Open Educational Resources for      Global Collaboration:Introduction, Guidelines and Case              Study       Prof. ...
Licensing: Creative Commons    You are free:       to Share — to copy, distribute and transmit the work       to Remix — t...
The License in plain words…All slides in this set can be used for non-commercial purposes (academic, general)If you like t...
…Jyväskylä, Finland…Source: [http://www.jyu.fi/, http://www.jyvaskyla.fi/]
…Jyväskylä, Finland…Source: [http://commons.wikimedia.org/, http://www.jyvaskyla.fi/,                   http://www.laajavu...
University of JyväskyläFounded in 1934Nearly 15.000 degree students in sevenfaculties.Approximately 2.500 Staff members. –...
Global Information Systems, University of Jyväskylä                 (JYU) - The Team     Kati Clements              Philip...
JYU: Global Information SystemsFocus areas                         Projects  Global Information Systems          OpenScout...
Imagine…                                           Are Open                                          Educational…you need ...
Workshop OutcomesExploring the opportunities of OpenEducation, Repositories, Resources in aninternational contextAbility t...
ProgrammeAgenda   9.00 – 09.30 Introduction of participants and trainers         Please introduce yourself briefly:       ...
Agenda12.45 – 14.00 Planning and initial adaptation of a course: Finding and Retrieving OER      Finding the appropriate r...
Introduce yourself…9.00 – 09.30 Introduction of participants and  trainers  Please introduce yourself briefly:   – Your af...
ContentsWhat are OER? Concepts and approachesBarriers of OER useCase Study Results: How does it work inthe real life in Fi...
OER: Concepts  Definitions:  – Technology-enabled, open provision of    educational resources for consultation, use    and...
Variety of OER…Resources: – learning objects (specific digital objects created for learning purposes) – multimedia documen...
Open Educational Resources…
Source: B.D. Solis: http://www.sortingthoughts.de/blog/wp-                          content/uploads/2008/12/2735401175_fcd...
Sample contentsMaknaz – http://maknaz.elc.edu.sa/portal/OpenScout – http://www.openscout.netMace Project (technology base)...
Some more…http://ocw.mit.edu/index.htmhttp://openlearn.open.ac.uk/http://www.ariadne-eu.org/http://www.learningcommons.org...
The starting point…Waste amount of content is available inrepositories, a large number of experts andusers are active in s...
European teachers find                resources…by searching using keywords                   95 %by browsing by topic / s...
I Trust Resources...if the resource has a full metadata attached to it can be integrated in my Learning Management        ...
So, why doesn‘t it work in                Education?-    Barriers    – ―not invented here‖                               +...
Recommendations of resources and people…
The solution?                Preparing a new course –                             finding appropriateFinding resources!   ...
The solution?                Preparing a new course –                             finding appropriateFinding people!      ...
Our studyWhat do we need to form a community ofpractice?What are problems which can occur whenusing Open Content?
Finnish teachers vs. European               teachers36 teachers in Central   44 teachers aroundFinland                  Eu...
Experiences from our Case Study:       Sharing of materials made by                   others                              ...
Sharing: Who would you give your                     materials to?                         Who would you give your materia...
But…  Overall, the willingness to share  materials with other teachers is  high  How far the teachers sharing  materials f...
What sort of portal functionalities would help you to use web                               materials more often?         ...
Collaboration network construction                                                  Efficient network                     ...
Building collaboration networksBuilding networks of colleagues – By topic – By trust – By proximityManually…or automatical...
PredictionsStrong worldwide networks will be built (e.g.GLOBE Initiative)Trusted communities should be established,e.g., i...
PredictionsOrganized by location, interest and trust-levelsNo more than 3 networksConnections to various open contentsourc...
ChallengesInternationalization strategies and tools inglobal, in particular north-south cooperationsBusiness models: Add-o...
European Initiatives:                      NORDLETA Nordic Baltic cooperation for OpenEducationWorking in a region with gr...
European Initiatives:                     NORDLETContent space: Access to Baltic NordicresourcesStarting point for collabo...
NORDLET
European Initiatives: OpenScoutContinuous learning in management …  Development of management skills essential  Growing ne...
OpenScout Consortium   authoring, adaptati   on                                          content                          ...
Open Scout Architecture                                                                                                   ...
Key aspectsLargest European access point formanagement, business and related areasCompetence –based learning – Fitting you...
Open Scout PrototypeWidget-based user-interface which enable users to access the provided services in auser-friendly and c...
Consider networks…Work on shared teaching and developmentUse, add, discuss contentsFind people and materialsDevelop the id...
Adapting and Internationalizing OER: Background, Practices,Applications, and Case Study      Prof. Dr. Jan M. Pawlowski
Sample TaskDesign a blended learning course on watermanagement for teachersSmall budget available, high quality neededKey ...
The adaptation process                                   Share &  Search             Adapt         ExchangeKey issues– How...
General OER-modelPirkkalainen (2010)
Process example• OER process model refined for internationalization purposes• Possible flow of actions resulting to conten...
Relationship of the factorsMapping the contextual factors to the adaptation criteria is crucial
How does this work in practice?Step by step approach – Search – Adapt – Share and ExchangeWhat are the key decisions?What ...
Search                                       SearchChoose the starting point for your search – in this step, find a good s...
Search                       SearchChoose the starting point foryour search – in this step,find a good startingrepository ...
Search                           SearchClearly state yourrequirements and needs:What are the main                   Sample...
Search: Culture Profiles                                                      Search                                      ...
