. It was not until over a week later when one of CPT Wilson’s patrols encountered a new poster that a new soldier walked up to and began to tear it down when others in the team shouted “freeze”. The Patrol leader dispatched the engineer sergeant to check out the poster and sure enough, an explosive was lodged in a area of missing wall. CPT Wilson and his leaders saved soldiers lives that day because he had internalized knowledge learned by others experience, discussed in the online Forum CAVNET and then combined this new knowledge with other knowledge, lesson learned and experiences through local conversations as they prepared for patrols. They then disseminated and deliberately practiced this new knowledge until it was embodied in their troopers. This is only one of the examples where we have direct evidence of how the rapid transfer of knowledge in time for the next patrol has had an enormous impact of lives and the missions. MG Pete Chiarelli, the Division Commander for 1CD at the time attributes CAVNET and other similar professional forums linking practitioners in and out of combat to saving over 500 lives just during his divisions tour of duty.
  • What Is Knowledge Management

    1. 1. What is Knowledge Management? and why we should care Mr. Art Schlussel, CKM, CDIA, ECMs November 18, 2009 By: Octium International
    2. 2. Observation “ The only irreplaceable capital an organization possesses is the knowledge and ability of its people. The productivity of that capital depends on how effectively people share their competence with those who can use it.” Andrew Carnegie
    3. 3. KM: Frequent Questions <ul><li>Why should we care about this topic? </li></ul><ul><li>What is “knowledge management?” </li></ul><ul><li>What is “knowledge” and how does it differ from information (or does it)? </li></ul><ul><li>Where does knowledge come from? </li></ul><ul><li>How can knowledge be “managed” (or can it be)? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How can we get more knowledge? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How can we make it more useful? </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Why Knowledge Management? <ul><li>Some good reasons: </li></ul><ul><li>We spend 20-30% of our time searching for information </li></ul><ul><li>High turnover of personnel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>50% of civilian workforce can retire within 5 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OPM estimates 61% federal workforce can retire by 2016 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Leverage wisdom of the entire organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connect those who know with those that need to know </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leverage intangible assets of an organization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prevent re-inventing the wheel </li></ul><ul><li>Make organizations learning organizations – create, acquire, transfer and retain knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Improve efficiency and enhance organizational performance while reducing costs </li></ul><ul><li>Create and foster Communities of Practice </li></ul>
    5. 5. Typical Information – Age Issues <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Poor Signal-to-Noise Ratio </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Info-Glut “ We Don’t Know What We Know,” Much Less What We Need to Know”
    6. 6. Typical Information – Age Issues <ul><li>Poor Signal-to-Noise Ratio </li></ul><ul><li>“ Getting the Right Information to the Right People at the Right Time” </li></ul>“ We Can’t Get People on the Same Page” “ We Spend Too Much Time Making Sure Everybody Knows What the Latest Info Is”
    7. 7. Typical Information – Age Issues <ul><li>Poor Signal-to-Noise Ratio </li></ul><ul><li>“ Getting the Right Information to the Right People at the Right Time” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Too Much Stuff Gets Lost in the System” </li></ul>“ Nothing Gets Followed-Up!” It’s Too Hard to Connect the Dots!
    8. 8. Typical Information – Age Issues <ul><li>Poor Signal-to-Noise Ratio </li></ul><ul><li>“ Getting the Right Information to the Right People at the Right Time” </li></ul><ul><li>Too Much Stuff Gets Lost in the System </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Urgent Drives Out the Important” </li></ul>“ We Spend All Our Time Fighting Fires; It’s Too Hard to Keep Track of the Long-Range and Important Issues”
    9. 9. What IS Knowledge Management? Actions & Programs Designed to Mobilize the Organization’s Intellectual Capital in order to Improve Organizational Effectiveness KM is about ACTION
    10. 10. Defining Knowledge <ul><li>“ Knowledge is understanding gained from experience, analysis & sharing.” “Knowledge gives us power to do something with data and information.” Douglas Weidner, KM Institute </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge is “Information Combined with Experience, Context, interpretation, and reflection.” Tom Davenport </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge is information analyzed to provide meaning and value or evaluated as to implications for the operation. It is also comprehension gained through study, experience, practice, and human interaction that provides the basis for expertise and skilled judgment . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Army FM 6-01.1 </li></ul></ul>“ Understanding gained from experience.” Webster’s Standard Dictionary Definition
    11. 11. Data Becoming Knowledge <ul><li>Data - are unprocessed signals communicated between any nodes in an information system or sensings </li></ul><ul><li>Information - is data that has been processed to provide further meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge - is information that has been analyzed to provide meaning or value </li></ul>FM 6-01.1, Knowledge Management Section, Aug 08
    12. 12. A Real Life Example of Data Becoming Knowledge Data: Six IEDs exploded Information: “ In the last eight hours, six IEDs have been discovered around Samarra”. Knowledge : “The last time there was increased enemy activity like this, enemy forces were consolidating for a possible attack to recapture key towns.”
