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Knowledge management manifesto_mkwi2012_20120301


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Knowledge Management (KM) is a social activity. More and more organizations use social software as a tool to bridge the gap between technology- and human-oriented KM. In order to create interoperable, transferable solutions, it is necessary to utilize standards. In this paper, we analyze which standards can be applied and which gaps currently exist. We present the concept of knowledge bundles, capturing information on knowledge objects, activities and people as a prerequisite for social-focused KM. Based on our concept and examples, we derive the strong need for standardization in this domain. As a manifesto this paper tries to stimulate discussion and initiating a broad initiative working towards a common standard for the next generation of knowledge management systems. Our manifesto provides with eight recommendations how the KM community should act to address future challenges.

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Knowledge management manifesto_mkwi2012_20120301

  1. 1. Manifesto for a Standard on MeaningfulRepresentations of Knowledge in SocialKnowledge Management Environments Bick, M., Hetmank, L., Kruse, P., Maier, R., Pawlowski, J.M., Peinl, R., Schoop, E., Seeber, I., Thalmann, S 1
  2. 2. Licensing: Creative CommonsYou are free:  to Share — to copy, distribute and transmit the work  to Remix — to adapt the workUnder the following conditions:  Attribution. You must attribute the work in the manner specified by the author or licensor (but not in any way that suggests that they endorse you or your use of the work).  Noncommercial. You may not use this work for commercial purposes.  Share Alike. If you alter, transform, or build upon this work, you may distribute the resulting work only under the same or similar license to this one. 2
  3. 3. Current Team 3
  4. 4. Knowledge Management – changinglandscapes and instruments 4
  5. 5. Knowledge Management Focus Areas Intellectual Enterprise Asset Focus Effectiveness Focus Maximize building and Maximize use of knowledgeIV. value value reallocation of intellectual capital assets; operational effectiveness III. process knowledge balance sheet, knowledge-intensive scorecard, skill data bases business processes, citation & impact analysis knowledge processes, workflow patterns IV. collaborative Maximize effectiveness of Use IT to maximize capture, people-centric learning transformation, storage, organization retrieval and development of knowledge competencies, motiva-I. human tion, roles & responsi- bilities, task patterns semantics, knowledge workplace and infrastructure, II. IT services, tools People IM & IT Focus Focus After Wiig 1999, 158 5
  6. 6. Source: B.D. Solis: 6 content/uploads/2008/12/2735401175_fcdcd0da03.jpgKnowledge Management going social…
  7. 7. The challenges Knowledge management trends  Connecting human and technology orientation  From document/repository orientation to distributed resources and activities  Social software as a central concept for connecting resources and activities How do we represent knowledge and connect activities, resources and people? 7
  8. 8. The role of social software in knowledgeactivities Knowledge cannot completely be codified and shared Knowledge transfer can be improved by capturing information about the current and historical context and the underlying activity. Social media (SM) and social software (SSW) support knowledge transfer and construction of knowledge through social interactions between people. Contextual information of interactions can be tracked by using existing SM and SSW functionalities such as activity streams, tagging and commenting SM and SSW are mostly limited to personal and content metadata Standardization remains a key task for improving the handling of large and complex information 8
  9. 9. Current standardization efforts Technical standards (document formats, metadata)  Dublin Core  Learning Object Metadata (LOM)  Business Process Model Notation (BPMN)  IMS Learning Design Specification  Contextualized attention metadata (CAM)  RDF, OWL  OOXML, PDF, ODF Human-oriented standards (guidelines and good practices) 9
  10. 10. Knowledge activities To deal with the (automatic ) detection of the users’ task and activities based on collected contextual data a better understanding of potential knowledge activities and their connection and traceability is necessary.Author Knowledge (Management) Activity Author Knowledge (Management) ActivityAurum et al., knowledge creation, knowledge Alavi 2001 Creation, storage/retrieve, transfer, apply,2008 acquisition, knowledge identification, knowledge adaptation, knowledge organization knowledge distribution, knowledge applicationNewell et al., create knowledge, integrate Fong and Acquisition, creation, storage, distribution, use,2009 knowledge, share knowledge Choi, 2009 maintaining codify knowledgeHädrich, 2008 Identification, acquisition Holsapple, acquisition (identifying appropriate knowledge, Codification, combination Singh, capturing identified knowledge, organizing Distribution, search & retrieval 2001 captured knowledge, transferring the organized application, development knowledge archiving & deleting, learning selection (identifying appropriate knowledge, networking capturing identified knowledge, organizingNonaka & Socialization, externalization, captured knowledge, transferring organizedTakeuchi, combination, internalization knowledge)1995; Nonaka generate (monitor, evaluate, produce, transfer)& Toyama, assimilation (assessing, targeting, structuring,2003 delivering) emission (targeting, producing, transferring) 10