Search                         SearchCheck the quality of aresource: Has theresource been reviewed     Organizational Qual...
Search        SearchSource: http://www.openscienceresources.eu/
Search                                  SearchCheck the internationalization     Content analysis  requirements:          ...
14 Dimensions of Henderson (inthe field of education / learning) Epistemology: Objectivism – Constructivism Pedagogical Ph...
Epistemology            Objectivism                            Constructivism         Knowledge is                        ...
Pedagogical Philosophy            Instructivist                          Constructivist                                   ...
Underlying Psychology           Behavioral                              Cognitive                                         ...
Goal Orientation          Sharply-focused                             Unfocused                                           ...
Experiential Value               Abstract                                  Concrete•Abstract                              ...
Teacher Role             Didactic                              Facilitative                                       •Teacher...
Program Flexibility           Teacher-Proof                             Easily Modifiable •Course and learning activities ...
Value of Errors       Errorless Learning                  Learning from experiences                                       ...
Motivation            Extrinsic                               Intrinsic•Motivation originates from factors    •Motivation ...
Accommodation of Individual                Differences             Non-Existent                              Multi-Faceted...
Learner Control            Non-Existent                              Unrestricted                                         ...
User Activity        Mathemagenic                            Generative•Learners have the opportunity to   Learners are en...
Cooperative Learning          Unsupported                                Integral                                      •Le...
Cultural Sensitivity           Non-Existent                                 Integral    •The cultural differences are     ...
Context Metadata (Pawlowski, Richter, 2007)                       Internet       Culture       Demographical              ...
Search                SearchAsk colleagues andnetworks: It ispromising also to askexperiencedcolleagues or search     Sear...
Search:                                                       SearchCollaboration network construction                    ...
Search                        Search      Usefulness: ParametersContent                    People  Topic                  ...
Search                       SearchFamiliarize yourself withsome basic licenses: MostOER use a creativecommons license whi...
Search                             SearchSearch and try: Most repositories provide direct access toresources, so it might ...
Search                 SearchMake your decision: You cannot use allresources but soon you will find resourcesand colleague...
Attribute          Description               0                     CommentLanguage    English                       ...
Adaptation                                AdaptSmall involvement or more? As a first step, a strategic decision isneeded –...
Adaptation                       AdaptSmall involvement ormore? As a first step, astrategic decision is needed– will you o...
Adapt               AdaptationTools: Some materials      Summarize requirements and                             functions ...
Adaptation: Sample                                   Adapt         Content                Adaptation need                 ...
Adaptation                  AdaptCollaborate: It is always advisable to let theoriginal author and potential colleagues kn...
Share and exchange                            Share &                                                    ExchangeRe-publis...
Share and exchange                                 Share &                                                                ...
ConclusionStep by step approach guides through the OERadaptation processKey issues: – Internationalization aspects – Cultu...
Agenda12.45 – 14.00 Planning and initial adaptation of a course: Finding and Retrieving OER      Finding the appropriate r...
TaskCreating a 2 hour blended learning courseBased on existing materialsSee work sheets
Task: Pythagoras theoremImagine the following situation: You are developing a new class for pupils in schoolin Mathematics...
FeedbackPlease provide feedback:  Do you find OER an appropriate solution  Can you imagine to use OER with other origins  ...
ReferencesBlanchard E., Razaki R. & Frasson C. (2005):Cross-cultural adaptation of e-Learning contents: amethodology. Proc...
Contact us…Prof. Dr. Jan M. Pawlowskijan.m.pawlowski@jyu.fiGLIS on the web…http://users.jyu.fi/~japawlowNORDLET           ...
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Open Educational Resources for Global Collaboration: Introduction, Guidelines and Case Study

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An extensive slideset and workshop concept regarding the internationalization of open educational resources. This includes an introduction of OER, some practices. The main aspect provides guidelines for OER internationalization and a simple case study (including samples and worksheets). If you are interested to further develop the workshop concept, just drop me an email...

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  • Next stepsFor the needs of EC TEL presentationGUI adaptation to a more portal-like presentation wayRegister and log in page and respective services integration in direct connection to FIT serverActual social metadata services integration by direct connection to FIT serverFor the future development strategyIn contact with technical partners Definition of the architectural strategy for the combination of the several servicesDefinition and description of expected services and specification of combined data expected from middleware (connector).