    13. 13. Information & Knowledge <ul><li>“ Information” is NOT the same as “Knowledge” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Information Management” is NOT the same as “Knowledge Management” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information = Stocks Of Things </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge = Flow Of Ideas </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Difference between knowing How To Do something and knowing What To Do </li></ul>
    14. 14. Explicit & Tacit Knowledge <ul><li>Explicit – Knowledge that is codified, documented, articulated in a formal way </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparatively easy to transfer = Intellectual Property </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tacit – Knowledge embedded in individual experience and involving intangible factors such as personal beliefs, perspectives and values </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to codify and document </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to transfer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Walks out the door each evening, and doesn’t automatically come back in the morning </li></ul></ul>Know How “ Street Smarts” Know What “ Stuff”
    15. 15. KM Definitions Knowledge Management is the art of creating, organizing, applying, and transferring knowledge to facilitate situational understanding and decision making. Knowledge management supports improving organizational learning, innovation, and performance. Knowledge management processes ensure that knowledge products and services are relevant, accurate, timely, and useable to commanders and decision makers. FM 3-0, Operations, Section 7-53, 27 February 2008 = FM 6-01.1 Knowledge Management Section, 1-3. Aug 08 First Army KM Doctrine Knowledge management is a discipline that promotes an integrated approach to identifying, retrieving, evaluating, and sharing an enter­prise’s tacit and explicit knowledge assets to meet mission objectives. The objective of the principles is to connect those who know with those who need to know (know-why, know-what, know-who, and know-how) by leveraging knowledge transfers from one-to-many across the Global Army Enterprise. Army Knowledge Management Principles, by Dr. Robert Neilson, signed by Army Secretary Pete Geren and Chief of Staff Gen. George Casey, Jul 2008
    16. 16. KM Definitions (continued) Conscious strategy of getting the right knowledge to the right people at the right time and helping people share and put information into action in ways that strive to improve organizational performance.” Carla O’Dell and C. Jackson Grayson, If Only We Knew What We Know, 1998, p.6 Conscious strategy of putting both tacit and explicit knowledge into action by creating context, infrastructure, and learning cycles that enable people to find and use the collective knowledge of the enterprise.” Carla O’Dell, Susan Elliott, and Cindy Hubert, Knowledge Management: A Guide for Your Journey to Best-Practice Processes , APQC, 2000, p.1)   Knowledge Management (KM) is the systematic processes by which knowledge needed for an organization to succeed is created, captured, shared and leveraged. Melissie Rumizen,The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Knowledge Management, 2002 KM is a discipline that promotes an integrated approach to identifying, retrieving, evaluating, and sharing an enterprise’s tacit and explicit knowledge assets to meet mission objectives. Art’s current favorite definition
    17. 17. Who Coined the Term Knowledge Management? <ul><li>Karl-Erik Sveiby </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Described as the one of the “founding fathers” of KM pioneered many fundamental concepts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1986 he published his 1 st book, “Knowledge Companies” in Sweden </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Karl Wiig </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also described as a “founding father” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used KM in a 1986 article </li></ul></ul>Both Karl-Erik Sveiby and Karl Wiig used the term Knowledge Management in 1986
    18. 18. <ul><li>Learned and Shared Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Learned and Shared Expertise </li></ul>Where Does KM Come From? “ Know- How” “ Know- What”
    19. 19. Experience & Expertise Cartoon by Danny Shanahan, the New Yorker, Sept. 2002 “ I’ve never really stormed a castle, but I’ve taken a bunch of siege management courses.”
    20. 20. Expertise & Experience <ul><li>Expertise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal: knowing things </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deals in explicit knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Success = “turning chaos into options” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasizes information/ facts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be learned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objective (mostly) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Danger: losing sight of the big picture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Experience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal: understanding things </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deals in tacit knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on synthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Success = getting things done </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasizes judgment/ insight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be earned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subjective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Danger: losing sight of field realities </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. A Typical “Knowledge Manager” Who Uses Both Expertise and Experience Corporal “Radar” O'Reilly - M*A*S*H TV Series
    22. 22. A Key KM Objective <ul><li>Dr. Robert Neilson, KM Advisor to the Army CIO/G6 </li></ul>“ KM is connecting those who know with those who need to know”
    23. 23. KM Components Army FM 6-01.1 <ul><li>Effective KM depends on People and Processes as well as Technology </li></ul><ul><li>In today’s world Technology is an essential enabler </li></ul><ul><li>Effective KM: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>80% “People” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10% “Processes” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10% “Technology ” </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. 4 Typical KM Challenges Know Don’t Know Know Don’t Know Knowledge That You Know You Have Somewhere, But Can’t Find (Explicit Knowledge) Knowledge that You Don’t Know You Have (Tacit Knowledge) Knowledge that You Know You Don’t Have (Known Gaps) Knowledge That You Don’t Know You Don’t Have (SURPRISES!)