  11. 11. Activity StreamActivity Streams allow applications to publish a live stream of a persons’working, learning (or social) activities by aggregators that serialize items intoa sequence of posts, making actions visible to other users of the service.Motivation participants better understand boundaries of their actions groups better manage & coordinate activities people decide with whom to collaborate attracts attention and signals enhances knowledge sharing, asking & answering questions, solving problems enhances mechanisms to demonstrate competences(Olson et al., 2006) 11
  12. 12. Active Documents  An electronic document which includes data as well as metadata and application logic. Alternatively, an active document can be directly connected with the application logic.  Metadata and application logic will be transferred with the active document and be able to activate, control and execute functionalities. [Trög07] Integration of Ability to react Ability to initiate and Ability to take Transformation metadata on an event control functions decisions autonomously characteristic Passive Enriched Reactive Active Proactive Document Document Document Document DocumentSort of document <creator>Muster</creator> <creator>Muster</creator> <creator>Muster</creator> <creator>Muster</creator> <date>11-01-2006</date> <date>11-01-2006</date> <date>11-01-2006</date> <date>11-01-2006</date> Requirementsregarding system Specific system Specific system environment interpreting environment Standard system enviroment environment metadata and application logic using autoactivation mode [Trög07] 12
  13. 13. Current findings Knowledge management changes towards distributed, social, interactive environments Current standards do not allow appropriate representation of social KM  E.g. activities New ways of knowledge representations are needed (and approaches are available) 13
  14. 14. The Manifesto New ways of knowledge representation Key aspects  Represent activities and interactions  Represent context: in which environment do knowledge activities happen?  Allow bundling, merging and connecting resources, activities and people Develop a standard for KM (systems) to enable interoperability and re-use A basis for discussion, discourse, community building! 14
  15. 15. New conceptualization to supportknowledge sharingNew Concepts DescriptionKnowledge Activity (KA) Goal directed actions within a users contextKnowledge Activity Stream (KAS) Time-ordered list of knowledge activities (user-centric view)Knowledge Trace (KT) Codified representation of a users action that captures contextual informationContextual Information Information, e.g. time, place, actions performed on knowledge objects as well as related people and their skillsKnowledge Object (KO) Codified knowledge of externalized knowledge (e.g. paragraphs, tables, figures, mind maps)Knowledge Bundle (KB) Collection of knowledge traces that are affiliated to a knowledge object (object-centric perspective)Knowledge Container (KC) A set of knowledge objects and their corresponding knowledge bundles 15
  16. 16. Towards knowledge containers KA1 KA2 A A A A A A KO KAS1 KO KO KB KAS2 reference KA – Knowledge Activity A – Action KT – Knowledge Trace KO KO KO – Knowledge Object KB – Knowledge Bundle KC – Knowledge Container A KB A KB KAS – KA Stream KC
  17. 17. Aspects of contextual informationenriched knowledge containers 17
  18. 18. Predictions and Recommendations1. Acknowledge KM as a social activity • gap between technology and human orientation bridged by SSW and SM • trend acknowledged by research community and practitioners.2. Focus the active, not the passive • we need a variety of ways to represent knowledge • the focus should shift from document-oriented to an activity-oriented view to better capture the dynamic process.3. Context will be the key factor to understand KM • context rarely analyzed or represented in both, research and standardization communities, thus lack of transferability of results • adequate specifications needed to represent context.4. Stop using outdated frameworks • standards in KM like Dublin Core do not take technological advances into account • widely agreed conceptual KM framework needed considering social media as source for contextual metadata. 18
  19. 19. Predictions and Recommendations (2)5. Focus on specifications and standards • KM community has ignored standards for decades. • specifications and standards are important when designing and experimenting with innovative systems.6. Form an enterprise-research alliance for standards • consensus of all stakeholders needed, in particular researchers and enterprises. • a balanced community needs to be formed from the very beginning.7. Stand on the shoulders of giants • KM community has specific characteristics, but standards do not need to be created from scratch. • build on existing base and similar standards already successful in use.8. Create standards now • KM and SSW are mature enough that we understand the key success factors. • KM community needs to create standards as an agreement in the community for competitive innovative and interoperable solutions 19
  20. 20. Summary We need new ways of representing knowledge management in standards Key aspect: adding context and activities Steps  Find (further) appropriate approaches, standards and alternatives  Collaborate with standardization bodies  Discuss, test, improve! 20
  21. 21. Contact Information JYUProf. Dr. Markus Bickmbick@escpeurope.euProf. Dr. Ronald Dr. Jan M. Pawlowskijan.pawlowski@jyu.fiProf. Dr. Rene Peinlrene.peinl@hof-university.deProf. Dr. Eric 21