  • Open Educational Resources for Global Collaboration: Introduction, Guidelines and Case Study

    1. 1. Open Educational Resources for Global Collaboration:Introduction, Guidelines and Case Study Prof. Dr. Jan M. Pawlowski Worksheets and further material available from jan.pawlowski@jyu.fi
    2. 2. Licensing: Creative Commons You are free: to Share — to copy, distribute and transmit the work to Remix — to adapt the work Under the following conditions: Attribution. You must attribute the work in the manner specified by the author or licensor (but not in any way that suggests that they endorse you or your use of the work). Noncommercial. You may not use this work for commercial purposes. Share Alike. If you alter, transform, or build upon this work, you may distribute the resulting work only under the same or similar license to this one. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ http://www.slideshare.net/jan.pawlowski
    3. 3. The License in plain words…All slides in this set can be used for non-commercial purposes (academic, general)If you like to use my slides, just inform me bysending a mail: jan.pawlowski@jyu.fiIf you modify the slides, please send me yourversionIf you use the slide for a commercial course,contact me and we agree how to arrange this
    4. 4. …Jyväskylä, Finland…Source: [http://www.jyu.fi/, http://www.jyvaskyla.fi/]
    5. 5. …Jyväskylä, Finland…Source: [http://commons.wikimedia.org/, http://www.jyvaskyla.fi/, http://www.laajavuori.com/]
    6. 6. University of JyväskyläFounded in 1934Nearly 15.000 degree students in sevenfaculties.Approximately 2.500 Staff members. – About 700 Research StaffExcellence Centre nominated by the FinnishAcademy e.g. in Learning and MotivationResearch
    7. 7. Global Information Systems, University of Jyväskylä (JYU) - The Team Kati Clements Philipp Holtkamp Denis Kozlov Henri Pirkkalainen Jan M. Pawlowski My background Ph.D. Business Information Systems, University of Essen Habilitation ―Quality Management / Integration of Knowledge Management and E-Learning‖ Professor in ―Global Information Systems‖ Chair CEN/ISSS Workshop Learning Technologies ISO/IEC JTC1 SC36 Project Editor
    8. 8. JYU: Global Information SystemsFocus areas Projects Global Information Systems OpenScout: OER for Supporting globally distributed Management workgroups TELMAP: Technology Open Educational Resources Forecasting Reference Modeling NORDLET: Nordic Baltic Network for Learning, Education and TrainingE-Learning COSMOS, Open Science Supporting international Resources: Exchange of education settings Scientific Content Cultural adaptation ASPECT: Open Content Standardization & Quality and standards for schools Management iCOPER: New standards for Mobile & Ambient Learning educational technologies Innovative tools and solutions LaProf: Language learning in ICT and agriculture
    9. 9. Imagine… Are Open Educational…you need to set up a new Resources a solution for you???training course…your budget for trainings was cut…you have only 2 days to preparea new training…you are renewing yourorganizations strategy…you want to improve working withcolleagues abroad… you want to develop the highestquality resources for your students/ staff!
    10. 10. Workshop OutcomesExploring the opportunities of OpenEducation, Repositories, Resources in aninternational contextAbility to search and find resources fittingyour needsIdentifying adaptation needs andrequirementsAbility to estimate the adaptation effortEvaluating tools and services
    11. 11. ProgrammeAgenda 9.00 – 09.30 Introduction of participants and trainers Please introduce yourself briefly: 1. Your affiliation 2. Your experience with E-Learning and Open Educational Resources 3. What you expect from the workshop 09.30 – 10.30 Open Educational Resources and Repositories: An Introduction Open Educational Resources: What is it? Repositories: Some examples of repositories. Barriers: What holds us away from using OER? Opportunities: How can we benefit from OER? 11.00 – 11.45 Adapting and Internationalizing Open Educational Resources: Background, Practices, Examples What are the processes to adapt OER? What are the key influence factors for adapting OER? Culture Models and their influences From research to practice: How to make OER adaptation and internationalization work… 11.45 – 12.15 Introduction to the exercise: Planning a course based on OER Selecting a topic and key audience: Schools, Higher Education, Vocational Training
    12. 12. Agenda12.45 – 14.00 Planning and initial adaptation of a course: Finding and Retrieving OER Finding the appropriate resource Validating its usefulness and potential14.30 – 15.30 Adapting OER, Re-publishing OER Finding appropriate tools: Authoring, translating, … Republishing OER in repositories 15.30 – 16.00 Discussion of experiences
    13. 13. Introduce yourself…9.00 – 09.30 Introduction of participants and trainers Please introduce yourself briefly: – Your affiliation – Your experience with E-Learning and Open Educational Resources – What you expect from the workshop?
    14. 14. ContentsWhat are OER? Concepts and approachesBarriers of OER useCase Study Results: How does it work inthe real life in Finland?Recommdenation Systems in the Future:Building your networks
    15. 15. OER: Concepts Definitions: – Technology-enabled, open provision of educational resources for consultation, use and adaptation by a community of users for non-commercial purposes". (UNESCO, 2002) – But: Commercial purposes shall not be excluded→Any digital object which can be freely accessed and used for educational purposes
    16. 16. Variety of OER…Resources: – learning objects (specific digital objects created for learning purposes) – multimedia documents, simulations but also simple html web resources.Articles, textbooks and digital equivalents: – articles, papers, books or journals – Open AccessSoftware tools – producing / authoring learning resources, communication and collaboration. – Open Source or Free SoftwareInstructional / didactical designs and experiences – access to instructional designs, didactical plannings – such as lesson plans, case studies or curricula – sharing experiences about materials and lessons between colleagues – Open Educational Practices.Web assets: – simple resources (assets) – pictures, links, or short texts – not usable on their own in a learning context but can be used to support or illustrate a certain topic – found by google or similar search engines.
    17. 17. Open Educational Resources…
    18. 18. Source: B.D. Solis: http://www.sortingthoughts.de/blog/wp- content/uploads/2008/12/2735401175_fcdcd0da03.jpgSocial Networks (Solis)
    19. 19. Sample contentsMaknaz – http://maknaz.elc.edu.sa/portal/OpenScout – http://www.openscout.netMace Project (technology base) – http://www.mace-project.euITunes University – http://www.apple.com/education/itunes-u/OpenLearn (Open University UK) – http://openlearn.open.ac.uk/Globe Network (Federation) – http://www.globe-info.org/Ariadne Foundation (Europe) – http://www.ariadne-eu.org/ 19
    20. 20. Some more…http://ocw.mit.edu/index.htmhttp://openlearn.open.ac.uk/http://www.ariadne-eu.org/http://www.learningcommons.org/educators/library/gem.phphttp://www.merlot.org/merlot/index.htmhttp://www.jisc-collections.ac.uk/http://wiki.creativecommons.org/Creative_Commons_and_Open_Educational_Resourceshttp://opentraining.unesco-ci.org/http://portal.mace-project.eu/http://www.openscout.nethttp://lreforschools.eun.org/http://globe-info.orghttp://lorn.flexiblelearning.net.au/
    21. 21. The starting point…Waste amount of content is available inrepositories, a large number of experts andusers are active in social networksGreat potentials for collaboration, sharingand social innovationWhat are barriers and opportunities?