    25. 25. So What is KM? <ul><li>Connecting people to people/ Connecting people to info/knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Fostering collaboration -Connecting those who know with those who don’t </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using Portals/Intranets/Web Meetings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Establishing corporate libraries/ databases </li></ul><ul><li>Expert location system </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing best practices </li></ul><ul><li>Leading cultural change </li></ul><ul><li>Improving business practices </li></ul><ul><li>Fostering communities of practice </li></ul><ul><li>Creating virtual organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Measuring intellectual capital </li></ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul>
    26. 26. KM: Core Concepts <ul><li>knowledge is a useable asset… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>That can be (and should be) m anaged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>That can drive decisions and a dd business value </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis on active use , not shelfware </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Includes both Explicit and Tacit , unstructured knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on people (internal & external) as well as tools </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge grows with use and soars when shared </li></ul>
    27. 27. KM Myths <ul><li>Software is the solution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>70% of the solution is good business processes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>KM technologies deliver the right info to the right person at the right time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is impossible to build a system that predicts this </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Information technologies can distribute human intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>If you build it they will come </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not necessarily </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. What Screws Up KM <ul><li>Focus on technology to the exclusion of the people and culture factor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>KM is about adoption and use </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Turning it into yet another project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>KM needs to be inculcated into the organization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Failing to handle the rewards/incentives issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You must address the WIIFM factor (what’s in it for me?) </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. For KM to be Successful <ul><li>KM must create value (make the user’s life easier/more efficient/save time) </li></ul><ul><li>Collect useful knowledge - not all knowledge is useful </li></ul><ul><li>Must be integrated into key business processes </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses on people </li></ul><ul><li>Must have leadership buy-in </li></ul><ul><li>Needs Community of Practice facilitators with a passion for their community (if doing CoP) </li></ul>
    30. 30. Summary of Possible KM Actions Problem Area Examples of Solutions & Actions Info-Glut <ul><li>Action Tracking Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-Source Displays, T&V Tracking </li></ul><ul><li>Push Technology & “Information Provider” Slots </li></ul><ul><li>Stories & Scenarios </li></ul>Lack of Contextual Awareness <ul><li>Data Mining & “Business Intelligence” Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Desk Officers’ Collaborative Space </li></ul><ul><li>Groupware & Collaboration Tools </li></ul>Lack of Situational Awareness Need for Outside-the-Box Insights <ul><li>Communities of Practice, AARs, </li></ul><ul><li>Policy Hotwashes, Lessons Learned Projects </li></ul>
    31. 31. Dilbert on Knowledge Management
    32. 32. Knowledge Shared is Power <ul><li>“ Knowledge is Power” Francis Bacon, 1597 </li></ul><ul><li>KM says – “Knowledge Shared is Power.” FM 6-01.1 </li></ul>
    33. 33. Costs of Failure to Share Knowledge <ul><li>Dangerous Knowledge Gaps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Historically, failure to share knowledge has resulted in disasters </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Which could have been averted with a “word to the wise?” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The sinking of the Titanic? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>9/11 attacks? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Space Shuttle Challenger crash? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hurricane Katrina response? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Air Force B2 stealth bomber crash? </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. Sinking of the Titan i c <ul><li>Titanic received seven different iceberg warnings on the day of her sinking </li></ul><ul><li>Six of which were disregarded by the captain (Cpt. E. J. Smith) </li></ul><ul><li>The seventh warning never made it to the bridge </li></ul>
    35. 35. 9/11 Operational Failures Management Failures <ul><li>The FBI was already investigating foreign students learning to fly, but not land, large jet planes </li></ul><ul><li>Not sharing info linking Cole attack… </li></ul><ul><li>Not expanding no-fly list to terrorist list… </li></ul><ul><li>Management should have ensured information was shared between agencies with clear duties…. </li></ul><ul><li>Government did not find a way of pooling intelligence… </li></ul>
    36. 36. The Space Shuttle Challenger <ul><li>NASA engineers already knew the dangers of freezing the O-ring that failed, leading to the loss of the Space Shuttle Challenger </li></ul><ul><li>Resulted in a tragic loss of life </li></ul>Cost: $5.5 Billion
    37. 37. Hurricane Katrina <ul><li>The Federal response to Hurricane Katrina was marked by now infamous failures to communicate </li></ul>
    38. 38. Air Force B2 Stealth Bomber Crash Sharing experiences leads to lessons that may save lives and lead to more effective operations. Cost: $1.4 Billion Photo courtesy of U.S. Air Force <ul><li>Investigators laid the cause of the crash on moisture in sensors </li></ul><ul><li>Learned by some crews two years earlier, the technique essentially heats the sensors and evaporates any moisture before data calibrations. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;This technique was never formalized in a technical order change or captured in 'lessons learned' reports. </li></ul><ul><li>Only some pilots and some maintenance technicians knew of the suggestion. </li></ul>
    39. 39. KM Saves Lives <ul><li>Sharing Best Practices via CAVNET </li></ul><ul><li>2004 - Insurgents started placing explosives behind pictures of Saddam Hussein </li></ul><ul><li>New TTP post on CAVNET </li></ul><ul><li>CPT Wilson reads post </li></ul><ul><li>Explosive behind poster </li></ul><ul><li>Saves lives of soldiers about to take down poster </li></ul>

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