    22. 22. European teachers find resources…by searching using keywords 95 %by browsing by topic / subject / age 84 %by recommendations from colleagues 84 %by recommendations from friends 75 %with good ranking 61 %from an organization with a good reputation 55 %
    23. 23. I Trust Resources...if the resource has a full metadata attached to it can be integrated in my Learning Management Systems / my web page from an organization which has a Quality Certificate (e.g., ISO 9000) from an organization with a good reputation (e.g., CERN, Harvard, Nasa) which have received good rankings which have been used very oftenhave been reviewed by colleagues / scientists in the field if I‘ve seen a preview of the resource if the resource is in my own language only if I have reviewed them myself 0 % 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 % % % % % % % % % %
    24. 24. So, why doesn‘t it work in Education?- Barriers – ―not invented here‖ + Potentials & needs – Education budget – ―Education is – Focus on new stuff something special!‖ – ―I have no time‖ – Cooperation and synergies – Googling might not be – Skills in the use of ICT enough and tools – Complex tools – Enormous resource – Curriculum integration pools – Insecurities –…
    25. 25. Recommendations of resources and people…
    26. 26. The solution? Preparing a new course – finding appropriateFinding resources! materials for re-use Usefulness? Quality? Rights?
    27. 27. The solution? Preparing a new course – finding appropriateFinding people! materials for re-use Trustworthiness?
    28. 28. Our studyWhat do we need to form a community ofpractice?What are problems which can occur whenusing Open Content?
    29. 29. Finnish teachers vs. European teachers36 teachers in Central 44 teachers aroundFinland Europe (Belgium, Romania, Lithuania, Portugal) Teachers were from the fields of IT, Maths and Science
    30. 30. Experiences from our Case Study: Sharing of materials made by others Whose Materials would you use? 100,00 % 80,00 % 60,00 % Finnish Teachers 40,00 % European Teachers 20,00 % 0,00 % Colleagues at Colleagues from Colleagues from Colleagues from the same school the same elsewhere in my outside my geographical country country areaConclusion: Finnish teachers are more willing to usematerials made by others than European teachers
    31. 31. Sharing: Who would you give your materials to? Who would you give your materials to?100,00 % 90,00 % 80,00 % 70,00 % 60,00 % Finnish Teachers 50,00 % 40,00 % European Teachers 30,00 % 20,00 % 10,00 % 0,00 % Colleagues Colleagues Colleagues Colleagues None of the at the same from the from from outside above school same elsewhere in my country geographical my country area Conclusion: Finnish teachers are less willing to give materials to others than European teachers
    32. 32. But… Overall, the willingness to share materials with other teachers is high How far the teachers sharing materials from each other are – doesn‘t seem to matter!→In our world in 2010: Physical distance to a colleague does not affect trust???
    33. 33. What sort of portal functionalities would help you to use web materials more often? Use cases Level status Reliability Adaptability Easy to useVisual appearance Translation User rating (stars)Reviews/Evaluation Keyword indexEfficient search tool 0% 10 % 20 % 30 % 40 % 50 % 60 % 70 % 80 % 90 % 100 % European teachers Finnish teachers
    34. 34. Collaboration network construction Efficient network organization is the key to success First degree trusted network Tools are needed to Topic / Context facilitate the A process Open Issues: – Factors? Topic / Context B – Organization? – The right network? Second degree trusted network
    35. 35. Building collaboration networksBuilding networks of colleagues – By topic – By trust – By proximityManually…or automatically…Using collaboration networks – Social networks – International communitiesCollaboration competency as the key success factorfor future teaching!
    36. 36. PredictionsStrong worldwide networks will be built (e.g.GLOBE Initiative)Trusted communities should be established,e.g., initiatives between partner countrieswith similar or mutually beneficialbackgrounds (KSA – Finland?)No one fits all (facebook-alike) communitybut sub networksStarting point: The large social business &leisure networks as well as special interestsites
    37. 37. PredictionsOrganized by location, interest and trust-levelsNo more than 3 networksConnections to various open contentsourcesIntegration of tools & support
    38. 38. ChallengesInternationalization strategies and tools inglobal, in particular north-south cooperationsBusiness models: Add-on services andcommercialization strategiesTrust awareness and specificationmechanismsGetting started…
    39. 39. European Initiatives: NORDLETA Nordic Baltic cooperation for OpenEducationWorking in a region with great potentials foropen education – Tradition of education as part of the society – Flexible and rapid educational changesCan we work cooperatively towards openeducation?
    40. 40. European Initiatives: NORDLETContent space: Access to Baltic NordicresourcesStarting point for collaborationDiscussion and debate: Focus topicsRegional eventsClustering conferenceLinks to social networks: facebook, …
    41. 41. NORDLET
    42. 42. European Initiatives: OpenScoutContinuous learning in management … Development of management skills essential Growing need for learning materials – Diverse topics, up-to-date, high-quality, inexpensive – Easy to access, skill-specific, adaptable, re-usable Open educational management content available, but many usage barriers… utilizing openly accessible learning materials Easy-to-use web services to access open content Support all phases of using open learning materials Validate Re-use / Validate Search re- Re-publish adapt solution usability 42
    43. 43. OpenScout Consortium authoring, adaptati on content federationindustrial learning skill & competencetechnology, content servicesconnectors user community reference scenarios, evaluation 43
    44. 44. Open Scout Architecture ….. iGoogle Tool library Service library Toolkit Competence collection Tool Basic browsing Social recommendat Search and search Networks USER COMMUNITY (Early adopters) ions Connector (Enterprise Service Bus, ESB) Social Re- USER COMMUNITY (Large scale) Networking FM publish Metadata about users, usage and tools ….. CLIX User Social Usage tool profiles Metadata Metadata profiles LCMS OpenScout repository Repositories federation Harvested Harvest LOMOpenLearn Slides ….. OpenScout tar Domain Enriched portal classification LOM (AP) OpenSc Open ….. out ER website Competence Content metadata Enrichment Almost At least 1 evaluation Started…In Planned, not done done progress implemented 44
    45. 45. Key aspectsLargest European access point formanagement, business and related areasCompetence –based learning – Fitting your curriculumTools and services – Which tool for which processCommunity of trusted colleagues
    46. 46. Open Scout PrototypeWidget-based user-interface which enable users to access the provided services in auser-friendly and convenient way, e.g. searching and retrieving of related learningobjects. 46
    47. 47. Consider networks…Work on shared teaching and developmentUse, add, discuss contentsFind people and materialsDevelop the idea of open education
    48. 48. Adapting and Internationalizing OER: Background, Practices,Applications, and Case Study Prof. Dr. Jan M. Pawlowski
    49. 49. Sample TaskDesign a blended learning course on watermanagement for teachersSmall budget available, high quality neededKey decision: make or buy– Or collaborate!
    50. 50. The adaptation process Share & Search Adapt ExchangeKey issues– How to internationalize materials?– What is the effort?– Which materials are promising and useful?
    51. 51. General OER-modelPirkkalainen (2010)
    52. 52. Process example• OER process model refined for internationalization purposes• Possible flow of actions resulting to content adaptation anddelivery
    53. 53. Relationship of the factorsMapping the contextual factors to the adaptation criteria is crucial
    54. 54. How does this work in practice?Step by step approach – Search – Adapt – Share and ExchangeWhat are the key decisions?What are state of the art solutions for thosesteps?Which issues are open and need furtherinvestigation?
    55. 55. Search SearchChoose the starting point for your search – in this step, find a good startingrepository for your search. We recommend to either use a specific repository for acertain topic (e.g. OpenScout for Management, LRE for school contents) or afederated repository which searches more than one source. Check whether thereare multi-lingual features (search, vocabulary, …).Clearly state your requirements and needs: What are the main characteristics ofyour content besides the topic area – which is the age group, context (school,Higher Education, SME training, etc), instructional context. All these aspects canusually be specified in the search engines and make it more likely to find goodresultsCheck the quality of a resource: Has the resource been reviewed by colleagues?Has it been certified or has it achieved good ranking from previous re-users?Check the internationalization requirements: Are there national / regional conceptsin the content? Does the curriculum fit? Is the resource appealing?Ask colleagues and networks: It is promising also to ask experienced colleagues orsearch forums by fellow teachers as an example. In most cases, you easily find acolleague sharing good ideas and hints.Familiarize yourself with some basic licenses: Most OER use a creative commonslicense which aims at providing a simple transparent scheme. In most cases, re-use is allowed when informing the author in non-commercial settings. However,the Creative Commons website for OER helps to clarify what your legal situation isand also provides a tool to build licenses for your needs.http://wiki.creativecommons.org/Creative_Commons_and_Open_Educational_Resources or http://creativecommons.org/choose/?lang=en_GBSearch and try: Most repositories provide direct access to resources, so it might beuseful just to try out a few resources and see how it fits your context.Summarize the characteristics and estimate the adaptation effortMake your decision: You cannot use all resources but soon you will find resourcesand colleagues which are fitting your context.
    56. 56. Search SearchChoose the starting point foryour search – in this step,find a good startingrepository for your search.We recommend to either Consider global repositories:use a specific repository for http://globe-info.orga certain topic (e.g. Consider domain / sectors specificOpenScout for repositories:Management, LRE for http://lreforschools.eun.org/school contents) or a http://learn.openscout.netfederated repository which Browse those and validate theirsearches more than one resources (see chapter on quality)source. Can you search for your native language, can you searchCheck whether there are automatically for translatedmulti-lingual features metadata? Can you get translated(search, vocabulary, …). results? Check if there are communities where you can seek support and collaboration.
    57. 57. Search SearchClearly state yourrequirements and needs:What are the main Sample requirements attributescharacteristics of your contentbesides the topic area – which Domainis the age group, context Sector / level(school, Higher Education, Age groupSME training, etc), instructional Type of resource (ppt,context. All these aspects can simulation, pictures,usually be specified in the assessment, …)search engines and make itmore likely to find good results Learning outcomes / curriculum Didactic approach Topic Rights Author / institution Quality (certification) Cultural attributes!
    58. 58. Search: Culture Profiles Search Culture Profile Instance (Nation / Region)IMS LIP E-Portfolio•Identification Culture Profile Instance •Organizations•Goals Instantiation (Group) •Identification•Qualifications •Resources•Activities Culture Profile •Products•… Instance (Actor) •… •…Culture Profile •Experience 1: StudySpecification Netherlands Contains•General •Experience 2: Project Characteristic•Reference Korea•Educational •Native Culture: Germany•Culture •…•Communication•… Contains Product Presentation Defined Culture CompetenciesRCDEO•Competency description•Evidence•… See also: Pawlowski, 2008
    59. 59. Search SearchCheck the quality of aresource: Has theresource been reviewed Organizational Qualityby colleagues? Has it certificationsbeen certified or has it – ISO 9000, ISO/IECachieved good ranking 19796-xfrom previous re-users? – Accreditation Individual recommendations Rankings / ratings / recommendations – Do you get rankings from similar users? – Trust?
    60. 60. Search SearchSource: http://www.openscienceresources.eu/
    61. 61. Search SearchCheck the internationalization Content analysis requirements: Specific concepts and practices Are there national / regional and their cultural specific concepts in the content? meanings (laws, business logic, behavior, norms, music, Does the curriculum fit? traditions, ….) Is the resource appealing? Language, language What are the differences conventions, politeness, … between originating and target Knowledge in context (what is culture? common knowledge, what is How can culture models be made explicit?) applied to the resource? Curriculum fit Learning outcomes and didactics Group work Teacher roles Localization – Dates, formats, numbers, units User interface – pictures, navigation, shapes, numbers, colors, …
    62. 62. 14 Dimensions of Henderson (inthe field of education / learning) Epistemology: Objectivism – Constructivism Pedagogical Philosophy: Instructivist – Constructivist Underlying Psychology: Behavioral – Cognitive Goal Orientation: Sharply-focused – Unfocused Experiential Value: Abstract – Concrete Teacher Role: Didactic – Facilitative Program Flexibility: Teacher-Proof – Easily Modifiable Value of Errors: Errorless Learning – Learning from experience Motivation: Extrinsic – Intrinsic Accommodation of Individual Differences: Non-Existent – Multi- Faceted Learner Control: Non-Existent – Unrestricted User Activity: Mathemagenic – Generative Cooperative Learning: Unsupported – Integral Cultural Sensitivity: Non-Existent – Integral See also: Edmundson (2007)
    63. 63. Epistemology Objectivism Constructivism Knowledge is Knowledge is •comprehensive •Individually constructed •structured •with multiple perspectives •accurate •‗measured‘ by the ability to create •measured by tests learning strategies Course allows participants to learnThe implication is that, once learners about X learning units, but then theyhave learned about X learning units, are required to cite examples of howthey have mastered the topic. they could adapt the knowledge to accommodate each style.
    64. 64. Pedagogical Philosophy Instructivist Constructivist •encourage meta cognitive learning strategies•stress goals and objectives •based on previous concepts or•are founded in behavioral psychology schema Courses have clearly identified and In the course participants are asked to measurable learning objectives, so relate the learned material to participants know exactly when they examples they have seen in their work have ‗learned‘ the desired material or lives
    65. 65. Underlying Psychology Behavioral Cognitive •learners are allowed to build•only ‗correct‘ responses accepted knowledge based on previous experienceLearners are expected to complete Learners are allowed to integrate theirtasks exactly as ordered experiences into learning
    66. 66. Goal Orientation Sharply-focused Unfocused •No pre-set goals •clearly defined, pre-set goals •Self set goals One activity in the course has participants reflecting on what theyIf the learner knows the material, they learned and how they learned it, thenhave successfully achieved the goals analyzing their own learning style based on what they discovered.
    67. 67. Experiential Value Abstract Concrete•Abstract •indicating relevance to the learner‘s•indicating ‗removed from reality‘ world•―ignores‖ specific influence factors of •takes all influence factors intothe real world account Learners are not expected to relate Learners are encouraged to apply content to their past or potential ‗knowledge‘ to their activities at work experiences. Focus on models
    68. 68. Teacher Role Didactic Facilitative •Teacher facilitates learning without •Teacher presents the knowledge controlling outcomes •Focuses on lectures •Focuses on group works and assignments When students have questions orThe instructor of the course is the concerns that they could, with someexpert and all questions or concerns help, resolve or discover answers oncan be resolved by this expert their own, the instructor helps them learn to find the solution themselves.
    69. 69. Program Flexibility Teacher-Proof Easily Modifiable •Course and learning activities are •Teacher accepts suggestions and fixed errors •No Changes are possible •Program can be changed if necessaryThe instructor contributes knowledge; The instructor recognizes his/her faultyit is up to the student to learn it. The instructional activity and modifies it toteaching techniques would not be the suit the learnerscause of faulty learning.
    70. 70. Value of Errors Errorless Learning Learning from experiences •Errors are a part of the learning•Errors are not tolerated in any way process•Students learn until either they •Errors will be analyzed to learn fromgenerate no errors them If students make a mistake, they areOnce students can consistently and offered another opportunity to learn byerrorless define and describe the recognizing their error and thencontent, they have ‗learned‘. correcting it
    71. 71. Motivation Extrinsic Intrinsic•Motivation originates from factors •Motivation originates from withinseparate from the learner •―a true desire to learn‖•―the need to get the best grade‖ Students are genuinely interested inStudents are memorizing facts and learning new knowledge or skills anddefinitions to pass the course. applying them to real life situations
    72. 72. Accommodation of Individual Differences Non-Existent Multi-Faceted •knowledge and learning presented in•Differences of individual learning style a variety of waysand strategies are not considered •learners can utilize what most suits their preferences Students can read text, watch onlineOnly text reading and drill-and-practice videos or analyze case studies inare offered as course activities order to learn.
    73. 73. Learner Control Non-Existent Unrestricted •learn by discovery, which means the•The learner must learn along a learner has unrestricted control of thepredetermined path path•Learning activities and their order is •The learner can control what to dofixed whenThe learners are sequentially The learners can chose the learningmastering the content and will know activities that appeal to themwhen their learning is complete
    74. 74. User Activity Mathemagenic Generative•Learners have the opportunity to Learners are engaged in the processaccess the same content, but in of creating learning materialdifferent ways Learners are allowed to expand uponLearners access pre-set learning other uses of knowledge and arematerial. asked to research an example
    75. 75. Cooperative Learning Unsupported Integral •Learning is encourage through •Learners work independently of cooperative activities among learners others •Group work •Individual workEach learner protects his or her The instructor provides activities whichknowledge, as success is determined allow learners to exchange ideas andby mastering the topic to the experiences, thus augmenting theinstructor‘s satisfaction information and skills learned
    76. 76. Cultural Sensitivity Non-Existent Integral •The cultural differences are •The cultural differences are an completely ignored (even if integral part of the course and learning unintentionally) The instructor or designer of theThe instructor assumes that all course attempts to keep images andlearners will learn equally by the way examples free from stereo- types andhe/she teaches and by the activities uses internationally recognizedpresented. symbols.
    77. 77. Context Metadata (Pawlowski, Richter, 2007) Internet Culture Demographical security development Learner Religion satisfaction Geography & Technical education infrastructure infrastructure Information &Companies Knowledge Rights Rules,standards and Systems History agreements Human actors Politics Financial State of aspects Media richness development
    78. 78. Search SearchAsk colleagues andnetworks: It ispromising also to askexperiencedcolleagues or search Search for relevantforums by fellow colleaguesteachers as an Who do you trust inexample. In most the field?cases, you easily find Identify communities,a colleague sharing linkedin, facebook,good ideas and hints. xing etc Create your networks for education sharing
    79. 79. Search: SearchCollaboration network construction Efficient network organization is the key to success First degree trusted network Tools are needed to Topic / Context facilitate the A process Open Issues: – Factors? Topic / Context B – Organization? – The right network? Second degree trusted network
    80. 80. Search Search Usefulness: ParametersContent People Topic Proximity Context – Geographical Type Didactical setting + – Cultural – Personal Quality… Trustworthiness – Experiences – Recommendations –…
    81. 81. Search SearchFamiliarize yourself withsome basic licenses: MostOER use a creativecommons license whichaims at providing a simple Some CC licensing attributestransparent scheme. In most Use or modifications?cases, re-use is allowed Commercial or non-commercialwhen informing the author innon-commercial settings. Collaboration or acquisition ?However, the Creative National or international?Commons website for OER Further publication or privatehelps to clarify what your use?legal situation is and alsoprovides a tool to buildlicenses for your needs.
    82. 82. Search SearchSearch and try: Most repositories provide direct access toresources, so it might be useful just to try out a few resourcesand see how it fits your context.Summarize the characteristics and estimate the adaptationeffort – Comparison of requirements and characteristics – Adaptation options – Tools options – Time, efforts, cost…Internationalization aspects – Cultural / business logic changes – Content change – Language aspects – Curricular / didactical changes – User interface changes
    83. 83. Search SearchMake your decision: You cannot use allresources but soon you will find resourcesand colleagues which are fitting yourcontext.
    84. 84. Attribute Description   0   CommentLanguage English X Parts need to be translated Topic Pythagoras theoremAge group 12-16 X Fit exactly Method Interactive simulation, X Needs to be explained in detail for assisted by teacher distance learning pupils Quality Description Standards Curriculum fit Quality of contents Interactivity Media use Appropriateness of methods Technical requirements Technical correctness Motivational Culture Content Method Goal orientation Experiment value Teacher role Flexibility Value of errors Motivation Learner control User activity Cooperative learning / group work Communication Interface design (characters, metaphors, numbers, colors)Summary Summary of fitness
    85. 85. Adaptation AdaptSmall involvement or more? As a first step, a strategic decision isneeded – will you only re-use materials or do you see this as apotential for strategic collaboration. Simple re-use just requiresdownloading the resource and adapting some graphics (just likechanging a powerpoint slide design). In some cases, you might findthe materials as a good starting point, but you would add conceptsand enrich / enhance the contents and share it again with the originalauthor and a community – this can lead to dynamic contentenhancements and – even more important – trusted communities.Tools: Some materials are simpler to modify (web pages, wikipages), some need more effort. The selection of good (and free)tools to make changes is essential for a good process.Collaborate: It is always advisable to let the original author andpotential colleagues know about your plans. By this, you can clarifythe authors‘ intentions but also initiate a longer cooperation. Peoplewho share their materials are in most cases more than willing todiscuss and listen to your suggestions.Adapt and try: Making your adaptations, bringing in new ideas,discussing improvements with colleagues. This is the main challengeof this phase. However, you should always try the result beforepublishing it again.
    86. 86. Adaptation AdaptSmall involvement ormore? As a first step, astrategic decision is needed– will you only re-usematerials or do you see thisas a potential for strategic Strategy checkcollaboration. Simple re- Estimate potentialsuse just requires Check partnershipsdownloading the resource Network developmentand adapting some graphics(just like changing apowerpoint slide design). Insome cases, you might findthe materials as a goodstarting point, but you wouldadd concepts and enrich /enhance the contents andshare it again with theoriginal author and acommunity – this can lead todynamic contentenhancements and – evenmore important – trustedcommunities.
    87. 87. Adapt AdaptationTools: Some materials Summarize requirements and functions neededare simpler to modify Content analysis(web pages, wiki pages), Translation / sub-titlessome need more effort. Learning DesignThe selection of good Packaging / metadata(and free) tools to make Assessmentschanges is essential for Graphicsa good process. Simulations Collaboration … Some starting points http://learn.openscout.net/tools.html W3C: http://www.w3.org/International/ (technical aspects of internationalization and localization)
    88. 88. Adaptation: Sample Adapt Content Adaptation need ToolSample how to apply Use map from home town Exchange mapPythagoras theorem to Use screen capture toolmeasure distances Learning activity Adaptation need ActionsSpontaneous group work Use same age / gender group Build groups beforehands,to measure distances Each group gets one mentor provide strong guidance Language aspect Adaptation need ActionsEnglish as main Translate to Finnish Use subtitle tool for videolanguage lectures Translate cases (external agency) UI Aspect Adaptation need ActionsBackground colors not Change background colors and For ppt: change master slideappealing logo For simulations: useNavigation not intuitive Change navigation structure simulation generator from left to top navigation Restructure navigation in coffeecup tool
    89. 89. Adaptation AdaptCollaborate: It is always advisable to let theoriginal author and potential colleagues knowabout your plans. By this, you can clarify theauthors‘ intentions but also initiate a longercooperation. People who share their materialsare in most cases more than willing to discussand listen to your suggestions.Adapt and try: Making your adaptations,bringing in new ideas, discussing improvementswith colleagues. This is the main challenge ofthis phase. However, you should always try theresult before publishing it again.
    90. 90. Share and exchange Share & ExchangeRe-publish your results: If you have made changes,you should send your results back to the original author.However, consider whether your work could beinteresting to other people in the community. It willgenerate a dynamic process which might give you evenmore ideas.Discuss and share: What were the steps when youadapted the materials? Share your open educationalpractice and your experiences, it will help othercolleagues who later help you with their experiences aswell.Build your network: It is an illusion that all educatorsaround the world will cooperate and work together.However, it is quite important to build a successfulnetwork of colleagues who work in similar areas, whoshare your ideas and principles for education and whoyou would simply trust. In those networks, you easily getgood recommendations and new ideas.
    91. 91. Share and exchange Share & Exchange Collaboration Person / Organization Actions activityNotification Author XYZ Notify author of usage intentionResubmission LRE and own repository Resubmit with author‘s permissionFurther Group A: Author XYZ, Suggest small group for refining thecollaboration and colleague X, teacher Y resourcedevelopmentFeedback Students Send feedback to group A Group AExperience Group A Provide improvement suggestions,sharing provide good / bad casesNext development Group A Suggest improvement changes,goals develop work plan
    92. 92. ConclusionStep by step approach guides through the OERadaptation processKey issues: – Internationalization aspects – Cultural aspects – Searching in the right places – Using the best tools – Validating the solution, determining the added valueBut: Many issues are still context-dependent,there is no one fits all-solution
    93. 93. Agenda12.45 – 14.00 Planning and initial adaptation of a course: Finding and Retrieving OER Finding the appropriate resource Validating its usefulness and potential14.30 – 15.30 Adapting OER, Re-publishing OER Finding appropriate tools: Authoring, translating, … Republishing OER in repositories 15.30 – 16.00 Discussion of experiences
    94. 94. TaskCreating a 2 hour blended learning courseBased on existing materialsSee work sheets
    95. 95. Task: Pythagoras theoremImagine the following situation: You are developing a new class for pupils in schoolin Mathematics. It is your task to prepare the lesson with a very short preparationtime. Additionally, the lesson should be usable for blended learning and distancelearning settings.The lesson should introduce the Pythagoras theorem – pupils should understandthe concept of right-angled triangles and should be able to apply them for selectedsettings.For the first two lessons, you should prepare – A slide set introducing the topic – An experimental environment in which students can learn – An assessment to check whether the pupils have progressed in the topic.http://descartes.cnice.mec.es/materiales_didacticos/Pytha_Theorem/index.htm
    96. 96. FeedbackPlease provide feedback: Do you find OER an appropriate solution Can you imagine to use OER with other origins than your home country? What were the main problems to a) find, b) retrieve, c) re-author OER? Who would you involve when working with OER (colleagues, contractors, learners, …)Please comment on the workshop: Was it useful for your context? Were the contents appropriate? Why / why not? Was the exercise realistic and useful? Would you consider to continue in this topic?
    97. 97. ReferencesBlanchard E., Razaki R. & Frasson C. (2005):Cross-cultural adaptation of e-Learning contents: amethodology. Proceedings of World Conference onE-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare,and Higher Education, Chesapeake, Virginia.Edmundson, A. (2007): Globalized E-Learning,Cultural Challenges. Idea Group, U.S.; 2007.Richter, T., Pawlowski, J.M. (2007): The Need forStandardization of Context Metadata for e-LearningEnvironments, Proc. of e-ASEM Conference, Seoul,Korea, Oct. 2007.Pawlowski, J.M. (2008): Culture Profiles: FacilitatingGlobal Learning and Knowledge Sharing, ICCE2008, Taiwan, Nov. 2008. - Draft Version in PDFFormat
    98. 98. Contact us…Prof. Dr. Jan M. Pawlowskijan.m.pawlowski@jyu.fiGLIS on the web…http://users.jyu.fi/~japawlowNORDLET OpenScouthttp://www.nordlet.org/ http://www.openscout.net

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